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the mesas and in the mountains—the built of adobe, in that style which has cattle and sheep country where the out- ever proven effective for defense, the of-doors, nomadic life adds a wild, savage house opening only on an inclosed court turn to the already evil-looking fellow- formed by a high wall, the barn, and other but they are still far removed from the outbuildings. All who enter pass through commonplace. One spring day, the same one massive gate into the court, and here, on which most of the photographs illustrat- in grand confusion, live the Mexicans, ing this article were taken, I started south with their horses, cattle, chickens, hogs, from Albuquerque along the Rio Grande. and dogs. Every two or three miles the The river was swollen to a wide, muddy houses get closer together, clustering stream, the acequias were running bank around a little adobe church with its full, and the fields were flooded with water. painted wooden cross and heavy bell The budding trees were alive with birds, ornamenting the plain exterior. These all the various members of the blackbird little towns take the name of the church, family, even to the beautiful yellow-neck and it would be difficult to tell where one fellow, singing in grand concert. Fence- begins and the other ends. post after fence-post was glorified as the As we neared a church we heard the seat of the prince of warblers—the bell tolling, and, rounding a corner, we saw meadow-lark. The robins, not yet gone a small company coming down the dusty north, dug in the soft earth for the fat road. Bareheaded men walked ahead, angleworms, and chirped and chuckled at six bearing a coffin, while behind trailed each new find. This irrigated valley is a fifty or more women, each with a black garden spot.

shawl over her head, and all wailing and Now and then we passed a ranch-house moaning. They passed into the little

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church, dimly lighted by a few candles, and there chanted, without a priest, the most dismal of funeral ceremonies. As the body was borne to the grave in the churchyard the women remained inside, seemingly vying with one another in vocal powers as they wailed and moaned. It was all very depressing until of a sudden they broke up into little groups and went off chatting, laughing, and smoking cigarettes. It made me think of the hired mourners of China. At another little town we were surprised to see a woman kneeling in the road, and in front of houses near by were others in the

devout attitude. The explanation was forthcoming when a procession headed by a priest in his robes and followed by girls in white came into view. The devout always kneel at the approach of a priest. The procession went to the house of a sick man, and the girls in white had just taken their first communion. These

people are deeply religious, but COPYRIGHT, 1001, BY D. T. DUCKWALL, JR.

seldom moral, and are com pletely under the power of the

same

AN OLD CITIZEN OF NEW MEXICO

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COPYRIGHT, 1901, BY D. T. DUCKWALL, JR.

BAKING DAY AT A NEW MEXICO HOME

com

Roman Church. There are some prob- and a cook-stove. None, however, were lems in the Southwest akin to those which used for their intended purposes. The face us in the Philippines and not unlike bed was an ornament used only by visitors those with which President Diaz has dealt who did not know better, the trunk had a so summarily in Mexico.

few precious things in it, and the stove An Indian pueblo which we passed was a cupboard, a fire never having been through further on differed but little from lighted in it. By an open fire Mrs. the Mexican towns—a little more Apodacca cooked our supper, which we pactly built, that was all.

ate sitting crosslegged on the floor, the By evening we had reached the home dishes set upon a sheepskin which at night of a friend, Abel Apodacca, and drove was part of some one's bed. We ate from through the big gate into the court. Here common dishes without knives or forks, we unharnessed our horses, watered them dipping out the frijoles (beans), chille con at the old-fashioned well, and, throwing the carne (chunks of meat swimming in the feed on the ground, turned them loose. quintessence of red pepper), with pieces of Baking was in progress in the beehive- tortilla (pancake). We drank our coffee, like oven in the courtyard, the progress which was strong and vile, from a gourd. of which we watched with interest. Fire Being wise in matters of Mexican houses, having been kept in it for hours, the coals we made our bed in the open court. and ashes were raked out and bread and The men of this race are seldom handmeat put in. These ovens do the best of some, nor the women pretty. The handbaking. Abel is quite American, and we some, dashing cavalier and the beautiful were not surprised on entering his house señorita with whom the fictionist has peo(the walls of which were of adobe nearly pled the Southwest land are more romantic two feet thick, the floor and roof of the than real.

than real. The people are small. dark, same useful material, in the first case swarthy, unusually dirty, and meanly clad.

, tramped as hard as rock, in the latter The women wear black shawls over their spread thick on poles and baked hard by heads, thinking thus to look like the rain and sun) to find a trunk, an iron bed, Mother Mary, but they delight in bright

owners.

colors and often indulge in them to the the sheriff, without other income than his total disregard of harmony. They inva- office, openly spends two or three times riably smoke cigarettes, men and women his lawful salary. He only makes a presitting idly in the sun for hours smoking tense of turning in fees; but the majority and chatting.

of the Mexicans vote for him and his Until recently the children were taught gang because he is lavish to them with in Spanish, and even now there are many his, or rather the county's, money. In private schools in which Spanish is used. another county there is not one cent of The church schools as well as the public the public money turned into the treasury, schools are now teaching in English, but but the dishonest officeholders are conthe teachers oftentimes have a better tinued in office. The people care little knowledge of Spanish than of English, for Statehood, being influenced by the and little real headway is made against political office-seekers and large propertythe mother tongue. Upon visiting a school in charge of two Sisters, they had I have often been asked whether these the twenty children sing for me:

people are at heart loyal citizens of the “Good-morning, gentle sunshine,

United States, and in turn I have many What made you come so soon?

times asked the question. It is too You drove the little stars away,

sweeping to answer directly; but there is And scared away the moon."

no doubt that, in case of war between They sang without expression or tune, the United States and Mexico, a large and a Latin verse would have been as portion of the uneducated non-Englishintelligible to them and as easily learned. speaking population would sympathize Some of the Protestant churches have with, if not openly aid, the enemy. Few established missions and schools in which speak English or want to learn. Amercommendable work is being done.

ican customs and the spirit of progress Most impartial people who have become do not appeal to them. Now and then acquainted with the people and affairs of you find a spark of it, and it gives you New Mexico feel that it would be a mis- joy. One night I stopped at a hut in the take to grant the Territory Statehood. mountains. The two boys of the family The people spring from a stock which has had been to the Presbyterian mission ever shown itself incapable of self-govern- school in Albuquerque, and spoke fairly ment, and they have improved very little well. Finding in the house a little United since they became Americans. They are States flag which they had brought home, led by dishonest and unscrupulous men, I pointed to it and said to the old man, neither demanding nor expecting honesty “ Americano ?" and with great feeling he in office. In one county in New Mexico replied, “O, mucho Americano.”

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By Katherine L. Smith
HE preservation of old and inter- and the Colonial Dames are also working

esting places which have been along similar lines, and it is hoped that a

hallowed by association or are little at least of our heritage of the past attractive for beauty is interesting several in beauty and history may be saved from National organizations, notably that of the hands of vandals and the ravages of the American Scenic and Historic Pres- time. ervation Society. This National organi- Prominent among efforts in these direczation of men and women has for its aim tions is the purchase by the State of New the protection of beautiful features of the York and the rehabilitation of the historic natural landscape from destruction either Stony Point Battlefield on the Hudson, by physical alterations or the erection of and the thirty-odd acres at the head of unsightly structures, the preservation of Lake George, made famous by events remarkable geological formations, and the during the French and Indian and Revsaving from obliteration of names, places, olutionary Wars, and selected by Cooper and objects identified with National or as the principal scene of his romantic local history.

novel “ The Last of the Mohicans." This Society was founded by its Presi- Efforts are also being made to preserve dent, the Hon. Andrew H. Green, of New Watkins Glen as a State Reservation and York, and numbers among its active mem- to make it a free country park. In this bers such influential persons as George case it is hoped visitors will be attracted W. Perkins, of the New York Life Insur- from all over the country and the place ance Company; J. P. Morgan; the Hon. will become more familiar to the traveling Abram S. Hewitt, and others. The public. Daughters of the American Revolution No visitor to historic places can help a

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THE MORRIS MANOR-HOUSE-WASHINGTON'S HEADQUARTERS Last year the Society secured the passage of an ordinance to take the mansion and grounds as public property. This was vetoed on a technicality. but will probally pass this year.

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