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immediate object of a corrector of the press, or "reader,” is to observe and mark every error and oversight of the compositor, with a view to make the printed sheet a perfect copy of the author's manuscript. This is on the supposition that the manuscript itself is quite correct, which is seldom the case; and therefore the duty of a good reader extends to seeing that there are no inconsistencies in orthography, punctuation, abbreviations, etc., and in many cases to the verification of quotations, dates, and proper
The duty of securing consistency in spelling and punctuation is especially important in the case of works on which several writers are employed, such as newspapers and cyclopædias. The corrector has also to direct his attention to the numbering of the pages; to the arrangement of chapters, paragraphs, and notes; to running titles, etc. It is part of his business to observe the mechanical defects of the work-defective types, turned letters, inequalities of spacing between words, sentences, and lines, crooked lines, and to secure symmetry in verses, tables, mathematical operations, and such like. In almost all cases, two proofs are taken, and in difficult works, such as those in foreign languages, tables, etc., even more. Lastly follows the revision, in which little more is done than seeing that the compositor has made all the corrections marked on the last proof. It is usual for the writer or author to reserve the correction of the second proof for himself.
In printing regular volumes, one sheet is usually corrected at a time; but where extensive alterations, omissions, or additions are likely to be made by writer or editor, it is more convenient to take the proofs in long slips, before division into pages. The corrections to be made are marked on the margin; and for this purpose an established set of signs or short-hand is used, understood by all printers, and which it is often useful to know. The specimen of a proof on the preceding page exhibits the application of most of these signs.
The thankless and monotonous business of a corrector or reader is more difficult than the uninitiated would believe. It requires extensive and varied knowledge, accurate acquaintance with the art of typography, and above all, a peculiar sharpness of eye, which, without losing the sense and connection of the whole, takes in at the same time each separate word and letter. After the invention of printing, the C. of the P. was executed by the publisher himself, or at least was intrusted to men of ability and learning, and often men of name. Robert Stephen (1526–59), and Plantin (1555-89), had recourse to publicity, hung out the successive sheets of their publications, and promised a reward to any one who would point out a typographical error. Some editions of particular works are held in high estimation from the care with which the press had been corrected, Among the most famous are those that issued from the press of Aldus Manutius in Venice, of which we may mention the works of Petrarch (1514), corrected by Pietro Bembo; Aristotle (1551-53, 6 vols.), corrected by the famous Greek scholar, J. B. Camotius; Lactantius (1515), and Suetonius (1516), corrected by J. B. Egnatius; Plato (1513), Athenæus (1514), and Gregory Nazianzene (1516), corrected by Marcus Massurus. The first edition of Homer was printed by Nerlius in Florence (1484, 2 vols.), corrected by Demetr. Chalkondylas. Robert Stephen of Paris himself corrected the numerous works that issued from his press; and Erasmus had a great name as a corrector.
CORREG®GIO, a t. of northern Italy, province of Reggio nell'Emilia, midway on the railway between Parma and Modena; pop. 2,700. It is very handsome, regularly built, and has a castle, a cathedral, and a theater. It was a barony of the lords of Correggio, who were great patrons of letters. It is the birthplace of the painter Antonio Allegri, surnamed Correggio; and of the engraver Jesi, etc.
CORREG'GIO, ANTONIO ALLEGRI, a celebrated Italian painter, called C. from the place of his birth, a small town near Modena, now called Reggio. He was born in the year 1493–94, and his father, a tradesman of some property, bad him carefully educated, and instructed in the rudiments of art, by an uncle, Lorenzo Allegri, a painter of small merit. How much he owed to his teacher is uncertain. He was the first among the moderns who displayed that grace and general beauty and softness of effect, the combined excellences of design and color with taste and expression, for which he is still unrivaled. His chiar-oscuro is perfect. Almost before he had seen the great masters, he became a master in a style all his own; and was the founder, or rather his imitators for him, of what is called by some the Lombard, by others the Parma school of painting. On first beholding, at Bologna, Raphael's glorious picture of St. Cecilia, he is said to have exclaimed: “Anch'io sono pittore" (I, too, am a painter). But this story is doubted.
There was long a tradition that C. lived in indigence, unaided but by his own genius; and it is remarkable that Vasari, who lived at the same time, in his Lives of the Painters, records only vague rumors regarding C.'s life; and that Annibale Caracci, fifty years after his death, writes: “I rage and weep to think of the fate of this poor Antonio: 80 great a man-if, indeed, he were not rather an angel in the flesh.” This belief, so prevalent in his own day, now refuted by recent researches, proves how retired and simple must have been his life. That he was in high estimation in his later days, is proved by his signature being found affixed to the deed of marriage of the lord of Correggio, celebrated in 1533. C died the following year, Mar. 5, 1534, in his 41st year, and is buried in the Franciscan convent of Correggio.
At the age of 18, C. painted an altar-piece, the “Madonna di San Francesco," now
in the Dresden gallery, which is rich in pictures by C.; the most famous of which are the “Notte" (Night), lighted only by the celestial splendor beaming from the head of the infant Saviour-Vasari calls it “quite wonderful”—and the famous “Magdalen,” one of the most admired pictures in the world. For the cupola of the church San Giovanni at Parma, he painted an “ Ascension ” in fresco, and over the high-altar a “Coronation of the Virgin,” now only known through copies and engravings. He also decorated elaborately in fresco the cathedral there, for which he received 1000 ducats, worth about £3,500. În the Louvre are two pictures—the “* Marriage of St. Catharine,” and the “ Antiope;" in the Florence gallery, three-one the “Madonna on her knees adoring the Infant;" in the Naples gallery, three-one a lovely Madonna, called, from its oriental character, “La Zingarella” (the Gypsy), said to be a likeness of C.'s wire; at Vienna, two; at Berlin, three; at Parma, five-the most celebrated is the “St. Jerome;" and in the British national gallery, a Madonna, known as the “Vierge au Panier," the “Edu. cation of Cupid," and the famous “Ecce Homo,” purchased by the British government for £11,500. See adjoining illus., figs. 1, 2.
CORREGʻIDOR is the name given in Spain to the principal magistrate of a town. He is appointed by the king. The C. is also a Portuguese functionary, but, unlike his Spanish brother, does not possess the double power of governing and administering justice, but only the latter.
CORRELATION OF PHYSICAL ZORCES. See FORCE.
CORRÉZE, a department of France, formed out of part of the old province of Limousin, and taking its name from an affluent of the Vezère, the Corrèze, which traverses the department from n.e. to s.W. C. extends between lat. 44° 55' and 45° 40' n., and long. 1° 13' and 2° 22' e.; its total area is nearly 2,300 sq.m., and its pop:, in 1881, 311,478. The chief rivers of C. are the Dordogne, the Vezère, and the Cor. rèze. The surface of the department is mountainous, especially in the n. and e., wbere it is broken in upon by offsets from the Auvergne mountains, which, in some parts, attain a height of 4,000 ft. above the sea. The lower slopes are clad with forests, but the district is in general sterile. In the s. and s.w., however, the soil yields wheat, oats, barley, rye, maize, etc. Wine is also produced, but of poor quality. The rural population are poor, badly housed and fed; their food consisting, to a great extent, of chestnuts, which are very abundant. Minerals, particularly coal, iron, lead, alabaster, and granite of various colors, are found in considerable quantities. The department is divided into the three arrondissements of Tulle, Brive, and Ussel. Tulie is the chief town.
CORRIB, LOUGH, a lake, the third in size in Ireland, in the n. of Galway. It is of very irregular shape, 27 m. long from n.w. to s.e., and 1 to 6 broad, with an area of 68 sq.miles. It is between 28 and 31 ft. above the sea-level. From its s. end, 4 m. n. of Galway, it discharges its surplus waters by Galway river into Galway bay. It receives the waters of Lough Mask, at its n. end, through the Pigeon Hole and other caves, as well as those of the Clare and other smaller rivers. On its sides are metamor phic rocks, carboniferous limestone, and marble. Near it are many monumental heaps and so-called Druid circles. It contains many islets, and to the w. are mountains 3,000 ft. high.
COR'RIDOR is a gallery or passage running (It. correre, Sp. correr, to run) or leading to several rooms, each of which has a door opening into it. Spacious corridors are necessary in all public buildings, such as hospitals, prisons, etc.
CORRIE, DANIEL, 1777-1837; a native of England, who was appointed archdeacon of Calcutta in 1823, and bishop of Madras in 1835. He was a laborer in missions with Buchanan, Martyn, Heber, and Turner. He translated prayers, homilies, and other religious works into Hindustanee, and made an ancient history in English for schools in India.
CORRIEN'TÉS (in English, currents) is a name of various application in Spanish America. Besides indicating several capes in Cuba, Mexico, and New Granada, it is more conspicuously connected with one of the states of the Argentine Confederation and with the capital of the same. 1. C., the city, stands in lat. 27° 27' s., and long. 58° 46' w., near the confluence of the Parana and the Paraguay. It takes its name from the rapids, which are said to be as decidedly a turning point in the climate of the country as in the navigation of the river. Pop. 11,000. 2. C., the province, lies between Entre Rios on the s., and the republic of Paraguay on the n., having the Parana on the n. and west. Lat. 27° to 30° s., and long. 57° to 59° west. Area about 60,000 sq.m.; pop. '82, 204,000. The north is undulating and fertile; and the south, besides being generally swampy, is partly covered by lake Thara. The products are maize, cotton, sugar, indigo, tobacco, and a species of silk.
CORRIEVREK IN, or CORRYBRECH'TAN, or gulf of Brechan, a whirlpool or danger. ous passage a mile broad, off the w. coast of Argyleshire, in the strait between Scarba and Jura isles. It is occasioned by the meeting of tides (often running 12 or 14 m. an hour) from the n. and w., in the narrow passage into the sound of Jura, round a pyramidal rock, which rises with rapid slope from a considerable depth to some fathoms from the surface. This rock forces the water in various directions. In stormy weather,
CORREGGIO, ETC. – 1. Night. 2. Reading Magdalen, Correggio. 3. Melancthon, Lucas Cranach. !!
trait of Van Dyck, by himself. 8. After the Crucifixion, Van Dyck. 9. Madonna of the Men