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INFLECTIONS OF VERBS-INDICATIVE AND POTENTIAL MOODS.
W. I CAN say the different kinds of verbs which we heard of last week-the simple, compound, active, passive, neuter, and auxiliary verbs. There are two kinds of active verbs-the active transitive, and the active intransitive.
P. That is right, Willie; and, before we talk of any more verbs, you may point out some of each kind in the sentences which I will give you. I will write all the verbs in italics. First, point out which are the simple and which the compound verbs in the following
"While some poor creatures scarce can tell
Where they may lay their head,
Point out the active and neuter verbs in the following verse:
"May every year but draw more
The time when strife shall cease;
And truth and love all hearts
To dwell in joy and peace! Now sorrow reigns, and earth complains, For folly still her power maintains; But the day shall yet appear, When the might with the right
and the truth shall be, And, come what there may to stand in the way, That day the truth shall see."
Point out the passive and the auxiliary verbs in the following sentence:
He did whatever was done by the others. He was seen to go up stairs, and when the door was shut, and the light was put out, he was found in bed. He had determined to sleep soundly.
Notice the active verbs in the following sentence, and point out which are transitive and which are intransitive:
I looked, but I saw nothing; so I went back to my house. There brought their books from school, I met Mary and William, who had
and were learning their lessons. They shut their books, and laid them aside.
4th, I may speak so as to show that it is not certain whether I shall sing; thus-" If I sing."
5th, I may just name the action without saying that I or any one else is performing it; thus-"to sing."
L. So there are five different manners to the verbs.
Ion. Say moods; five different moods.
L. Yes; that is what I meant.
the first two moods-let us take the second one first:
"I can sing."
What does that show?
L. It shows that you are able to sing that you have the
P. True; and as the Latin word for power is potentia, we call this the potential mood. There is another way of expressing the potential mood: you can say, "I may sing." When you speak in that manner you show that you have permission to do so, and that it is possible that such a thing may happen. W. But if you have the permission, that does not show that you have the power.
P. No. I may give you permission to go into the street and find a half-crown. What will you say if I do?
W. Why, I shall say, "I may find a half-crown" (if I can); it is quite possible to do
Lucy. So there are two ways of making the potential mood. You may say, "I can sing” (if I may), which expresses the power to do so; or, "I may sing (if I will), which shows that it is possible to do so.
P. Thus, when a word denotes (1.) power, or (2.) possibility, it is called the POTENTIAL MOOD.
But the next mood which we shall talk about is a better one; it shows something more than the power of doing an action. Listen!
"I am singing."
Ion. Ah! that shows not
merely that you have the power, but that you are using it. You are doing the action. This mood is certainly better than the other. Suppose a poor hungry beggar says, "I but it is pleasanter to him to can eat," it is very pleasant; say, "I am eating."
P. Yes; such a mood is worth twice as much as the potential. The potential mood expresses the action. But the other mood one thing-the power to perform expresses two things
(1.) The power to perform the action, and
(2.) That you are exercising that power. The Latin word for "to point out" is indicare, and, because this mood points out that you exercise the power, it is called the INDICATIVE MOOD.
I will say the definitions over again
DEFINITION. - When a verb shows that you have the power to perform an action, or that you had,
or may have had, or might have had that power, it is called the Potential mood.
When a verb shows you are exercising that power, or was exercising, or did, or will exercise it, it is called the Indicative mood.
EXAMPLES.-Potential Mood. I can sing, shows that I have the power to sing; so it is the potential mood.
I may sing, shows that it is possible that I may sing; so it is the potential mood.
"I remember when I could sing." Here" could sing" shows that I had the power to sing; so it is the potential mood.
"He said that I might sing." Here "might sing" shows that it
was possible for me to sing; so it is the potential mood.
I am singing, I do sing, these words point out (1.) that Í have the power to sing; (2.) that I am exercising the power; so they are the indicative mood.
I was singing, points out that I was exercising the power of singing; so it is the indicative mood.
I will sing, points out that I will exercise the power of singing; so it is the indicative mood.
In the following parsing exercise, say of each verb whether it is active or passive, transitive or intransitive, &c., and say the mood of the verb.
No. 23. PARSING EXERCISE.
The owl sat in the old abbey and caught a mouse. He can catch other animals; to-morrow he may catch a young bird. The farmer would have caught the owl, but he could not. He said that perhaps he might find him in the morning. I see the moon; it is shining in the sky. The stars will twinkle soon. They did twinkle so last night. He will run alone soon. I have brought him a ship. I may buy him a top, for I think I can afford it.
THE TWO WORLDS.
A LAND where sweetest roses fade,
And smiling youth grows quickly old;
Whose fleeting joys are little worth;
A land of love where nought can sever,
P. TO-DAY you may recapitulate some of the social events of English history. We will talk more particularly of the inventions.
101. In whose reign were candles first burned to measure time?
celebrated mottoes, the first use of cannon, and the discovery of the Madeira Isles?
113. In whose reign did the first "Champion of England" proclaim the king at his coronation?
114. In what year did William
102. In whose reign was the Caxton introduce the art of curfew bell introduced?
103. By whom was the first stone bridge built?
104. In whose reign was the first menagerie established?
105. In whose reign was it the fashion to wear shoes with long pointed toes chained up to the knees?
106. In whose reign is the mariner's compass said to have been invented?
107. What other inventions were discovered by the "Father of Philosophy" at this time?
108. During what reign were coals first used in London, and windmills brought into use?
109. Where did certain Italian merchants settle, and begin to import silks and spice, and to lend money on interest?
110. In whose reign did the Lollards begin to be known? 111. What law court was established at this time?
112. Whose reign may be remembered by the building of Windsor Castle, the establishment of tolls, the coining of nobles, groats, and half-groats, the appointment of a Speaker to the House of Commons, the introduction of the art of weaving cloth, the adoption of three
115. Whose reign is noted for the discovery of America, the establishment of the Court of Star Chamber, the beginning of the standing army, and the coining of the first shillings?
116. During one reign pins were introduced; cotton thread, the spinning-wheel, and several new flowers, vegetables, beer, and other articles of food, were also introduced; sovereigns were first coined, the title of "Your most gracious Majesty" was instituted; the first Secretary of State was appointed; the order of Jesuits was founded, the name of Protestants was adopted, and Hampton Court and Whitehall were built. In which reign did these numerous events happen?
117. In whose reign were tobacco and potatoes introduced? The cod fisheries of Newfoundland, the whale fisheries of Spitzbergen, the slave trade, and the East India Company also arose at this time. Do you remember when these things happened?
118. In whose reign were Normandy and England first governed by one king?
119. When did the English lose Normandy; and what cruel deed was it that induced the Norman barons to desert the English king?
120. In whose reign was Calais taken from the French? 121. In whose reign did the English lose Calais?
123. In whose reign was Wales added to the kingdom of England?
124. By what king was Scotland nearly conquered, and added to his kingdom?
125. What king conquered France, and was declared heir to the French crown; and why
122. In whose reign was Ire- did he not become king of that land conquered?
"UP, up ! cries the wakeful Cock;
And all are up, young friend, but you."
"Up, up!" cries the soaring Lark;
You wasted the morning hours in bed.
"Up, up!" cries the busy Sun;
What would become of the hay and corn,
"Up, up!" cries the buzzing Bee,