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them slightly, and the missing are twen- He was elected to the state legislature, ty-four. The enemy's loss is more diffi- and in 1843 became Judge of the Sucult to ascertain than our own. Twopreme Court of the State. Two years hundred and seventy were found dead after he was Commissioner of the genon the battle-field. Forty were buried eral land office at Washington. He by the inhabitants of the adjacent vil- served in the Mexican war as Brigadierlage, and, by a calculation made by the General of Volunteers, and was severely number of graves found on both sides of wounded at Cerro Gordo, for his gallanthe valley road between here and Stras- try on which occasion he was brevetted burg, their loss in killed must have been Major-General. He was again wounded about five hundred, and in wounded, one at Chapultepec. Returning to Illinois at thousand. The proportion between the the close of the war, he was chosen killed and wounded of the enemy shows United States Senator from that State. the closeness and terrible destructive- On the conclusion of his term he settled ness of our fire-nearly half. the wounds in Minnesota on lands awarded for his being fatal. The enemy admit a loss of army services, and represented that between one thousand and fifteen hun- State on its admission to the Union, as a dred killed and wounded. Our force in United States Senator. He next made infantry, cavalry, and artillery, did not his residence in California, whence he exceed 7,000. That of the enemy must was called to Washington soon after the have exceeded 11,000. Jackson, who commencement of the rebellion, by his commanded on the field, had, in addition appointment as Brigadier-General of volto his own stone-wall brigade, Smith's, unteers, in which capacity he succeeded Garnett's, and Longstreet's brigades. General Lander, on the death of that Generals Smith and Garnett were here officer, in his command on the Upper Poin person. The following regiments were tomac. known to have been present, and from On the receipt of the dispatches from each of them were made prisoners on General Shields announcing the result of the field :the 2d, 4th, 5th, 21st, 23d, the battle, Secretary Stanton, from the 27th, 28th, 330, 37th, and 42d Virginia ; War Department, wrote in reply :1st regiment provisional army, and an “While rejoicing at the success of your Irish battalion. None from the reserve gallant troops, deep commiseration and were made prisoners. Their force in in- sympathy are felt for those who have fantry must have been 9,000. The cay- been victims in the gallant and victorious alry of the united brigades amounted to contest with treason and rebellion. Your 1,500. Their artillery consisted of thir- wounds, as well as your success, prove ty-six. pieces. We had 6,000 infantry that Lander's brave division is still braveand a cavalry force of seven hundred ly led, and that wherever its standard is and fifty and twenty-four pieces of ar- displayed rebels will be routed and purtillery."*

sued. To you and the officers and solGeneral James Shields, the comman- diers under your command the departder of the Union forces in this well- ment returns thanks.” General Banks fought engagement, was a native of the also “congratulated the officers and solCounty of Tyrone, Ireland. Born in diers of General Shields' division, and 1810, he emigrated to the United States especially its gallant commander, on the in his youth, and at the age of twenty- auspicious and decisive victory gained two settled in Illinois, where he devoted over the rebels on the 23d instant. The himself to the profession of the law. division had already achieved a renown

| against superior forces, against a subtle * Brigadier-General James Shields to Major-General Banks. Winchester, Virginia, March 29, 1862.

| and barbarous enemy, disencumbered of everything. That is victory !* Gen- Presbyterian divine, who has shown his eral Shields, also, in a general order con- regard for the Union in the publication gratulated his command on the 'glorious of an elaborate volume entitled “Political victory" which they had achieved: “They Fallacies-an examination of the false defeated an enemy whose forces outnum- assumptions and refutations of the sophbered them, and who are considered the istical reasonings which have brought on bravest and best disciplined of the Con- this civil war." On the outbreak of the federate army. He also congratulates rebellion, it is said, “Jackson, who is an them that it has fallen to their lot to open | elder in the Presbyterian church, spent the campaign on the Potomac. The open- a day and a night in endeavoring to coning has been a splendid success. Let vert Dr. Junkin to secession views, the

nem inscribe 'WINCHESTER' on their ban- two arguing together during a whole day, ners, and prepare for other victories." and praying together during the night

The Confederate commander, General following, without effect, however, upon Thomas Jonathan Jackson, better known Dr. Junkin, who was afterward obliged by his title of "Stonewall Jackson,” from to leave the country and seek refuge in an incident, it is said, in this battle of the Northern States."* Jackson entered Winchester, of a portion of his command the rebel service as colonel at the very fighting behind a stone wall, was a native beginning of the war, and was engaged of Lewis County, Virginia. Born in in the first attack upon Harper's Ferry. 1826, he was yet in the prime of man- He confronted General Patterson in his hood. A graduate of West Point of the advance in that region previous to the class of 1846, with the appointment of battle of Bull Run, in which he bore a 2d Lieutenant in the 2d Artillery, he part, and was afterwards on duty with had served in Mexico with the battery the army in Virginia to the time of his of Captain Magruder, the well known present appearance in the valley of the general in the rebel service. Lieutenant Shenandoah. Thoroughly in earnest, even Jackson was brevetted captain and major fanatical in devotion to the cause which for his gallantry in the campaign of Gen- he had espoused, a soldier with a genius eral Scott at Cherubusco and Chapulte- for his profession, he brought to the pec. In 1852 he resigned his rank in service a local knowledge of the counthe army in consequence of impaired try, a presence of mind in emergencies, health, and became a Professor in the and an activity in the field, in pursuit Military Institute of Lexington, Virginia. and retreat, which made his name memHis first wife was the daughter of the orable in many an engagement of the Rev. Dr. George Junkin, an eminent war.

*General Banks's Order. Strasburg, March 26, 1862. * Biographical notico in Appleton's Cyclopedia.



The first prominent mention of Pitts- gunboat Tyler, at the town of Savannah burg Landing, in the affairs of the war, on the Tennessee river, in Hardin counis in a dispatch of Lieutenant Command-ty, bordering on Mississippi, “having ing Gwin of the 1st of March, 1862. learned that the rebels had occupied and On that day, being in command of the were fortifying a place called Pittsburg,

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nine miles above on the right bank of the land mountains, with an occasional adriver—the best point in the river for that venturous skirmish with the rebel troops purpose—he determined to attack them.” in that region. On the 10th of March, Accordingly, proceeding thither with the Colonel James Carter, with his regiment gunboat Lexington, Lieutenant Command of loyal Tennesseeans, left Camp Cuming Shirk, when they had advanced to berland ford and traversed the mountains within twelve hundred yards of the some forty miles to Big Creek Gap, in place, fire was opened upon them from a the neighborhood of Jacksboro’ in Campbattery of six or eight field pieces, one bell county, where he encountered a body of them rifled. The gunboats drawing of rebel cavalry. Two of the latter were nearer, secured an effective range, and killed, four badly wounded, and fifteen soon silenced the batteries. Two armed taken prisoners, including a lieutenantboats were then landed from each vessel colonel. The tents of three companies under cover of a discharge of grape and with various camp equipage and a numcanister, and their small force of ninety ber of horses were obtained. Lieutenmen succeeded in driving back the rebels ant Myers and a private of the Union and holding them in check while they party were wounded. Another brilliant destroyed a house in the immediate vi- affair of a similar character was conductcinity of the batteries. The enemy then ed by Colonel Garfield, a few days after, rallied, and the landing party finding from the camp at Piketon, Kentucky. A themselves in the presence of a greatly scouting party from the 22d Kentucky superior force, stated at three regiments, and 40th and 42d Ohio, with a hundred retired to the boats under a heavy fire Ohio cavalry—about seven hundred in of musketry from the rebels. The Tyler all-set out on the 13th of March for was “perfectly riddled with balls." The Pound or Sounding Gap, a pass in the casualties on the Union side, in this Cumberland mountains about forty miles bravely conducted affair, were five killed to the southeast, where a band of guerriland missing, and five wounded. The in- las had established themselves to the jury to the enemy is unknown, but was annoyance of the surrounding country. supposed to be considerable. “I feel The march was a difficult one, along narconfident,” says Lieutenant Gwin in his row paths, through rain and snow, in report, “ that we inflicted a severe loss," fathomless, endless mud.” Arriving at as several bodies were seen on the ground Elkton Creek, two miles from the gap, on and many seen to fall." Lieutenant Gwin the night of the 15th, he sent his cavalry also announced his intention of remain- up the road toward the front of the eneing about Savannah, paying Pittsburg a my's position, to divert their attention, daily visit, which he hoped would pre- while the next morning, Sunday, he led vent the rebels from accomplishing their the infantry over the mountains by a preobject. He had assured himself that the cipitous path to take the rebel camp in enemy were gathering in force on the flank. Emerging from the woods, he disnorthern borders of Alabama and Missis-covered the camp in a ravine, with the sippi, with the evident intention of dis enemy apparently formed on an opposite puting the possession by the Union troops hill. He drew up his line in front of of middle Tennessee. *

them, when observing that they were In the northeastern border of the falling back, he dashed through the raState, the Union forces, few in numbers, vine and up the hill, with fixed bayonets were watching the gaps of the Cumber- for a decisive charge. The enemy did

not wait for the attack, but, availing * Flag Officer Foote to the Hon. Gideon Welles. Cairo, themselves of their knowledge of the March 3, 1862. Reports of Lieutenant-Commanders Gwin and Shirk

mountains, fled, leaving the military property in the camp, and commissary General Grant. His army, when it buildings, a spoil to the assailants. They reached its destination, embraced the diwere effectually ransacked, and what visions of Generals McClernand, Charles could not be carried off was burnt. The F. Smith, Lewis Wallace, A. S. Hurlbut, Union troops occupied the gap during W. T. Sherman, and B. M. Prentiss. the rest of the day and night, feasting on General McClernand, distinguished by the enemy's larder, supplying themselves his military conduct at Belmont and Donwith guns and clothing previous to their elson, had been just created a majorreturn, without loss or injury, to Pike- general of volunteers. General Smith, ton. Several of the enemy were said to the hero of Fort Donelson, accompanied be wounded in this affair. A reconnois- the expedition with his troops to Savansance in force was made on the 22d from nah, on the Tennessee, where he was taken Camp Cumberland ford to Cumberland ill, and in consequence of his sickness, Gap. There was some skirmishing, and the command of his division in the apan artillery duel was carried on with the proaching battle fell to General W. H. S. enemy, at too great a distance, however, Wallace. This officer was a native of to be effective on either side.

Maryland. His parents emigrating to IlliThe great movement on foot of the nois in his boyhood, he there grew up, Union armies in Tennessee at this time and adopted the profession of the law. was the junction of the forces of Gener- He had enlisted as a private in the Mexals Grant and Buell on the upper waters ican war, and fought at Buena Vista as of the Tennessee River, with a view of adjutant of Colonel Hardin's Illinois regicontrolling the lines of railway commu- ment. When the rebellion broke out he nication connecting the Mississippi with was chosen colonel of the 11th Illinois the East, and the border slave States of regiment of volunteers, with which he the rebellion with the Gulf of Mexico. rendered important service at Cairo, and As Columbus had been evacuated, and in the military operations in its vicinity. Island No. 10 was on the point of sur- He was with the advance of General render in consequence of the victories Grant's army at Fort Henry and Donelending in the occupation of Nashville, son, where his bravery gained him the so the conquest of Memphis would be appointment of brigadier-general. Genfacilitated by advancing the Union forces eral Lewis Wallace, of Indiana, we have to Corinth in Mississippi, the junction of seen in action throughout the war, from the Memphis and Charleston and Mobile the earliest scenes in Western Virginia to and Ohio Railroads. Tennessee would the storming of Fort Donelson, in which he thus be firmly held in the grasp of the bore a leading part. He was now majornational army. It was a bold step from general of volunteers, in command of the the lines in Kentucky at Bowling Green 3d division of General Grant's army. to the heart of the enemy's country at Brigadier-General Stephen A. Hurlbut, the northern boundaries of Mississippi commanding the 4th division, was a and Alabama. Yet in the course of a native of South Carolina, but a citizen of month this change had been effected. Illinois. He had recently been engaged The Union army, in possession of the in repressing the disturbances in Northcapital, was pushing its advance to the ern Missouri, whence he had been sent by southern boundary of Tennessee, and General Halleck to his present important the best generals of the Confederacy command on the Tennessee. General were forming new lines of defence in W. T. Sherman, of Kentucky, will be States bordering on the Gulf.

remembered as the successor of Major The “Tennessee Expedition," as it Anderson in command of the army in was called, was commanded by Major- | that State, and the predecessor of General

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