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INCLUDING AN ACCOUNT OF THE
I seek again my cottage, which the sun have seen a woman smoking. With With his last rays adorns :
a view to get a little more time for viOh let my weary steps be welcomed home, siting the works at Catwicke, I went By such a wife, as that who owns this cot, a day a-head of our party. I was forWith such an infant on her faithful breast. tunate enough to fall in with a most
intelligent and very pleasant travelAmong the minor verses is the fol- ling companion from England in the lowing very beautiful address treck-schuit, and the time passed very
agreeably, as we moved peaceably and TO THE HUSBANDMAN.
quietly along, opening one gentleman's A little furrow holds thy scattered seed ; house after another, till we reached One somewhat deeper will receive thy Leyden, at five o'clock in the afterbones,
noon, having had a passage of about Yet plough and sow with gladness—from three hours. Some of the little villas the soil
which are seen from the canal are very Springs the rich crop that feeds and glad- neatly dressed off, but their only
dens life, And hope is not quite vanished from the scenery consists in a peep at the ca
nal, which they always preserve, for grave.
they are otherwise thickly embossed or encircled with trees, and, not con
tented with the canal passing at the JOURNAL OF A visIT TO HOLLAND, distance of 100 yards, and often not
more than a few paces, they must
still have a farther cut leading up to (Continued from p. 116.) the door; indeed, the house is not
unfrequently encircled with water, LETTER X.
preserving only an approach, which,
in some instances, is accomplished by DEAR J
means of a bridge. Whether this Leyden,
In my last letter I propensity for canals arises from the Friday,
gave you some general mere idea of accommodation in comSth August.
account of the Hague municating the water with the house,
and the village of which to a private family must be exScheveling, and I now find myself tremely trifling, or whether it is inseated in the cabin of a treck-schuit tended as a drain to the lawn, I canfor Leyden, passing through a per- not pretend to say; but, as the water fectly fat country, having on the is often stagnant, and sometimes raone hand a plain to which the eye ther in a putrid state, it forms but can affix no limits, but, after leaving a disgusting object to the eye of a the Hague a little way, we see the Scotchman, whose country is generally extensive range of sand hills describ- so elevated, that the waters flow off the ed in my last as forming the north- land in a pure and limpid stream. ern shores of Holland. From the
Leyden, famous for its memorable Hague to Leyden is about 12 miles, siege in 1673, when it stood out aand the level of the canal and con• gainst the Spanish yoke, and celetiguous country is many feet below brated as a University, contains about the surface of the German Ocean. 40,000 inhabitants, but, what is chiefSuch is the perilous situation of this ly remarkable in regard to its populacountry, and its dependence upon tion, every third inhabitant is said to the dikes, that, if these boundaries be a beggar. The number of these
to give way in any one mendicants is certainly very great, place, the whole country would be and they often form a painful tax upspeedily inundated. I need not trou- on the traveller through Holland, ble you further with a description of but, in Leyden in particular, there is our voyage, than by telling you, that something very squalid and ghastly we had about 50 passengers, and a in their appearance, while they bewail profusion of smoking, which, how- their situation, and lay claim to your ever, was entirely confined to the humanity, in a tone of voice peculiarmale sex, though it is not uncommon ly plaintive. This town is so much to see boys of 12 apd 14 years of age branched with canals, that no fewer diverting themselves with a pipe in than 145 bridges of stone, brick, and their mouth. I do not recollect to timber, are necessary for enabling the
inhabitants to communicate with the patronage of the King of Holland, they various parts of it. This gives the are undergoing a considerable extenplace a wonderfully diversified ap- sion. The King is also, for the benefit pearance, adding much to its curio- of natural history, about to establish a sity in the eye of a stranger, although menagerie of wild beasts. In these it renders the canals less useful to the gardens there is shown a fine plant of inhabitants of the town, as the boats the great aloe, said to be about 100 generally go no farther than to its years old, which was expected to be walls; but this, indeed, is common in flower this year. There is also throughout Holland, and thus the sho'vn, in an apartment very neatly Dutch unaccountably lose, in many of fitted up, a considerable number of their towns, one of the greatest bene- Roman antiquities from Herculaneum, fits of a water conveyance in carrying &c. chiefly in stone. The college goods more immediately to the door rather a mean building, and we had to of the merchant and the consumer. regret that it was vacation time. We,
Our inn being nearly opposite the lowever, went into two of the class Townhouse, under which is the but- rooms, and saw in each two tables, chers' market, while dinner was get- about 10 or 12 feet in length, with ting ready we walked to the Town- corresponding forms. The profeshouse, through the market, where we sors' desks are of oak, very large and saw a great show of butchers' ineat, and clumsy. The senate hall measures almost at every stall one was employed about 30 feet by 20 feet, with a table in chopping minced meat, which the covered with carpet cloth. A sand-glass Dutch emphatically term “ Hacked and a mallet were on the table, while fleysch.” In the Townhouse we were the room was hung round with paintshown paintings of the chief captains ings of the most eminent of the proof the famous siege, and the picture fessors for several hundred years, aof a shocking explosion which took mong which was observed a head of place here in the year 1807, which Boerhaave. The anatomical theatre laid a considerable portion of the city contains several curiosities, among waste, and threw down the western which the female attendant who showgable and organ of the Church of St ed it pointed out specimens of the Pierre, though at the distance of 900 human skin which was tanned and feet from the canal, where the ac- formed into thick pieces of leather. cident happened, for I tried the dis- A very powerful battery for electrical tance with my measuring-line. By experiments is kept here, which natuthis catastrophe no fewer than 137 rally brought to our recollection the persons were killed, besides numbers fanious Leyden vial. These remarks who were wounded, among whom was upon the class-rooms and general apone of the professors of the college, pearance of this college are made to who was at the time walking in his give you some idea of the very circumgarden at a considerable distance. scribed state of this university, which His garden wall was thrown down, suggests a curious state of the times and he was buried in the ruins. This when the most eminent youths of Engdreadful catastrophe was occasioned land, particularly from Scotland, were by the explosion of a quantity of gun sent to study law and philosophy here powder, said to be 140,000 pounds less than a century ago; and it is sinweight, which was on board of a boat gular, that, within these few years, in the canal. Some of the effects of several young men have come here to the concussion were very remarkable. study. A change of residence and It broke innumerable windows in the manners must be useful to youth, city of Leyden and its neighbourhood, but, for a university education, it and the shock was even felt at the would certainly be a strange step to Hague, Haarlem, and throughout a change England for Holland, in the considerable portion of Holland. We present state of Europe, with regard visited the church of St Pierre and to the sciences.' One young gentletomb of the great Boerhaave. The man we met with here from Scotland, university here was long famous for whose residence was intended to fit experimental philosophy, and also its him for a counting-house, where the anatomical and botanic chairs, and for Dutch language was required. He its gardens, which were originally was a parlour boarder, and paid L. 45 founded by Boerhaave, and under the per annum, and said that L. 60 was
the common board at the University,' north and north-west, which raises a but, from his account of their com- great sea upon the coast, and gorges forts, they did not appear to be very all the rivers in Holland. For ages suitable to the taste of an English- past, the waters of the old Rhine have man.
been particularly destructive to the Among other curiosities to which district of Leyden, and have, indeed, our guide carried us, he seemed to be at times threatened the lower parts of pressingly anxious that we should vi- IIolland to a great extent. sit Altenberg castle, an old Roman It had, accordingly, long been a defort, which is shown here as one of sideratum with the States of Holland, the greatest curiosities in Holland: to get the inundations of the Old it is about 60 feet in height, about Rhine corrected and kept within 200 feet in diameter at the base, and bounds. A plan had been finally 50 feet at the top, and its sides are arranged by the Prince of Orange, fantastically laid out in petty walks, and was about to go on, when the with shrubbery, as a labyrinth. It is Revolution broke out. The work observable in Holland, that any thing having been considered of much utithat suggests the idea of a hill, or an lity, and very popular, was, notwitheminence, attracts particular notice; standing, proceeded with, under the and our guide asked us, with much direction of Simon Kross, as engineer formality, if we could believe that in chief. It was completed and opensuch a mass of earth could have been ed on the 22d of July 1805; was octhrown up by shovels. But on ob- casionally visited by Bonaparte in perserving to him that the cubic con- son, but much oftener by his brother tents of Fort Altenburg would only Louis, who is said to have taken great make but a short length of one of the interest in its progress. The whole dikes of Jlolland, he turned hastily operation cost the State from L. 30,000 round, and we followed him.
to L. 40,000. The works of Catwicke, Saturday,
Having been this morn- in the language of the French, are 9th August.
ing joined by one of the termed the New Rhine, and consist
party from the Hague, of works of excavation to a considerwhere the mind, in absence of its able extent, with three sets of locks chief attraction, the court, is soon sa
or sluices. The seaward sluices being tisfied with the novelties of the place, situate about high water mark upon we spent the morning in going over the sands, the intermediate set about various parts of the town, and after a quarter of a mile farther up the breakfast, visited the famous works at river, and the landward sluice or lock Catwicke,* situate upon the coast about is about half a mile above the interșix miles from Leyden. We former- mediate ones. This system of sluices ly noticed, that the river Rhine was appears to be useful for the greater now so subdivided into the Meuse, the defence, in case of accident, to the Waal, Amstel, and Vecht, that it is seaward sluices, and also to act as a difficult to trace its waters in Hol- scouring apparatus for their counectland; but there is still a branch of ing canal or channels. The set of this noble stream called the Oude sluices to seaward, above alluded to, Rhin, or Old Rhine, on which Ley- consist of five arches, having a comden is built, which has its embouchure mon water-way of 60 feet, which are at Catwicke. Its waters were now faced with marble, and are fitted with quite languid, and, indeed, during the a strong set of triple gates, wbich lift summer months, the drainage being perpendicularly with a wheel and pimore effectual by the other rivers, the nion apparatus, and when worked, Old Rhine is pretty nearly stagnant, they are lifted during the period of and it is only during the wet season low water, to allow the surplus waters that they become troublesome or dan- of the country to escape, and are agerous, and that, indeed, chiefly gain lowered to defend the country when the wind prevails from the from the encroachment of the tidal
waters. Beyond this range of sluices a We would call the particular attention channel is cut across the sands to seaof our readers to this description of the ward, to the extent of about 220 yards, great works at Catwicke, it being, we be- and about 12 or 13 yards in breadth, lieve, the only correct account of them to forming a paved channel for the land ve found in our language. EDIT. waters, and a battery to the lower
range of sluices.
This channel is top of the brushwood, which is ingepaved with large rough stones, and niously laid out similar to the process must have been a very laborious part formed in irrigation, so that the salt of the undertaking, and will per- water is made to trickle through the haps be found the most difficult part brushwood, piled to the height of 50 to preserve.
feet. The circulation of the air acThe intermediate set of sluices cordingly causes the evaporation of have the same water-way as the lower the lighter particles, and the saline ones, but are only three in number, and more ponderable particles are and not being exposed to the imme- thus collected into troughs below, diate wash of the sea, open horizon- from which it is run off in the state tally after the manner of canal locks. of brine into the hold of a small vesThe chambers of these sluices are sel, and carried in bulk by the Rhine formed of blocks of bluish grey mar to Leyden, where it is finally made ble from Tournay, some of which are into salt. The great object, as you of a great size, and being finely work- will understand, in this process, is to ed, they form a beautiful piece of save fuel, which is very scarce in masonry. The joiners' and smiths' Holland, though coal is now worked work is also in the best style of work- in Germany to a considerable extent manship. This set of locks has also for the Dutch market. three sets of gates, two of which point
I cannot leave this part of the coast, to seaward, and one to landward. without again taking notice of the inThe upper sluice forms a bridge of genuity of the Dutch, in so completethree arches, with a common water- ly fitting their vessels for their harway of 56 feet, the gates of which fold bours, or rather to their want of harin one piece upon the masonry of the bours. For although it was blowing arch, so as to form the superior waters a fresh gale of wind at north-west, into a basin : this may be very useful, about 40 doggers were lying within in case of accident or repairs being tide mark, with the sea breaking over necessary upon the lower sluices. them half mast high, while the crews
Connected with this national es were perfectly at their ease, and the tablishment, there is a dwelling- vessels riding, with their sterns to the house for a resident engineer, and weather, in perfect safety. Meanassistants; and the greatest atten- while, the surf was so great upon the tion is constantly paid to the state beach, that it threw great quantities of repair of the whole. This seems of beautiful white shells ashore, which highly necessary, from the very peril- the fishermen were collecting in cartous and exposed state of the works, loads for manure and lime. They considering also the danger which caught thein in a very convenient would result to the country from the manner, in a kind of net shovel, failure of these sluices in any material while the shells were afloat on the diegree.
We had much to regret at top of the spent waves, the carts bem this visit to Catwicke, that none of ing at hand to receive them. S. the official people were at hand, and
(To be continued.) we could get no explanation whatever from the Dutch peasantry. We left it, however, much gratified with NOTES, FROM AN OLD DIARY, RELATa work which, both in utility and ING TO THE REBELLION OF 1745. execution, is highly creditable to the [The following little sketch of the history Dutch nation, and which, indeed, is
of the Rebellion of 1745 is taken from so popular in the country, that the
a journal book kept by a respectable peasantry, and even the children, seem
gentleman of Glasgow at the period of everywhere to have heard of its fame. the events mentioned. In the midst of
Ai Catwicke we were also gratified diaries of the weather, notes from the with the inspection of an apparatus books which he read, and the sermons for making salt brine by the process which he heard preached, we all at of evaporation. This apparatus con once come to a passage entitled “ Follows sists of a frame of timber about 50 notes of a very strange story," and the fect in height, and 150 paces in length,
narration then proceeds as below.] which is made up with brushwood About the 20th August, or some and faggots. The sea water is thrown sooner, the Pretender's eldest son, calby pumps into wooden troughs at the led Prince Charles, landed in the
West Highlands with some gentle- about 30 cannon he had lent the town men and arms, and at length of for defence of their walls. The gothe clans, &c. he had about 1500 or vernor told it was without his juris2000 men.
diction, they should apply to the proAbout that time General Cope con- vost or sheriff, and the king's lieutevened about 2000 men at Stirling; nant, which they did, but the provost and after some time, by order, marche refused the order, alleging it would ed towards Fort Augustus.
irritate the enemy, &c. On his march he came near the re On Tuesday, at five in the morning, bels, who were on a hill where he 17th September, a coach went out could not attack them, and so went to at Netherbow Port, by the provost's Inverness.
order, and it was supposed he was Bleantime, the rebels came through in it; upon which the rebels entered the hills, and possessed Perth. This the town, and seized the guard ; dismy sister wrote 3d September, that armed them, and also all the trainthey had entered Perth on the 21, bands, and thus were masters of the and put that town in L. 1000 contri- town. bution. They left Perth about 10th At same time, in God's good proviSeptember, and marched towards Stir- dence, General Cope arrived on Monling; and Colonel Gardiner's dragoons day at Dunbar, and marched with being there, they went up the water 2000 foot towards Edinburgh, and was and crossed the Forth near Kippen. joined by Gardiner's and Hamilton's They alarmed Glasgow and all this regiments of dragoons, about Musselcountry; but there being few or no burgh, on Tuesday, but did not think arms, and as little care to provide it safe to make any sudden attack them, the Prince Regent (as he calls on the rebels, who by this time were himself) sent two commissioners, viz. joined with several thousand more William Comry and Seaton, men brought by the Marquis of Tulwith a letter to the Magistrates of libardine and others. Glasgow, on Saturday forenoon, 14th Robert Alexander, barber, sent September, demanding L. 15,000 con- by the magistrates of Lanark, came tribution, and an answer in three home on Thursday, and tells he was hours time. Accordingly the council in Edinburgh on Wednesday, 18th sent a deputation of four, viz. P. Ai- September ; that he talked with one ton, B. Brown, William Crawford, and of the rebels at a dram, and asked Da. Dalzell, and blind Mr Campbell, why they went not to Glasgow, &c.; to shew how they could not advance was answered that letter after letter one-fourth of that sum ; but meeting coming from their friends at Edinwith Wm. Cross, advocate, they were burgh had hastened their march. dissuaded from going, seeing the Friday night, the 20th September, Prince had marched towards Edin- my son went to Lanark to get news; he burgh.
brought account that the rebels under It seems the whole army of rebels Prince Charles had marched out of marched that day, viz. 14th Septem- Edinburgh, to meet General Cope, ber, to Falkirk, and the Prince lodged who was on his march to meet them, at Callender House; was entertained and that a battle was expected. by Earl of Kilmarnock; meantime Lori's day, 22 September, we had took all the arms about Callender, account by iwo expresses sent to Boabout 80 firelocks. My Loril came niton, and also account by Thomas to Glasgow, and told this to Neil Ba- Hamilton, who left Dalkeith that natyne, &c.
day, and had been on the field of On Sunday Lord Hopetoun came to battle, that on Friday night the Boniton, and told that they were march- two armies encamped near Preston ing to Edinburgh, and would be that and Tranent, within 500 paces of each night at Leny, four miles from it. other. That in the night the Prince
On Monday the Prince marched to sent one-half of his men about to the Edinburgh ; took up quarters at the east of General Cope's camp, and Abbey, and his camp at St Ann's at break of day yesterday, viz. Yard.' That day I heard the volun- 21st September, the engagement beteers went to the Castle and gave up gan; the king's forces were attacked their arms; at same time applied to in front and rear at once; the drathe governor for orders to nail up goons gave way; the intantry rallied