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Ch. LI

weaken its efforts to suppress the rebellion, by creating distrast in its war policy, and its circulation in war-time being calculated to exert a pernicious and treasonable influence." The publication of the Chicago Times was also, at the same time, ordered to be suppressed, "on account of the repeated expression of disloyal and incendiary sentiments." President Lincoln, in view of the great delicacy and difficulty of questions connected with the liberty of the press, revoked this order of Burnside, and the newspapers were allowed to go on their own way as usual.

Burnside, on assuming command of the department, felt the necessity of an increase of force, to enable him to accomplish the work of establishing and maintaining order and efficiency, as well as to secure the deliverance of East Tennessee. At his earnest request, two divisions of the 9th corps, then in camp at Newport News, were sent to him. By the aid of these he was able to do something towards checking Pegram's movements in Kentucky. Burnside's line of defence was necessarily long, and had various weak points in it Troops were posted in localities offering most favorable means of guarding the line and repressing the enemy; and the lines of railroads, leading to the extreme front in Western Kentucky and Tennessee, then held by Rosecrans, were watched and protected with great care. Still, Burnside was painfully conscious that his available force was inadequate for the work to be done. Congress had authorized the organization of a body of troops in Kentucky, 20,000 in num

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ber, and Burnside gladly took the requisite steps to secure theii service at the earliest moment.

A movement upon East Tennessee was arranged between Gens. Burnside, Rosecrans, and Thomas; and Burnside, on the 2d of June, proceeded to Lexington to take the field; but a dispatch from Washington, received that day, required him to send reinforcements to Grant, operating against Vicksburg. As, by this order, some 8,000 men were j taken from him, Burnside was reluct- j antly obliged to postpone, for a time, the intended movement into Tennessee.

It will be remembered by the reader, as was noted on a previous page (see p. 320), that the rebel leaders, at this date, thought that an aggressive policy would be better for their interests than j the one they were pursuing. In accord- j ance with this view, Lee, as we have seen, invaded Maryland and Pennsylvania, with high hopes and expectations. A similar desire for making inroads into the loyal states was felt in other j quarters, and a plan was laid by the rebels to break through our lines in Western or Central Kentucky, cross the Ohio, plunder the southern tier of coun ties of Indiana and Ohio, and either escape into West Virginia, or make a bold march through Pennsylvania and join Lee in his invasion of the North. The leader of the projected expedition was the noted rebel raider, John H. Morgan, a man excellently adapted for this kind of work, by his dashing energy and skill, and his utter lack of scrupulousness in seeking to attain his ends. This famous raid was iemarkable in the annals of the war for the reckless

THE REBEL AGGRESSIVE POLICY.

zeal with which it was prosecuted, the wanton destruction of life and property which attended it, and its ultimately complete failure.

Morgan's command having been strengthened by several picked regiments from Tennessee, his force being between 3,000 and 4,000 cavalry, with a battery of artillery, set out, on the 27th of June, from Sparta, Tennessee, and, by a rapid march, entered Kentucky, reaching the Cumberland in the vicinity of Jamestown. Here he was watched by a brigade of cavalry, with artillery, under Colonel Wolford, but 1863 managed, on the night of the 2d of July, to cross the river lower down, at Burkesville, the water being high, improvising a number of flats for the occasion. There was some skirmishing with the Union cavalry guarding the fords, and in the vicinity of Columbia, whither the enemy proceeded. Morgan then moved on Green River, where, on the morning of the 4th of July, he found his progress arrested at the turnpike bridge, by some 200 men of the 25th Michigan cavalry, under Col. Moore, in an entrenched position. An attack was made by Morgan, which, however, resulted in a repulse and very severe loss, especially of officers.

After this mishap, Morgan crossed above at New Market, and by the next morning reached Lebanon. He found the town garrisoned by a force of about 400 men, under Col. Hanson, who, stationing his troops in the depot and other buildings, kept up a contest of seven hours, but was at last obliged to surrender, the artillery having set fire

to the houses. The town was sacked and Morgan's command freely supplied with arms and ammunition from the captured regiment. From Lebanon the enemy proceeded to Springfield, on their way toward the Ohio. At Bardstown, on the 6th of July, twenty men of the 4th United States cavalry were suprised, and after defending themselves in a stable, while their ammunition lasted, surrendered. At Shepherdsville, on Salt River, Morgan stopped a passenger train from Louisville. Twenty soldiers in the cars were captured, and the express and mail matter, with the valu ables of the passengers, freely pillaged.

Passing through Lawrenceville, Morgan and his men reached Brandenburg, on the Ohio, on the 7th of July, a place which, it was said, had many southern sympathizers among its inhabitants. There they were speedily enabled to cross the river into Indiana, by gaining possession of two steamboats which came along opportunely for their purposes.

On the morning of the 8th of July, the crossing commenced on the two boats. There was some resistance offered to their passage by a company of home guards, with a single gun, from Leavenworth, in the vicinity, on the Indiana shore. The party, however was speedily overpowered when Mor gan's advance landed. The guardswere cut up or captured, and their Parrot gun taken. On the morning of the 9th, Morgan's entire force was landed on the Indiana shore.

The Union troops, which were gathering on the track of Morgan in full pur suit—Colonel Wolford, with his brigade

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from Jamestown, joining Gens. Hobson and Shackelford at Springfield—arrived at Brandenburg just after the crossing of Morgan. Hobson was in command, his entire force of Kentucky and Ohio cavalry and mounted infantry, with a howitzer battery and section of artillery, numbering about 3,000. Gen. Judah's division was also summoned from Southern Kentucky, but not arriving in Louisville till after Morgan had crossed the Ohio, was sent up the river in boats to intercept the rebels on their retreat. Hobson immediately crossed the river at Brandenburg, landing his force on the Indiana side before dawn of the 10th of July. The rapid and serpent-like movements of Morgan, now that the pursuers were upon his track, were desperate efforts to escape, rather than any settled plan of invasion.

The alarm speedily became general. No one knew when or where, with any precision, the bold raider would strike; but all were well aware that complete ruin, burning, robbery, pillage, and such like, followed in his train.

Gov. Morton, of Indiana, called the people of the state to arms, and the response was universal. In Ohio, Gov. Tod was equally on the alert.

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Large war meetmgs were held at Columbus, Ohio, and Indianapolis, Indiana. At Louisville, Kentucky, on the recommendation and under the direction of Gen. Boyle, measures were taken to organize the citizens to resist the enemy. At Cincinnati, Gen. Burnside was in consultation with the authorities, providing for the defence of the city. Troops were being gathered on all sides to resist or intercept the invaders. Yet,

for two weeks, Morgan, by his boldness and slcill, managed to keep ahead of his pursuers, traversing the highways of Indiana and Ohio, and ravaging some of the best of the southern portions of those states.

, Fleeing with all speed through the south-eastern counties of Indiana, harassed meanwhile by the militia along the road, Morgan more than once attempted to find a crossing back into Kentucky; but was in every case baffled. After a brief rest in Harrison, he crossed the state line into Ohio, July 13th, burning the bridge over the White Water River behind him. Some apprehensions were felt at Cincinnati, owing to exaggerated accounts of Morgan's force; but he had no intention of visiting that city. Passing through Glendale, Springdale, and other towns, allowing his men only time enough to ravage in every direction, and seize upon all the horses within reach, he crossed the Miami River at Miamiville, at which time our troops were only four hours behind him. A portion of Morgan's force endeavored, on the 14th of July, to reach the Ohio by way of Batavia, but did not succeed. Onward dashed Morgan and his men, now almost desperate; onward pressed our determined cavalry, despite the serious inconvenience arising out of the rebels having carried off the fresh horses, and left the jaded ones behind. Day and night the pursuit was kept up. Judah led his column along the roads nearest the Ohio; Hobson and Shackelford pressed forward by roads farther from the river; while the gun boats on the Ohio were on the alert, and gave the rebels shot and shell whenever opportunity offered.

Having burned the bridge over the Scioto River, on the 16th of July, Morgan passed through Piketown, which surrendered at once, to Jackson, where he was joined by his whole force. Thence, on the 18th, he pushed rapidly for the Ohio, near Pomeroy, hoping to make his escape into Kentucky. Trees were cut down and laid across the roads, and everything was done to impede his progress. In the course of the afternoon, however, the rebels reached the Ohio, at Buffington Island, near Pomeroy, where they made a desperate attempt to ford the river. But they were driven back, the gun boats lending efficient aid; and the next day, being hemmed in and vigorously attacked, they surrendered.* Dick Morgan, Basil Duke, and over 700 men fell into our hands, with all their ill-gotten plunder; but John Morgan was not with them. Shackelford at once started in pursuit. Another effort was made to get across the Ohio, about fourteen miles above Buffington, where a portion of Johnson's regiment, some 300

* The scene of the action at Buffington, and all the roads in the vicinity, were literally strewn with the fruits of their raiding operations, and their army equipments. There were buggies, rockaways, spring and lumber wagons, without number; rolls of silk, muslin, calico, and other dry goods; bags full of men's clothing, hats, boots, and shoes, linen, laces, kid gloves, cutlery, men's and women's under garments—even children's petticoats—lying about in every direction, min/led with carbines, shot guns, rifles, sabres, pistols, and cartridge-boxes. Many of the latter were found to contain jewelry instead of ammunition. The woods were full of horses and mules. In places the ground was covered with pieces of greenbacks and other currency, stolen and torn by the rebels on surrendering. We are sorry to say, that very little, if any, of this spoil ever found its way back to its rightful owners.

in number, managed to swim the river and escaped. Shackelford followed the rebel leader in a westerly direction nearly sixty miles, when he came up with him and his meu, who, after a brief fight, gave themselves up. It turned out, however, that only a small part of Morgan's force was captured at this time; the cunning raider having slipped away with 600 men for another race. Somewhat exasperated at this result, Shackelford and his brave helpers continued the pursuit, starting at daybreak on the 21st of July. For sev- | eral days and nights they followed hin. I in his zig-zag course, his appetite for wanton plundering and destruction unappeased. By burning the bridges, and in other ways, he managed to put off . the evil day for a brief period; hut Shackelford was not to be baffled or wearied out. On the morning of July 26th, when near New Lisbon, he finally came up with and caught the noted trooper, who, with about 400 of his men surrendered. The next day, he was taken to Cincinnati and placed for safe keeping in the Ohio penitentiary* i

This troublesome matter having been thus disposed of, in the way above nar rated, Burnside was at liberty to con tinue his preparations for the long in tended advance into East Tennessee.

* Morgan was placed here for lack of a proper military prison. Some four months afterwards, on the 28th of November, he managed to escape, with six I others, and in December he was heard from, advertising in a southern paper for recruits to form a new band of foUowers. Pollard is quite jubilant over Morgan's "brilliant expedition." He says that M. destroyed thirty-four important bridges, and in the way of steamboats, railroads, public stores, depots, etc., destroyed not less than $10,000,000 worth.—" Third Year of thi War," p. 104.

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The 9th army corps had been detached from Burnside's command to reinforce Gen. Grant. This had somewhat delayed Burnside's proceedings, and he was at last compelled to make his arrangements independently of the support and preseuce of his favorite corps. Rosecrans, with whom Burnside was to co-operate, had pushed forward his lines as far as Winchester. On the 16th of August, he crossed the Cumberland Mountains, reached the Tennessee River on the 26th, established his headquar1863 ters at Stevenson, Alabama, and was ready for further advance. Burnside, on his part, was actively engaged in his portion of the work.* On the same day that Rosecrans left Winchester, August 16th, he left Camp Nelson and started for Lexington. His plan was to make his way by unfrequented roads, and thus take the rebels by surprise. Having arranged his force, | about 18,000 in number, to march in three columns, the first set out by way of London, under the commanding general; the second, consisting of the 23d army corps, under Gen. Hartsuff, by way of Somerset; and the third, under Gen. J. White, by way of Jamestown, Kentucky.

On the 20th of August, Burnside reached Crab Orchard, by way of Danville and Stanford. On the 22d, he marched to Mount Vernon, twenty miles, and on the following day to Lon

* On the importance to the rebels of holding East Tennessee, as well as its importance to the Union arms, and also respecting the sufferings and trials, of the most terrible description, of loyal men in that region, see Woodbury's "Burniide and the Ifinth Army Corpt," p. 303; also, Pollard's "Second Year of the War," p. 204.

VOL. IV.—44.

don, twenty-five miles. On the 24th, he made Williamsburg, thirty miles further south. On the 26th, he was joined by Hartsuff, at Chetwood, twenty-eight miles from Williamsburg. The enemy being reported near, he directed a cavalry regiment to reconnoitre toward Jackborough. From Chetwood the march was continued across New River up the Cumberland Mountains to Montgomery, Tenn., forty-two miles distant on the summit of the range, where the column arrived on the 30th of August. Here it was met by Gen. White's command. Col. Burt having been sent forward with a cavalry brigade, reported that the rebel Gen. Pegram, with a body of cavalry, held a very strong position at the gap near Emory Iron Works, leading into Clinch River Valley. Additional troops were sent forward with the expectation of a battle on the morning of the 3lst, but with daylight it was discovered that the enemy had fled.

The road to Knoxville was now clear. Having reached Emory River, seventeen miles from Montgomery, Gen. Burnside ordered Col. Foster, with a mounted brigade, to make a forced march over a direct road to Kingston, six miles further. Being anxious to save the most extensive and important bridge over the Tennessee, at Loudon, twenty miles from Kingston, Burnside directed Shackelford, with his cavalry brigade, to push on as rapidly as possible; but they were unable to prevent its being burned by the rebels.

The rebel commander in this region, Buckner, was astounded by the sudden appearance of Burnside's force, and not

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