« 上一頁繼續 »
The Interest of the Money expended, allowing 1 per cent as a $. d.
sinking fund to return the principal, we shall estimate at 120 00 Salary of the Curator, and Annual Expenses chargeable to the Cemetery
180 0 0 Sum which the Cemetery ought to produce annually £300 0 0 In order to show how this sum may be produced, we shall suppose that there are 200 interments made in a year, and that the sum charged for a single interment in a common grave is 1l. 10s. which is only 5s. per interment more than is charged in the Tower Hamlets Cemetery, where from twelve to fifteen bodies are placed in one grave; and this will give the sum required.
Taking the number of interments which will be atforded by the 1200 avail. able graves at 6000, that number, at the rate of 200 interments in a year, will be exhausted in thirty years. The remainder of the ground will afford at least an equal number of interments, wbich might extend the use of the cemetery to sixty years.
To supply 200 deaths per annum, reckoning the deaths at 2 per cent of the living, a population of 20,000 is required, or about four fifths of the entire population of Cambridge.
As therefore it would be unreasonable to suppose that so large a propor, tion of the people of Cambridge would bury in one cemetery, we are forced to the conclusion, either that the price for each interment must be increased, or that the shareholders must be content with less interest than 6 per cent. Suppose we make the calculation at 3 per cent, that will reduce the annual charges to 2401., which will require only 160 interments at 30s. or 120 at 40s.
Whatever sum is fixed on as the regular price of an interment in a common grave will give the amount of the fee-simple of that grave; and thus, according to the calculation which we have made of six interments to a grave, the price of a family grave ought to be at least 61.; except in the borders, where, from being a place of distinction, it ought to be higher. This price is exclusive of every other expense, and also of a fee which will require to be paid every time an interment takes place.
The price to be charged for a single interment in a common grave should be fixed on partly from the market price for such interments in the best part of the churchyards of Cambridge, but chiefly from the great superiority of the principle on which the cemetery is founded, viz. that no coffin, nor any part of its contents, when once interred, can ever by any possibility, humanly speaking, be again exposed to view.
If, on calculating on the capacity of this cemetery, we were to proceed on the supposition that the common graves might be opened for reinterments at the end of fourteen years, the result would be very different. But on opening at the end of fourteen years, or at any period whatever, it would be impossible to avoid exposing an immense number of human bones, which constitute one of the great nuisances in our present crowded churchyards.
The Mode of conducting the Cemetery is supposed to be as follows.
The choice of a situation for a grave may be made in any part of the beds in the interior, or of the borders along the main walks ; but, iill the cemetery is nearly full, it is not desirable that graves or vaults should be made under the surrounding terrace walk. When they are made there, the 5-feet grass path which separates the terrace from the beds may have one foot in width added to it from the terrace, and may be laid with gravel from the terrace walk, which may be covered with grass taken from the 5-fcet walk referred to. The use of the terrace being thus changed from a walk to a platform for graves, it will of course no longer be walked upon.
As none of the coffins will ever be disturbed by the reopening of the graves, as in common burying-grounds, there is no objection to the use of leaden, zinc, or iron coffins.
The interments may be classed as those made in common or public earth graves, in private earth graves, in brick graves, in vaults having catacombs, and in border graves.
Every grave in the cemetery is supposed to be numbered, and this may effected in the following manner.
1. The Borders may be considered as divided into spaces by the trees, and these spaces may be numbered in regular series, beginning with the right-hand border on entering the cemetery from the main lodge, and terminating with the last space on the left-hand border. A number-stone may be put in in every tenth or twentieth bed or space.
2. The Beds in the Interior. Beginning at one end (say with the first bed on the right hand on entering by the principal lodge), a stone with a smooth end, 6 or 8 inches by 2 ft., and at least 2 ft. in depth, is to be inserted in the ground at each end of the middle space of the beds, as at a and 6 in the plan No. 13. (fig. 35. in p. 158.). On the stone a is to be cut the first number of the bed, 1. ; and the last number, viz. L.: and on the stone b the last number of the one side, xxv., or one half of the graves in the bed ; and the commencing number of the second side, xxvi. Thus, in every double bed throughout the cemetery, the stone at the north end will exhibit the number of the first and the last grave on that bed, and the stone at the opposite end the number of the last grave on one side, and of the first grave on the other. Should any two adjoining spaces adapted for earth graves be occupied as a brick grave, or any four spaces be required as a vault, in these cases the brick grave would be entered in the cemetery books under the head of two numbers, and the vault under the head of four numbers.
It is not necessary to begin by putting number-stones to all the beds ; but when choice is made of a bed at a distance from one that has already been numbered, a calculation must be made of the numbers that would occupy the intervening beds, and the two number-stones placed accordingly at the ends of the bed in which the interment is to be made.
Every brick grave or vault must, therefore, necessarily be a ltiple of a common grave, otherwise the numeration will be deranged.
When a bed is to be spoken of as a whole, it can be designated by the first or lowest number in the bed. Thus, supposing the beds to contain fifty graves each, we should have beds No. 1, 51, 101, 151, 201, and so on : or, in addition to the numbers, a letter may be placed on each stone, and we should, therefore, have beds A, B, C, &c.; and, after a single alphabet was exhausted, AA, BB, &c.
3. The Graves or Vaults under the Terrace will require to be similarly recorded to the border graves, a number being allowed for every space between the trees; or two numbers, if that should be thought necessary.
4. When the Reserve Spaces, G G (in fig. 81.), are added to the cemetery, the separation hedge will be removed; and the border, terrace, and beds extended; and, hence, the graves there will be recorded according to the modes already mentioned.
The Earth Graves, or graves of the simplest kind, are to be made within a space 8 ft. by 3 ft. ; which, allowing a margin of 3 in. at the sides, and I ft. at the end next the 4-feet path, will give 7 ft. by 2 ft. 6 in., which is 6 in. longer than is allowed in the Kensal Green Cemetery, besides allowing a space of 1 ft. by 3 ft. for a foot-stone or number, if the purchaser of the grave should think either of these necessary. For a single interment it must be dug at least 6 ft. in depth ; but, if it is intended to inake two or more interments in it, it must be dug 6 ft. deeper for each additional interment; and, as the limit to depth need not be settled, any number of interments may be made in a common grave that the proprietors of the cemetery may fix on, or in a family grave that its owner may determine.
In order that the sides of the earth graves may remain firm, and not be pressed in by the loose earth of an adjoining grave, they should chiefly be formed alternately with firm ground which has not been buried in, or moved within six or seven years, or next to brick graves or vaults ; but, should it become necessary to open one grave adjoining another which has been recently made or opened, recourse can always be had to planks or grave boards (figs. 37, and 38.] ; which, indeed, may be considered absolutely necessary as safeguards in the case of all graves dug above 6 ft. deep adjoining ground which has been moved.
Every reopening of a family grave for another internent should be charged according to the depth when it is an earth grave; say for a depth of 6 ft. 38., 12 ft. 6s., and so on ; and, when it is a brick grave or vault, according to the expense of removing the ledger or covering stone, &c.
To insure the keeping of gravestones, monuments, and flowers planted over graves in order, the fee-simple of the estimated annual expense of doing so should be paid down by the proprietor of the grave, at the time of putting up the monument, or putting in the plants (on the principle laid down in p. 218.).
Brick Graves. These require to have side walls of from 9 in. to 18 in. in width, according to their depth; and these walls should be curved, so as to resist the lateral pressure of the soil, as shown in plan No. 11. (fig. 35. in p. 158.]. Brick graves, when of great depth, require to occupy the
space of two earth graves, and hence the charges for them ought to be double that for earth graves, exclusive of the expense of building; but when two brick graves are built close together, each need not occupy more than an earth grave, because the party wall will save 14 in. in width, thus : Width of space allowed for two graves
8 0 Deduct three walls, each 14 in, thick
Leaving a clear space of 2 ft. 3 in. in width for each grave 4 6 Length of the ground, including half the width of the space on which the gravestones are to be placed
90 Deduct two 14-inch walls
Leaving the clear length of the grave
- 6 8 The ordinary dimensions of the coffins which are always kept ready made by undertakers are 6 ft. long by 20 in. wide, and 16 in. deep ; the largest size is 7 ft. by 2 ft. 4 in., but coffins of this size are very seldom required.
If the walls were built in cement, then 9 in, in thickness would in many cases be sufficient; and this would add 10 in, to the length and 10 in. to the width of the clear space, leaving it 7 ft. 6 in. by 3 ft. 1 in.; which would afford ample room for any coffin whatever.
The ordinary mode of burying in brick graves is to let down the coffins one over another, without covering them with earth, but merely laying a fiat stone or ledger over the mouth of the grave a few inches above the level of the ground's surface. In some cases a flag-stone, resting on ledges projecting from the side walls of the grave, is placed over each coffin as it is deposited ; and when each flag-stone is securely cemented, so as effectually to prevent the escape of gas (see p. 216.), a greater number of interments may be made in one grave by this mode than by any other, and at the same time with perfect safety to the living.
The Vaults may be constructed in the usual manner, as shown in the general plan, No. 1. (fig. 81. in p. 357.) at Q q, and in the enlarged plan No. 12. (fig. 35. in p. 158.), and section No. 13. [fig. 30. in p. 154.]. A vault of 12 ft. in depth, and 2 coffios in width, will contain 12 coffins.
The Books required for conducting this Cemetery are chiefly : 1. An order book; 2. A register or record of interments; and 3. A ledger of graves, an account being opened for each grave, as in the Kensal Green Cemetery. The other books required do not differ from those in common use. Forms of the order-book, register, and ledger will readily be obtained by applying to any
of the London Cemetery Companies, or their stationers. (The essential forms, and the names of the stationers, have been given in p. 221, 222.]
Specification of Work to be done on the Ground, including the Formation of the
Roads, Walks, Drains, fc. Form the surrounding terrace and hedge banks, agreeably to sections Nos. 8, 9, 10, and 11., of the best of the surface soil in the interior of the enclosure; the slopes to be built with a grassy surface, which will be obtained from the most grassy parts of the surface soil; and the whole to be rendered solid and compact, by ramming with cast-iron rammers as the soil is laid down. Form the walk on the surface agreeably to the sections.
Level and smooth the ground on each side of the terrace walk, in order to be sown afterwards with grass seeds, with the exception of a space 2 ft. in width, on which the holly hedge is to be planted. Plant the hollies in April at 1 ft. apart, and mulch them with littery stable dung.
Form the hedge banks as shown in the section No. 11., the sides to be of grassy sods, and the whole firmly rammed; the upper surface being left quite level, smooth, and clear of grass and weeds, for the space 2 ft. in width along the centre, on which is to be planted the holly hedge. Insert the plants at a foot apart, as above directed.
In depositing the soil both in the terrace banks and the hedge banks, the greatest care must be taken to place nothing but good soil under the line on which the holly hedges are to be planted, in order by that good soil to promote their growth as much as possible.
Surround the whole of the outer holly hedge with a park paling 6 ft. high.
The terrace and banks being completed, level the whole of the interior surface, so as to have one general slope from the point a in section No 7. to the point p in plan No. 1., the fall being supposed to be about 2 ft., as shown in the section.
Form, at the same time, that part of the surface which is laid out in beds, as shown in plan No 1. (fig. 88. in p. 361.), raised in the middle, and sloping towards the sides, as shown in the enlarged section No. 8.
Form the carriage-road of broken stones below, and gravel above, raised 3 in. higher at the centre than at the sides, as shown in the section.
Form the borders to the main roads with a concealed brick edging next the walk, as shown in section at No. 8. 66 (see figs. 56. and 57. in p. 217.)
, and place a mass of good soil where each tree is to be planted, raised in the centre I ft. above the general level, and forming a flattened cone 6 ft. in diameter. As temporary plants, and for immediate effect, introduce one spruce fir 6 or 8 feet high, if such plants can be got, between every two pines, and between every two Irish yews; the intention being that these spruce firs shall be removed as soon as the pines and yews attain the height of 6 st.
Form the interior into beds 18 ft. wide, with a space 2 ft. wide, and 3 in. higher than the rest of the surface, along the centre of each bed; and form alleys between them 4 ft. in width, and a surrounding path 5 ft. wide, as shown in sections Nos. 8, 9, and 10.
Form the tile drains and the branch drains, as shown by the blue dotted lines in plan No. 1., and also in the sections Nos. 8. and 9., at cc.
Plant the pines, cedars, and yews, as shown in the plan No. 1., taking the greatest care to place nothing but good soil under and over the roots, and to unwind and stretch out the roots of all those that have grown in pots. Protect the cedars with circular constructions of wickerwork, and mulch the surface round all the trees, and along both sides of the hedge, with littery
Sow the whole of the surface shown green in the plan No. 1. with perenuial rye-grass and white clover, at the rate of i bushel of rye-grass, and i lb. of white clover to the acre.
3d Ser. - 1843. VII.
Estimate of Expense.
£ s. d. 2400 cubic yards of Terrace-bank, at 6d.
60 0 0 300 cubic yards of Hedge-bank, at 6d.
7 10 0 480 lineal yards of Terrace-walk, 6 ft. wide, at ls.
24 0 0 1761 square yards of Road, at 6d.
44 0 6 1813 feet of Park Paling, at 2s.
181 6 0 16,300 square yards of Surface, to be levelled and formed into Beds and Borders, at 2d.
135 16 8 2900 feet of Tile-drain, at 6d. per foot, including sink-stones or gratings, where necessary
72 10 0 2120 Hollies, at 10s. per hundred
10 12 0 94 Pinus taúrica, in pots, at 1s. each
4 14 0 20 Pinus austriaca, in pots, ls. each
1 0 0 14 Cedars of Lebanon, in pots, 2s. 6d. each
1 15 0 4 Deodar cedars, in pots, 5s, each
1 0 0 76 Irish yews, at ls. 6d. each
5 14 0 200 Spruce firs at 6d.
5 0 0 Rye-grass and Clover seeds
2 0 0 Planting the hollies and the above trees with the greatest
possible care, including mulching with littery stable-
6 0 0 Allow for a temporary Gate to the entrance from the
New Huntingdon Road, for unforeseen expenses, and
37 1 10
Should it be desired to reduce the above estimate, the means are as follows:
£ $. d. Omit altogether the gravel walk on the terrace, and let it be a
24 0 0 Form only one half of the surface into beds, leaving the other
half to be formed by the curator at convenience; deduct, say 60 0 0 Drain only one half instead of the whole ; deduct, say
50 0 0 Instead of pines, cedars, and yews, plant Scotch pines instead
of the Taurian pines, and spruce firs instead of the Irish yews, to be clipped into cones and pyramids, by which a saying will be made of
£146 0 0
Rules and Regulations for the Management of the Cemetery.- The general management being invested by the company in the directors, they have appointed a secretary and a curator, and the latter shall appoint graves-men and body-bearers.
Duty of the Secretary. - To keep the cemetery books, and communicate between the directors and the curator. To concoct with the directors a scale of prices for interments, as well as a set of rules and regulations, to be varied from time to time, as trial and convenience may justify.
Duties of the Curator. — To take his instructions from the secretary. To receive the burial fees, but no perquisites. To devote the whole of his time, or only a certain portion of it, to the cemetery, as may be agreed on; the remainder of the time, if any, to be employed in the plots of ground which he is supposed to rent from the company for a few years at first, &c., as before explained.