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prevailing were invented, the Pope simply announced to the assembled cardinals, "Habemus fratres;" * and then proceeded to declare the names of those he chose to promote.

It will be observed that from a very early time secrecy as to the names of those who were to be made cardinals, formed, as it still docs amid so much else that has become changed, a very prominent feature in the method of proceeding. And we gather from this fact an indication of the difficulty the Popes had to steer their way in this matter amid all the jealousies, enmities, intrigues, which this exercise of their patronage brought into play, tind which in the earlier times were always tending to break out into open violence and even warfare. They had also to guard against the embarrassments arising from the requests of those whom it might often have been difficult to refuse.

In later times, when the Pope has determined on the creation of a batch of cardinals, he calls a secret Consistory—an assembly, that is to say, of the Sacred College. He then proceeds to read the allocution, the preparation of which was described in the last chapter, and at the conclusion of it says, " Quid vobis videtur?" —" How seems it to you?" The words are as unreal a form as the "in pace" which consigned an erring nun to her living grave. For any expression of opinion on the subject by any member of the assembly would be as much out of the question in the one case as the hypocritical farewell is meaningless in the other. The assembled cardinals all rise, take off their purple caps (berretta)

'"We have as brothers." and gravely bow their heads. Thereupon the Pope proceeds to the creation in the following solemn form of words: "Auetoritate omnipotentis Dei, sanctorum Apostolorum Petri et Pauli ac nostra, creamus Sancta Eomance Ecclesise, cardinales presbyteros quidem (N. N.), diaconos vero (N. N.), cum dispensationibus, derogationibus, et clausulis necessariis et opportunis." * If any cardinals are to be created in petto, he here adds the form of words above given in the former chapter. He then thrice makes the sign of the cross with his right hand, saying as he does so, "In nomine Patris, et Filii, et Spiritus Sancti. Amen." And the Consistory is at an end.

It is supposed that no one of the newly made Cardinals has any idea that such greatness is about to be thrust upon him. Of course it is almost always all perfectly well known beforehand. There have been cases, however, in which the news of the promotion was wholly unexpected by the subject of it, but they are so few that Moroni gives a list of all the recorded cases. There are also many. cases, occurring in times when communications were not so rapid as they are now, of persons having been created cardinals who were dead at the time of their creation.

With regard to those cardinals who are in Eome, and who are supposed to be entirely ignorant of the coming greatness, a master of ceremonies clothed in a purple mantle proceeds immediately after the termination of the Consistory to announce this promotion to each of

* "By the authority of Omnipotent God, and by that of the Holy Apostles Teter and Paul, and by our own, we create cardinals of the holy Roman Church, in the rank of priests (So and so), and in tho rank of deacons (So and so), with all the necessary and fitting dispensations, limitations, and reservations."

them viva voce at their own residences, informing them tit the same time at what hour that same afternoon they are to go to the Apostolic Palace to receive the purple cap. In fact, however, this is not the first notice the new cardinals have received of their promotion, for a servant of the Cardinal Secretary of State, carrying a note from, his master, has outrun the Master of Ceremonies in his purple mantle and anticipated him. A third messenger, however, bringing the same glad tidings, comes to each of the new Eminences. For the Cardinal Vice-Chancellor, being by virtue of his office the only man who can authentically certify the acts done in the Consistory, his substitute starts even before the Consistory is quite at an end, that is, as soon as ever the bell sounds which announces the utterance of the creating words, and is thus the first of all to carry the tidings. All this is settled prescriptively and perfectly known to all Eome— to all Eome as it was, for the greater part of the Eome of the present day knows no more of such matters than Londoners do. And it was not without reason that it should have been so, for all these various annunciations were the occasion of receiving large fees—a valuable part of the emoluments of the different offices, which, in some cases, had been bought on careful calculation of such profits.

As soon as ever the first announcement has been received, the new cardinal places himself clothed in purple cassock and band on the threshold of his residence, there to receive standing the so-called visite di colore, —the first heat visits, as we may say, of the prelates, nobles, military officers, and cardinals' gentlemen, who come to oner their congratulations. Other and more formal visiting will follow in due time; but these visite di calore are supposed to represent the enthusiastic rush of Mends breathless with delight at the unexpected news. On this occasion the new cardinal is to have a black skull-cap on his head, which he is not to take off to anybody, and he is to hold a somewhat larger black cap in his hand the while. The article which I have called a skull-cap is the berettina. The berretta, which the cardinal holds in his hand, is the squarecornered cap which the clergy use in church. The berretta of a cardinal is of silk for the summer and of cloth for the winter, save in the case of members of the monastic orders, who wear merino in the summer. And if the new dignitary be a canon regular, or a member of any of the monastic orders, his cassock, instead of being purple, must be of the colour of the dress of his order. To those of the newly-created cardinals who are not in Eome, the purple berretta is sent by the hands of a papal ablegate, but the purple berettina by those of one of the Pope's Noble Guard. In some cases where it has been intended to show special favour and distinction, the Hat itself has been sent to cardinals created at a distance from Eome. But this has been very rarely done.

Paid II. (ob. 1471) was the first Pope who granted to the cardinals the use of the purple, or rather scarlet, cap. Bonanni, in the 106th chapter (!) of his learned work on the cardinal's berretta says this colour reminds the cardinal not only of his superior dignity, but of the martyrdom for which he must be ever prepared for the defence of the Church! A somewhat better known author, Petrarch, in a letter to the Bishop of Sabina,*speaks of certain cardinals who, "being not only mortal, but well-nigh moribund, are rendered oblivious of their mortality by a little bit of red cloth!"

For a long time the members of the monastic orders were spared this danger, and used caps of the same colour as their cassocks, which they still wear of the colour proper to their order. Gregory XIV. (ob. 1591), however, being moved thereto by the entreaties of Cardinal Bonelli, a Dominican, nephew of Pius V., thought seriously of granting the red cap to the cardinals of the monastic orders, and ordered the " Congregation of Bites" to examine the question. Five cardinals constituted the congregation, of whom the three oldest reported in favour of the measure. As they were not -unanimous, however, on the question, Gregory thought it desirable to take the opinion of the entire College of Cardinals on the point; and a majority of three-quarters of the College being in favour of the innovation, the monastic cardinals got their red caps, and have worn them ever since. Accordingly, Gregory summoned the four monastic cardinals, who at that time belonged to the Sacred College, to the Quirinal, on the 19th of June, 1591, and there, having caused four red caps to be brought on a silver salver, placed them on the heads of the four cardinals kneeling before him without more ado (sema ultra ceremonia); and thus, with their red caps on their heads, they appeared at the mass celebrated that morning at the Church of the Apostles,

* Lib. xv. Epist. 4.

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