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might tend to elucidate many obscurities Winter Evening Tales, collected among in Scottish history.

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SPAIN.-Revolution. We have this

Gazette Extraordinary of Madrid, inonth to record an event of which history

March 8. affords few examples. The important cri

- OFFICIAL ARTICLE. sis in the affairs of Spain, which has been 50 long and so anxiously anticipated, has " The King, our Lord, has deigned to at length arrived, and Ferdinand, deserted address to his Secretaries of all the Departby his troops, and generally by all the ments the following Royal Decree :leading men in the kingdom, has been " To avoid the delays which might take compelled to yield to the wishes of the peo- place in consequence of the uncertainties ple, by accepting the constitution promul, which the execution of my decree for the gated by the Cortes in 1812.

immediate convening of the Cortes may exOn the 7th of March, the King issued a perience in Council, and the public decree, convoking the Cortes ; but this not will being generally pronounced, I have tranquillizing or satisfying the people, the decided upon swearing to the Constitution same day he put forth the following de- promulgated by the General and Extraorclaration :

dinary Cortes in the year 1812.

3 A


“ I apprise you of, and you will hasten sisting of Pizarro, Minister for Foreign to publish the present, signed by my royal Affairs; Garay, Minister of Finance; Bal. hands.

lasteros, Minister at War; Agar, Minister “ The Palace, March 7, 1820.” of the Interior; Arguelles, Minister of Next day decrees were issued appoint. Justice ; Villavicencio, Minister of Marine; ing a provisional junta of eleven distin, the Count D'Abisbal, or Count Montejo, guished persons, with the Cardinal de Minister Secretary of State. The Ambasa Bourbon at their head, to whose approval, sadors at the different Courts of Europe until the meeting of the Cortes, all acts of have also been recalled, and are to be rethe Government are to be submitted ; no- placed by individuals well known for their minating General Ballasteros, who had attachment to the new Constitution. been recalled from Valladolid, to which he Our limits will not admit of a detail of had been banished, Commander in Chief of the occurrences which immediately precedthe Army of the Centre; abolishing the ed, and gave rise to this wonderful revoluInquisition ; ordering the immediate release tion. It appears, that as soon as the real of all persons imprisoned, and the recall of object of the insurgents at the Isle of Leon all persons exiled for political offences; became known, there was an universal feel. and re-establishing the Municipal Corpora. ing throughout Spain, that their cause was tion of Madrid as it existed under the Cor- identified with that of the nation, and tes in 1814. The same day the King took that not a moment should be lost in mak. an oath to maintain the Constitution, in the ing an united effort to shake off for ever presence of the Provisional Junta and a

the ignominious yoke of political servitude. deputation of the Municipality; he after. The erection of the standard of freedom wards presented himself in the balcony of in Corunna gave the signal to the norththe palace, to the view of the assembled

ern parts of Spain, and the Constitution people, and repeated the solemnity of was in rapid succession proclaimed in the swearing to the Constitution.

Asturias, Biscay, Navarre, and Arragon. The order for abolishing the Inquisition, Riego's march upon Malaga produced a and releasing the state prisoners, was in- similar effect in the south and east. The stantly acted upon. The King sent for the people rose in Murcia and Valencia, and Inquisitor-General, told him, that from proclaimed the Constitution, whilst the sol. that moment his functions ceased, and or. diers either openly joined them, or re. dered him to set all his prisoners at liberty. fused to imbrue their hands in the blood of This was done. When those who were their countrymen. The general ferment detained for political opinions were libera- at the extremities of the kingdom soon ted from the prisons, the malefactors en- reached the centre ; the inhabitants of deavoured to profit by the occasion to free Madrid loudly declared themselves in fathemselves. They fell upon three sentinels, vour of the restoration of the Cortes, and and disarmed, and killed them ; but the despotism was bereft of its last hope by the guard quickly arrived, and discharged a defection of Count del Abisbal, who had volley amongst them. Nineteen were withdrawn with a body of troops to Occana, killed, and the others retreated to their and there proclaimed the constitutional cells.

regime. Numerous other decrees have been issu. Massacre at Cadiz. Connected with the ed, having for their object the summoning events above narrated, it is with horror and the Gortes, the security of personal liberty, sorrow that we record an occurrence, but the liberty of the press, and the appoint- for which, this glorious revolution would ment of individuals to important public have been without a cloud to darken and offices who enjoy popularity. The King's damp the general joy it diffused. It ap; power is for the present null. Every thing pears that on the 9th March, General is done by the authority of the Provisional Freyre and his staff arrived at Cadiz, and Junta. But still there is an appearance of held a meeting of the naval, military, and confidence between him and the constitu. civil authorities of the place, at which it tional functionaries; and the latter pledge was agreed that the constitution should be themselves for his sincerity in a manner proclaimed the following day. A general ilso sanguine, that it is difficult to question lumination took place on the evening of his good faith. Among the proofs of Fer- the 9th, and on the morning of the loth, dinand's sincerity, is, his appointing the not less than 60,000 persons of all ranks Prince Carlos Commander in Chief of the were collected on the streets to witness the Army. This Prince is as much distinguish- ceremony of establishing the constitution. ed for his attachment to the Constitution, At this period, to the terror of all, without as his brother Don Francis for his hostility the least notice or provocation, between to it. On the 16th inst. all the troops of 2000 and 3000 intoxicated soldiers rush. Madrid assembled on the Prado, by order ed from the garrison upon the people, and of the King, and took the oath to the Con- began indiscriminately to murder men, stitution.

women, and children. To murder succeed. A new Ministry has been formel, con ed pillage, with every species of excess,

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and the scene of horror continued almost

AFRICA. without intermission to a late hour at night. By advices from Mogadore of the 8th The number of persons who lost their lives March, it appears that the plague was still in this savage butchery is stated to be 371 raging in the kingdom of Morocco. In men, 29 women, and 36 children ; with the capital, which contains a population of from 900 to 1200 wounded. On the fol. 100,000 persons, the daily number of deaths lowing days, up to the 14th, the people re. had recently been near 800, but the more mained shut up in their houses. The roy- tality had so far subsided that they had al decree of the 7th arrived on the 12th, been reduced to little more than 200 daily. and a fearful re-action on the part of the Little reliance could, however, be placed on people was apprehended ; but by subse- this circumstance, as an indication of the quent accounts it appears that the garrison approaching termination of the disorder, as of Cadiz had been withdrawn without fur. it had more than once diminished in mather bloodshed. The soldiers were convey- lignity and again risen to the same fatal ed away by water, and landed at Port Śt height. In Mogadore the deaths were 16 Mary.

or 18 daily, in a population of 12,000. Various contradictory accounts are in circulation regarding the origin of this hor

AMERICA. rid butchery; some imputing it to Gene UNITED STATES.-On the 4th Febru. ral Freyre, others to General Campana, ary, Mr Meigs of New York submitted and some to the Bishop of Cadiz, who, it is various resolutions to Congress, for the pursaid, administered large quantities of ardent pose of effectually abolishing the trade in spirits to the soldiers, in order to fit them slaves, and for the emancipation also of for the savage massacre. In the meantime, such persons as still continue in slavery a rigid inquiry has been ordered ; and it throughout the United States. With these is to be hoped, the people will have justice he proposes to forni a colony on the shores done to them.

of Africa, their mother country; and a FRANCE.-After passing the Chamber New York paper announces the sailing of of Deputies by a majority of 134 to 115, a vessel for that quarter with 100 persons the bill for suspending, until the close of of colour, as the foundation of this new conext session, the laws for the protection of lony. personal liberty in France, was also adopt We regret to observe a disposition in the ed by the Peers, on the 25th March, by a American Legislature to inspose new remajority of 121 to 86.

strictions on the commercial intercourse The law for establishing a censorship of with this country. A letter, it is said, in the press has also passed the Chambers, these papers, had been received at Boston and a committee appointed to carry its from Washington, stating, " that a bill provisions into effect. This law has been would soon be reported, to interdict all inreprobated by the journals of all parties tercourse with the British West Indies, and with equal indignation; and private letters the provinces east and north of us." There from Paris state, that the measures re- is also an official report, by the Secretary of cently adopted by the French ministers the Treasury to Congress, on the subject of have excited a great ferment throughout “ prohibiting the importation of cotton, the departments.

woollen, and iron manufactures.” The A dreadful catastrophe happened at the Secretary, however, disapproves of this Cathedral at Bourdeaux on the 2d March, scheme, on account of the injurious effects during the evening service. A pyramidal it would have on the revenue, which he obelisk having given way during a storm, estimates at the annual amount of six mil. fell upon the roof of the Cathedral, and lions of dollars. forced its way through, carrying with it an SPANISH AMERICA.—A dispatch from immense mass of stones and rubbish ; thir. Lord Cochrane represents the failure of his teen persons were killed and several wound. attempt to burn the Spanish vessels in Cal. ed, one of them mortally.

lao, on the 5th of October, to have arisen

from the blowing up of a fire-ship, before ASIA.

it came into contact with them, and to the East Indies.— Intelligence has been defective construction of bis rockets. He received from Batavia, which states that announces his intention of making another the Dutch expedition to reduce the revela attempt on a new plan. lious Sultan of Palembang has failed, in The following is the document alluded consequence, it is added, of the advanced to in our last number, p. 269. state of the season.

Fundamental Law of The Republic of CoAccounts from Madras and Calcutta lumbia. The Sovereign Congress of Venemention that the naval and military expe- zuela, to whose authority the towns and dition, sent to act against the pirates who people of New Granada, recently liberated have so long infested the Persian Gulf, by the arms of the Republic, have volunhas been completely successful in destroy. larily agreed to subject themselves. ing or scattering these marauders.

Considering, 1st, That the provinces of

Venezuela and New Granada, when unit. General Congress, on the principle of its ed into one Republic, possess all the capa. being proportioned to the wants and con. bilities and means of attaining the highest veniences of the three departments, and to degree of power and prosperity.

the grandeur nature has destined this opu2d, That constituted in separate Repub- lent country to attain. lics, however strong the bonds by which 8. The General Congress of Columbia they might be united, instead of being a shall assemble on the 1st of January 1821, ble to improve so many advantages, it in the town of Rosario de Cucuta, which, would be difficult for them to become con in every respect, is deemed the most consolidated, and cause their sovereignty to be venient spot. Its convocation shall be respected.

made known by the President of the Re31, That these truths, so strongly im- public on the 1st January 1820, with pressed on the minds of all men of superi- a communication of the regulations for or talent and enlightened patriotism, have the elections, which shall be formed by a induced the Governments of the two Re. Special Committee, and approved by the publics to agree to an an union which the present Congress. vicissitudes of the war have hitherto pre 9. The Constitution of the Republic of vented.

Columbia shall be formed by the General Wherefore, impelled by these considera- Congress, to whom shall be presented, in tions of necessity and reciprocal interest, the light of a project, the one decreed by and in conformity to a report of a special the present Congress, and which, together Committee of the Deputies of New Grana- with the laws promulgated by the same, da and Venezuela, in the name and under shall immediately be put into execution, by the auspices of the Supreme Being, has de. way of an essay. creed and decrees the following fundamen 10. The arms and flag of Columbia shall tal law of the Republic of Columbia : be decreed by the General Congress, and,

Article 1. The Republics of Venezuela in the mean time, the arms and flag of and New Granada, from this day, are uni- Venezuela shall be used, as being the best ted in one single State, under the glorious known. title of Republic of Columbia.

11. The present Congress shall enter on 2. The territory of said State shall be a recess on the 15th January 1820, and all that comprehended in the ancient the new elections for the General Congress Captain-Generalship of Venezuela and the of Columbia commenced. Viceroyalty of the new kingdom of Gra. 12. A Committee of six Members and a nada, embracing an extent of 115,000 President shall remain in the stead of the square leagues, the exact limits of which Congress, with such special attributes as shall be hereafter determined.

shall be deterniined by decree. 3. The debts which the two Republics 13. The Republic of Columbia shall be may have contracted separately, are ac- solemnly proclaimed in the towns and arknowleged in solidum, by this law, as a mies, with public feasts and rejoicings, the national debt of Columbia, to the payment same taking place in this capital on the of which all the effects and property of the 25th instant (December) to celebrate the State shall be held bound, and the most birth of the Saviour of the world, under productive branches of the public revenue whose patronage this wished-for union has be destined.

taken place, by which the State is regene4. The executive power of the Repub. rated. lic shall be exercised by a President, and, 14. The anniversary of this political rein his defect, by a Vice-President, both generation shall be hereafter celebrated as named, al interim, by the present Con. a national feast, at which, in those of gress.

Olympia, virtue and learning shall be re5. The Republic of Columbia shall be warded. divided into three greater departments, viz. The present fundamental laws of the Venezuela, Quito, and Cundinamarea, Republic of Columbia shall be solemnly which latter shall comprehend the provinces promulgated in the towns and armies, in. of New Granada, which name hencefor- scribed on all the public registers, and dewards shall be suppressed. The capitals of posited in all the archives of the municipa. these departments shall be the cities of Ca- lities and corporations, as well ecclesiastic raccas, Quito, and Bogota, the addition of as secular. Santa Fe being taking away.

Given in the Palace of the Sovereign 6. Each department shall have a supe- Congress of Venezuela, in the city of S! rior Administration and Chief, for the pre. Thomas of Angostura, this 17th day of sent named by the existing Congress, with December 1819, 9th of our Independence. the title of Vice-President.

The President of the Congress, Francia7. A new city, bearing the name of the co A. Zea-Juan Herman Roscio-Maliberator, Bolivar, shall be the capital of nuel Cedeno—Juan Martinez-Jose Espathe Republic of Columbia. Its plan and na-Luis Tomas Peraza-A. M. Bricesituation shall be determined by the first no-Eusebio Afanados Francisco Conde

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