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MISCELLANEOUS.

‘A CADMEAN victory?

Greek Proverb.

Συμμισγόντων δὲ τῇ ναυμαχίῃ, Καδμείη τις νίκη τοῖσι Φωκαιεῦσι ἐγένετο.

Herod. i. 166.

A Cadmean victory was one in which the victors suffered as much as their enemies, so called from the victory of the Thebans (then called Cadmeans) over the celebrated Seven, which was avenged shortly afterwards by the descendants of the vanquished, the Epigoni.

'Fools that do not know how much more the half is than the whole.

Νήπιοι· οὐδὲ ἴσασιν ὅσῳ πλέον ἥμισυ παντός.

HESIOD. Works and Days, v. 40.

'To leave no stone unturned?

Пávта кivσαι TÉтρov.-EURIPIDES, Heraclid. 1002.

This may be traced to a response of the Delphic Oracle, given to Polycrates, as the best means of finding a treasure buried by Xerxes's general, Mardonius, on the field of Platea. The Oracle replied, Πάντα λίθον κίνει, Turn every stone.

Corp. Paræmiogr. Græc. i. p. 146.

'The blood of the Martyrs is the seed of the Church? Plures efficimur, quoties metimur a vobis; semen est sanguis Christianorum. TERTULLIAN. Apologet. c. 50.

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Every man is the architect of his own fortune.

Sed res docuit id verum esse quod in carminibus Appius ait, ‘Fabrum esse suæ quemque fortunæ.' Pseudo-Sallust. Epist. de Rep. Ordin. ii. 1. This Appius Claudius Cæcus was the earliest Roman writer whose name has come down to us, and in his censorship, B.C. 312, began the Appian Way from Rome to Capua.

'Cæsar's wife should be above suspicion?

Cæsar was asked why he had divorced his wife. 'Because,' said he, 'I would have the chastity of my wife clear even of suspicion.'

PLUTARCH. Vit. Cæs. c. 10.

'Where the shoe pinches

In the life of 'Æmilius Paulus,' Plutarch relates the story of a Roman being divorced from his wife. This person being highly blamed by his friends, who demanded,-was she not chaste? was she not fair? holding out his shoe asked them whether it was not new? and well made? Yet, added he, none of you can tell where it pinches me.'

'Nation of Shopkeepers?'

From an oration, purporting to have been delivered by Samuel Adams at the State-House in Philadelphia, August 1st, 1776. Philadelphia, printed, London, reprinted for E. Johnson, No. 4 Ludgate Hill, MDXXLXXVI.*

*

No such American edition has ever been seen, but at least four

'Appeal from Philip drunk to Philip sober** Inserit se tantis viris mulier alienigeni sanguinis: quæ à Philippo rege temulento immerenter damnata, Provocarem ad Philippum, inquit, sed sobrium.

Val. Maximus. Lib. vi. cap. 2.

'When at Rome, do as the Romans do.

St. Augustine was in the habit of dining upon Saturday as upon Sunday; but being puzzled with the different practices then prevailing (for they had begun to fast at Rome on Saturday), consulted St. Ambrose on the subject. Now at Milan they did not fast on Saturday, and the answer of the Milan saint was this:

'When I am here, I do not fast on Saturday; when at Rome, I do fast on Saturday.'

'Quando hic sum, non jejuno Sabbato: quando Romæ sum, jejuno Sabbato.'

ST. AUGUSTINE. Epistle xxxvi. to Casulanus. When they are at Rome, they do there as they see done. BURTON. Anatomy of Melancholy. Part iii. Sec. 4. Mem. 2, Subs. 1.

'The sinews of war?

Eschines (Adv. Ctesiph., ch. 53) ascribes to Demosthenes the expression ὑποτέτμηται τὰ νεῦρα τῶν πραγμάτων, 'the sinews of affairs are cut.' Diogenes Laertius, in his Life of Bion (lib. iv. c. vii., sect. 3), represents that

copies are known of the London issue. A German translation of this oration was printed in 1778, perhaps at Bern, -the place of publication is not given.'-WELLS' Life of Samuel Adams.

* Refers to Philip of Macedon.

philosopher as saying τὸν πλοῦτον εἶναι νεῦρα πραγμάτων, 'that riches were the sinews of affairs,' or, as the phrase may mean, 'of the State.' Referring perhaps to this maxim of Bion, Plutarch says in his Life of Cleomenes (c. xxvii.), ' He who first called money the sinews of the State, seems to have said this with special reference to war. Accordingly, we find money called expressly τὰ νεῦρα τοῦ πολέμου, ‘the sinews of war,' in Libanius, Orat. xlvi. (vol. ii. p. 477, ed. Reiske), and by the Scholiast on Pindar, Olymp. i. 4, comp. Photius, Lex. s. v. Μεγάνορος πλούτου. So Cicero, Philipp. v. 2, nervos belli, infinitam pecuniam.'

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This is a common logical fallacy, petitio principii; and the first explanation of the phrase is to be found in Aristotle's Topica, viii. 13, where the five ways of begging the question are set forth. The earliest English work in which the expression is found is 'the Arte of Logike plainlie set forth in our English Tongue, &c., 1584.'

'Old wood to burn! Old wine to drink! Old
friends to trust! Old authors to read!'*

Alonso of Aragon was wont to say, in commendadation of age, that age appeared to be best in these four things. MELCHIOR. Floresta Espanola de Apothegmas o sentencias, &c., ii. 1. 20.

* I love everything that's old. Old friends, old times, old manners, old books, old wine.-GOLDSMITH. She Stoops to Conquer. Act i.

Sc. 1.

'A Rowland for an Oliver?

These were two of the most famous in the list of Charlemagne's twelve peers; and their exploits are rendered so ridiculously and equally extravagant by the old romancers, that from thence arose that saying amongst our plain and sensible ancestors of giving one a 'Rowland for his Oliver,' to signify the matching one incredible lie with another.

THOMAS WARBURTON.

It is unseasonable and unwholesome in all months that have not an R in their name to eat an oyster. BUTLER. Dyet's Dry Dinner. 1599.

'Hobson's Choice.

Tobias Hobson was the first man in England that let out hackney horses.-When a man came for a horse, he was led into the stable, where there was a great choice, but he obliged him to take the horse which stood next to the stable-door; so that every customer was alike well served according to his chance, from whence it became a proverb, when what ought to be your election was forced upon you, to say, 'Hobson's Choice.' Spectator, No. 509.

'Rebellion to tyrants is obedience to God?

From an inscription on the cannon near which the ashes of President John Bradshaw were lodged, on the top of a high hill near Martha Bay in Jamaica.

STILES' History of the Three Judges of King Charles I.

'All is lost save honour?

It was from the imperial camp near Pavia that

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