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Stevens, with directions, after entering her companions, proceeded up the river the river, to “ feel the forts, if still held," to Jacksonville, which was reached withproceed to Jacksonville, and thence to out difficulty or interruption. The gunPilatka, eighty.miles up the stream, re- boats were drawn up at the docks to connoitering, and “capturing river command the chief streets, and the New steamers by the way.” The armed Hampshire troops were landed and occulaunches and cutters of the Wabash pied the town. There was no resistance, were to accompany the gunboats, with however, to be apprehended, the mayor a light draught transport carrying the having previously conferred with the 7th New Hampshire regiment. “After military authorities, before they abanarranging,” says Commodore Dupont, doned the place, and resolved upon a "'*with Brigadier-General Wright on the surrender as the only means left of con

joint occupation of the Florida and ciliating protection from the expected Georgia coasts, including protection from Union forces. The corporate authorities, injury to the mansions and grounds of therefore, presented themselves with a Dungeness on Cumberland island, origi- flag of truce to Commander Stevens, on nally the property of the revolationary his arrival, and gave up the town. "At hero and patriot, General Greene, and every house saving one,” says this officer still owned by his descendants, and leav- in a dispatch to Flag-Officer Dupont, on ing Commander Percival Drayton in the 13th, “I found evidences of peaceful charge of the naval force, I rejoined the demonstrations and returning reason. Wabash, waiting for me off Fernandina, From conversation with intelligent citiand proceeded with her off St. John's.” zens, I find that the inhabitants are seekArriving there on the 9th, he found ing and waiting for the protection of our Lieutenant Stevens, who had preceded flag; that they do not fear us, but their him with the gunboats, waiting an op- own people ; and from the occupation of portunity to cross the shallow and diffi- this important point, I am satisfied, if our cult bar. He succeeded on the after- opportunities are improved, great results noon of the 11th with his vessel, the will follow." The most liberal policy Ottawa, accompanied by the Seneca, was adopted by Lieutenant Stevens. AnPembina, and Smith, and having to nouncing that he came “not to molest make some preliminary arrangements private property, nor to disturb the peofor the landing of troops, deferred going ple,” he proclaimed that “only those who on to Jacksonville till the next day. forcibly, and by arms, resist the constiEarly in the night an extensive conflag- tution and laws of the United States will ration was observed in the direction of be interfered with.” The city governthe city, which was afterwards ascer- ment was to be left in the exercise of its tained to be the burning of a number of authority, and aid was promised in sussteam lumber mills, the Judson House, a taining it. Peaceable persons who had large hotel well known as the resort of left were invited to return. General invalids, and other property belonging Sherman, who arrived the following week, to northern men, who appear to have confirmed these declarations by a proclaconstituted the most enterprising men of mation in which he assured the people of the place. The mills were burned by East Florida, that the troops of the order of the rebel General Trapier, or by United States had come amongst them, a body of armed men claiming his au- ' to protect loyal citizens and their propthority, "not,” says Commodore Dupont, erty from further molestation by the "by the people.”

creatures of a rebel and usurped authorEarly on the morning of the 12th the ity; and to enable you to resuscitate a Ottawa left her anchorage, and leading government which they have ruthlessly

endeavored to destroy. All loyal citi- Jacksonville," on the 20th of March, and zens who return to, or remain at their in accordance with its advice preliminahomes in quiet pursuit of their lawful ry steps were taken to hold a convention avocations, shall be protected in all their on the 10th of the next month. Prerights, within the meaning and spirit of viously to that day, however, the town the constitution of the United States. was evacuated by the Union forces, and The sole desire and intention of the gov- the measure was for the time abandoned. ernment is to maintain the integrity of When Commodore Dupont reached the constitution and laws, and reclaim the St. John's river, finding that there States which have revolted from their was no probability of the gunboat Huron national allegiance to their former pros- crossing the bar, he dispatched her to perous and happy condition." Trusting St. Augustine, the next harbor on the to the manifestations of Union, feeling coast, whither he himself followed in the which had been exhibited, he added, Wabash. Arriving on the 11th, he im“There is great satisfaction in the fact, mediately sent on shore Commander now become patent to all, that a large Rodgers with a flag of truce, “ þaving,” portion of you still cling in your hearts as he says, “reason to believe that if to that mother who first liberated you there were any people on this coast likely from the thraldom of a despotic govern- to remain in their houses, it would be at ment; who next rescued you from the St. Augustine.” The expectation was deathly grasp of the wild savage, at a justified by the result. Not only were a frightful cost of life and treasure ; and large part of the citizens on hand, but who afterwards elevated you from the they were ready to restore the governcondition of territorial independence to ment property, and the old flag was that of a proud and independent State. I doubtless sincerely welcomed by many earnestly recommend that in every city, for its promise of restoration, in due town and precinct you assemble in your time, of former prosperity. The official primary and sovereign capacity, that you report of his reception by Commander there throw off that sham government Rodgers presents an interesting picture which has been forced upon you, swear of the condition of the town. “Having true fidelity and allegiance to the consti- crossed the bar with some difficulty, in tution of the United States, and organize obedience to your orders," he writes to your government, and elect your officers Flag-Officer Dupont on the 12th, “I apin the good old way of the past. When proached St. Augustine under a flag of this is done, then will you see the return truce, and as I drew near the city a white of prosperous and happy days, in the en- flag was hoisted upon one of the bastions joyment of that trade and industry to of Fort Marion. Landing at the wharf which your extensive coast is so well and enquiring for the chief authority, I adapted, and in the immunity from that was soon joined by the mayor and conwant and suffering to which you have ducted to the City Hall, where the munibeen so inevitably subjected by the trai- cipal authorities were assembled. I intorous acts of a few ambitious and un- formed them that having come to restore principled men ; then you will enjoy the the authority of the United States, you fruits of your honest labor, the sweets had deemed it more kind to send an unof happy homes, and the consolation of armed boat to inform the citizens of your living under those wise and salutary laws determination, than to occupy the town that are due only to an industrious and at once by force of our arms; that you law-abiding people.” This conciliatory were desirous to calm any apprehension and sensible proclamation was issued from of harsh treatment that might exist in "Headquarters Expeditionary Corps, their minds; and that you should care

RECEPTION AT ST. AUGUSTINE.

375

fully respect the persons and property with the falsehoods so industriously cirof all citizens who submitted to the au- culated in regard to the lust and hatred thority of the United States; that you of our troops. On the night before our had a single purpose to restore the state arrival, a party of women assembled in of affairs which existed before the rebel- front of the barracks and cut down the lion. I informed the municipal authority flag-staff, in order that it might not be that so long as they respected the author- used to support the old flag. The men ity of the government we serve, aņd act seemed anxious to conciliate us. in every ed in good faith, municipal affairs might way. There is a great scarcity of provibe left in their hands, so far as might be sions in the place; there seems to be no consistent with the exigencies of the money, except the wretched paper curtimes. The mayor and council then in- rency of the rebellion, and much poverty formed me that the place had been evac-exists. In the water-battery at the fort uated the preceding night by two com- are three fine army 82-pounders of seven panies of Florida troops, and that they thousand pounds, and two 8-inch seagladly received the assurance, I gave coast howitzers of fifty-six hundred them, and placed the city in my hands. pounds, with shot and some powder. I recommended them to hoist the flag of There are a number of very old guns in the Union at once, and in "prompt ac- the fort, useless, and not mounted. Seve cordance with the advice, by order of eral good guns were taken away some the mayor, the national ensign was dis- months ago, to arm batteries, at other played from the flagstaff of the fort. The harbors. The garrison of the place went mayor proposed to turn over to me the from St. Augustine at midnight on the five cannon mounted at the fort, which 10th, for Smyrna, where are said to be are in good condition and not spiked, about eight hundred troops, a battery, and also the few munitions of war left by the steamer Carolina, and a considerable the retreating enemy. I desired him to quantity of arms and ammunition." take charge of them for the present, to One post was yet left on the sea-coast, make carefül'inventories, and establish a Mosquito inlet, fifty miles south of St. patrol and guard, informing him that he Augustine, and the entrance to Smyrna, would be held responsible for the place mentioned in the last paragraph. It was until our force should enter the barbor. used by the blockade runners from the I.called upon the clergymen of the city, I island of Nassau for the introduction of requesting them to reassure their people, arms transhipped from English ships and and to confide in our kind intentions to- steamers at that colony into small vesward them. About fifteen hundred per- sels of light draught, and was the depot sons remain in St. Augustine, about one- of large quantities of live oak timber on fifth of the inhabitants having fled. I the government lands, cut and ready for believe there are many citizens who are shipment. To protect this property and earnestly attached to the Union, a large put an end to the illicit traffic, Commonumber who are silently opposed to it, dore Dupont ordered the Penguin, Actand a still larger number who care very ing Lieutenant Commanding T. A. Budd, little about the matter. I think that and the Henry Andrew, Acting Master nearly all the men acquiesce in the con- S. W. Mather, to proceed to the spot. dition of affairs we are now establishing. On arriving himself in the Wabash, on There is much violent and pestilent feel the 22d, he found that an expedition of ing among the women. They seem to four or five light boats, carrying some mistake treason for courage, and have a forty-three men, and commanded by the theatrical desire to figure as heroines. chief officers of the two vessels, had Their minds have doubtless, been filled moved southward through the inland passage leading past Smyrna into Mos- safely on board the Henry Andrew. On quito bayou. The sequel is thus related hearing of this untoward event, I directby the Commodore. “It appears," says ed Commander Rogers to send off the he, in his report to the secretary of the launch and cutters of the Wabash to the Navy, “that after going some fifteen or support of the Andrew. The boats crosseighteen miles, without any incident, and ed the bar at midnight, and the next while on their return, and within sight of morning the vessel was hauled close up the Henry Andrew, the order of the line to the scene of the late attack, but no being no longer observed, the two com- enemy could be discovered. The bodies manding officers quite in advance, landed of Lieutenant Budd and Acting Master under certain earthworks, which had Mather were received under a flag of been abandoned or never armed, now a truce. The commanding officer, a Capdense growth of live-oak with under- tain Bird, who had come from a camp at brush. A heavy and continuous fire a distance, made some show of courtesy was unexpectedly opened upon them by returning papers and a watch, as if from both these covers. Lieutenant ashamed of this mode of warfare ; for Commanding Budd and Acting Master these were the very troops that, with Mather, with three of the five men com- sufficient force, means, and material for posing the boat's crew, were killed ; the a respectable defence, had ingloriously remaining two were wounded and made fled from St. Augustine on our approach. prisoners. As the other boats came up Lieutenant Commanding Budd and Actthey were also fired into, and suffered ing Master Mather were brave and demore or less. The rear boat of all had voted officers. The former commanded a howitzer, which however, could not be the Penguin in the action of the 7th of properly secured or worked, the boat not November, and received my commendabeing fitted for the purpose, and could, tion. The latter, in the prime of life, therefore, be of little use. The men had to was a man of uncommon energy and seek cover on shore, but as soon as it daring, and had no superior, probably, was dark Acting Master's Mate McIntosh among the patriotic men who have been returned to the boats, brought away the appointed in the navy from the mercanbody of one of the crew who had been tile marine." Having thus secured the killed, all the arms, ammunition, and main ends of his Florida expedition, flags, threw the howitzer into the river, Commodore Dupont returned to Port passed close to the rebel pickets, who Royal. hailed, but elicited no reply, and arrived!

CHAPTER LXIII.

BOMBARDMENT OF FORTS JACKSON AND ST. PHILIP, AND CAPTURE OF NEW ORLEANS,

APRIL 18–26, 1862.

From the conquests of the fleet and the naval movements in this quarter army on the Atlantic coast, we turn to was in connection with the attack in Octhe brilliant parallel series of operations tober, 1861, by Captain Hollins, upon on the Mississippi ending in the capture the United States squadron at the passes of New Orleans. Our last mention of of the river. That affair, doubtless,

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brought vividly before the government the enemy in the interval, and that enthe necessity of preparations on a larger trenchments were being thrown up for scale, adequate to the dangers and ob- its defence. The next day, the 9th of stacles which beset the advance up the July, a battery on the island opened fire Mississippi. The first important step on the steamer which was returned, with was taken in the occupation of Ship little effect, however, for the Massachuisland. Lying intermediate between San- setts retired, and the island was left in ta Rosa island and the mouths of the possession of the enemy till the middle Mississippi, near the entrance to the in- of September, when in anticipation of a terior water communication with New more serious attack from the Gulf squadOrleans by Lake Borgne and Lake Pont- ron, they abandoned it for the main land. chartrain, this was one of the most valu- It was then used, and partly occupied as able stations along the coast. Though a station for the United States navy. but a small barren bank of sand, but On the 3d of December, an advance seven miles in length, narrow and un- portion-nearly two thousand-of the equal in width, it afforded sufficient an- newly-levied New England troops which chorage for the blockading vessels of the General Butler had been busied in colgulf, and held in convenient control the lecting since his return from the Hatterwater communication between Mobile as expedition, were landed on the island and New Orleans. It was ninety miles from the new transport steamship Condistant from Fort Pickens, forty from stitution, a model of marine architecture Mobile bay, sixty from New Orleans, constructed for the Pacific Mail Compaand at about the same distance from the ny's service. They were commanded by northernmost pass at the mouth of the Brigadier - General John W. Phelps, Mississippi. Sheltering the shore of Mis- whom the reader will remember with sissippi from the gulf, its value as a har- the rank of Colonel, as the associate of bor to that State had been indicated in General Butler in his department at the designation of a proposed line of Newport News.* One of the first prorailway, the Gulf and Ship island road, ceedings of this energetic officer, after to terminate at the neighboring Missis- landing his men, was to issue a remarksippi city. Its value as a defensive po- able proclamation, of a somewhat startsition was felt by the national govern- ling theoretical character, which made ment, and the construction of a fort was considerable stir on its arrival at the commenced there by the side of the North, but which was of little conselighthouse at the west end in 1859. The quence at the South at the time, since laborers were busy at this work at the the island where it was dated was occuoutbreak of the rebellion, when the island, pied only by our own troops, and there being without protection by the govern- was no communication with the neighment forces, was abandoned. Soon after boring land. The document, in fact, was a body of insurgents from the mainland a counterblast to slavery of a social and burned the few houses of the workmen, political, rather than a military characand barracks, and destroyed the light- ter, denouncing the institution in good house and the fort. At the end of June the set terms, and on fixed principles, from island was visited by the United States the point of view of a zealous abolitionist. gunboat Massachusetts, when five schoon- Addressing himself “To the loyal citizens ers were captured in one day. The of the south-west,” Governor Phelps deisland was then unoccupied, but the Mas- clared at the outset his belief, " that sachusetts returning about ten days after every State that has been admitted as a from the mouths of the Mississippi found slave State into the Union since the that it had been taken possession of by

* Vol. I., p. 254.

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