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twenty minutes; and it is to be borne in mind as has been done, to suppose that good English by the singer, and it would be kind of his singers must necessarily be few in number; audience to also remember this, that the more her experience, on the contrary, tells her that highly trained the organ of the voice is the the English have at least as good capabilities more sensitive it is to those sudden changes of for singing as any other nation. What we temperature or draughts of air which should be really want in this country is not better voices, particularly avoided after singing, as at that but a more perfect or more rational method of time any congestion of the apparatus of the teaching. voice is most likely to be set up.

When a cold is caught by a singer the vocal cords become dry,

THE POST OFFICE. and, in fact, loose much of their elasticity, and he is, in common parlance, hoarse. In this THE General Post Office and the new condition he should never be induced to sing or strain his voice any more than he should try

regulations which have just come into to walk if he were lame. The inhalation of a operation, and those that will come into little steam or vapour from hot water, last thing operation shortly, are absorbing a great deal at night, will often remove a slight hoarseness

. of public interest and attention at the present The habit of coughing to clear the throat before moment. There is much in the connection singing is bad, and should be avoided. Over between the public and the Post Office, that it wrapping or muffling up much is also to be avoided. Singers and speakers, if they would would be to the advantage of the former to only allow themselves to cool down for a very few know more about. In the new regulations, moments before leaving a crowded room, and the Government seem determined to popularise then on their way through the air to practise the use of the Post Office amongst the thrifty breathing with the mouth shut, or through the of the working classes as a safe, and, at the nose—the natural channel for respiration in a same time, a certain means of profitable investcold atmosphere-would rarely be troubled with ment of small savings, at a minimum of hoarseness or colds. The habit of using very expenditure and inconvenience. It is not our highly spiced lozenges to stimulate the voice is intention, however, to go into detail on these also bad. It does not fall within the scope of new features of postal business while they are this article to show how a throaty voice is to yet upon their trial, beyond expressing the hope be avoided and corrected; it generally arises that they may be the means of achieving much, from improper breathing, or a forcing of the if not all, that has been anticipated by the voice. An intelligent teacher will point out the change. mode of correction. Singers should select The Post Office is strictly a Government nourishing and easily digested food. Pastry, monopoly, with the few exceptions named in the salt meats, nuts, and other dried fruits should Post Office Act. Its ramifications and conbe avoided. Suppers, except the lightest, are nections at home and abroad are simply vast, bad ; milk, in moderation, and cocoa may be and embrace an infinity of detail in working. used. Alcoholic drinks are bad, as they act as The history of letters and letter writing is irritants, and deteriorate the voice, indeed a the history of mankind. The art of writing, “toper's” voice is generally in a condition of and the sending of letters, is frequently menchronic hoarseness ; smoking also is bad. tioned in Scripture.

Ancient Greece and There is no royal road to enable one to Rome were not possessed of a public post ; become a good singer or public speaker. but Augustus established a body of messengers Perfection is acquired by practice and industry, for the conveyance of Imperial despatches—a but a teacher will point out a pupil's voice body of whom a survival is still seen in our compass, and prevent him attempting songs own Queen's Messenger. The germ of the far above his natural powers. Some can sing modern post office was planted by Charlemagne very well in a small apartment or room, but early in the ninth century, but it was not prove quite inefficient in a theatre or town hall. till the thirteenth century that a regular It is related of a certain Italian master that postal communication—that could be called he kept his pupil practising exercises for fully such—was established ; and it speedily spread two years without allowing him a single song from the Hans Towns to Austria and LomTo the pupil's continued remonstrances he bardy, and other parts of the Continent. There answered, at the end of that period, “You are was a “riding” post in England in the reign

one of the finest singers in Italy or of Edward IV. The office of “Master of elsewhere, and you can now sing anything.” Posts” was established by Henry VIII., and

Madame St. Germaine, the eminent Professor in the reign of Queen Elizabeth there were of Singing at the Crystal Palace School of continual disputes with the Flemings resident Art, has pointed out that it is quite a mistake, in England, who had made a Postmaster of


their own.

The first General Post Office was fund, which he retained for himself. At his originated in the days of the Stuarts, when a death, in 1764, it was calculated that he had post for England and Scotland was established. made profits amounting to half-a-million. The rates of postage were fixed by Royal Allen appears to have been a good sort of authority in the reign of Charles I. In the fellow. He was the friend of Fielding and of days of the Commonwealth the Puritan Par- Pope, and is pourtrayed as “Squire Allworthy" liament, squeamish about many things, were in “Tom Jones," and referred to in the

, by no means so, in the matter of the inviola- coupletbility of private correspondence, for in the

pre- “Let humble Allen, with an awkward shame, amble to an ordinance, dated 1657, it was held Do good by stealth, and blush to find it fame.” to be a most valuable recommendation in In 1783 John Palmer, of the Bath and favour of the establishment of posts that Bristol theatres, propounded to Mr. Pitt his "they will be the best means to discover and scheme for the transmission of the mails by prevent many dangerous and wicked designs stage coach, which was approved, and the first against the Commonwealth.”.

mail coach left London for Bristol on the The power of opening letters is still possessed evening of the 8th August, 1784. Scarce by the Government, and can be exercised under thirty years of the present century had passed & warrant from one of Her Majesty's principal ere the gay and lightsome mail coach disSecretaries of State. Without such a warrant appeared, and was superseded by the locomotive, such a breach of public trust is highly penal. and the great reforms which will ever be Sir James Graham obtained for himself much associated with the name of Rowland Hill were odium by a violation of the correspondence of commenced. The fossils of the Post Office were Mazzini, the Italian patriot. For State pur- slow in the adoption of reforms, and were very poses it is perhaps right that this law should happily hit off by Rowland Hill, in one of his remain on the statute book, and be at one with tricks to escape payment of the heavy rates of some of the rarely used prerogatives of the postage prevailing at that period." In the Crown. It is interesting to read Carlyle on the year 1823," he wrote, “taking a holiday matter. He

says, “It is a question vital to us excursion through the lake district to Scotland, that sealed letters in an English post office be, and wishing to keep my family informed of my as we all fancied they were, respected as things movements and health (then in a depressed sacred; that opening of men's letters, a practice state) I carried with me a number of old newsnear of kin to picking men's pockets, and to papers, and in franking these according to the other still viler and fataler forms of scoun- useless form then required, while I left the drelism be not resorted to in England, except postmark with its date to show the place. I in cases of the very last extremity. When indicated my health by selecting names some new gunpowder plot may be in the wind, according to previous arrangements, the more some double-dyed high treason, or imminent Liberal members being taken to indicate that national wreck, not avoidable otherwise, then I was better, while Tories were to show that I let us open letters : not till then. To all was falling back; Sir Francis Burdett was to Austrian Kaisers and such like, in their time of show that I was enjoying vigorous health, trouble, let us answer as our fathers of old while probably Lord Eldon would almost have have answered—not by such means is help here brought one of my brothers after me in anxiety for you."

and alarm.” The zeal and energy of Rowland For some time the posts were confined to a Hill overcame the dogged opposition of the few of the main high roads of the kingdom. heads of the postal department, and on the 10th Off these roads there was no certain means of January, 1840, his system of the penny post conveyance, and the residents in such districts came into general operation. The net revenue received their letters when and how they could. of the post office for 1878-79 was £2,434,000. Such was the General Post Office when the Since the Great Reform many desirable imfirst of three great reformers of the postal provements have been effected, and thousands service appeared in the person of Ralph Allen, of receptacles for posting letters have been then postmaster of Bath. He noticed the established. Last year, the number of offices defects in the existing system, and thought was nearly 14,000 ; the number of road and out a remedy, which he ultimately succeeded railway letter-boxes nearly 12,000 ; in all in persuading the Treasury to adopt. By the some 26,000 receptacles, as compared with introduction of “cross or by-posts" the delivery 4,028 on the establishment of penny postage. of letters was greatly facilitated. Allen under- In London alone there are half as many as took the carrying out of this plan, and so there existed in the whole of the United certain was he of its success that he paid a Kingdom. The revision of the scale of postage, fixed rental of £6,000 a year for his so-called the establishment of the book-post, and of the privilege, his profits arising from the surplus circular rate of postage, met a great want, as is

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& lb. of


shown by the calculated number passing pose to be sufficient in the centre of through the Office, which is roughly stated at the cake, then dip a broad bladed knife in 198,000,000

cold water, and spread the ice evenly over the The post-card is a decided success, something whole surface. Put it in a nearly cold oven like 112,000,000 being distributed annually. again to dry. Great advances have also been made in inter- SEED BREAD is made like the plain currant national communication through that admirable bread, seeds being substituted for the currants. organisation, the General Postal Union, by

Buns are made of 4 lb. of flour, 1 lb. of lard, which the dream of Elihu Burrit, of an ocean

sugar, 1 lb. of currants, a little baking penny postage, has been in some respects more powder, and candied peel. After making up, than realised. For one penny a post-card can be they should be washed over with the yolk of sent to all parts of the continent of Europe, to Persia, the contines of Siberia, Egypt, in front of the fire before baking.

an egg, and allowed to rise a little on the tin Algeria, and Morocco, in Africa ; to the Azores, Madeira, and Newfoundland, in the

For QUEEN CAKES take } lb. of butter beaten Atlantic; to the vast dominions of Canada, or

to a cream, lb. of lump sugar, 5 eggs, 1 lb. of the far-stretching Republic of the United currants, } lb. of flour, essence of lemon, and

The sugar should be States, or even to the distant Pacific. A closed a little sal volatile. letter over the same district only costs 21d. per powdered, and the ingredients beaten into the

Melt a little half-ounce, while printed matter may be sent for £d. per two ounces. These and other rates

butter, and

grease the tiny queen cake tins show a strikingly favourable contrast with the with it, using a small brush for the purpose. rates formerly existing. Then there are other

For Bati or Plum DROPS take 1 lb. of departments, not strictly postal, such as the butter, 1 lb. sugar, 10 eggs, 1 lb. of currants, Money Order system, the Savings Bank; 1 oz. candied peel cut very fine, a little essence facilities for investment in the Government of lemon and sal volatile, 1 lb. 6 oz. of flour. Stock, and the Telegraphic system.

Savoy Biscuits are made of 1 lb. of sugar, 1 lb. of flour, 9 eggs, a little volatile and

lemon. Bake in a hot oven. Both the Savoy HINTS FOR THE HOUSEHOLD.

biscuits and the plum drops must be dropped

upon cap paper, previously laid upon a tin, and TRUIT AND SPONGE CAKES, &c. The baked upon the paper. following recipes will probably be found

For SUGAR CAKES use 6 lb. of flour, 3 lb. useful at this season of parties and entertain- of lard or butter, 3 lb. of sugar, 12 eggs, ments. Good plain currant bread may be made essence of lemon and carbonate of soda ;

moderate oven. by adding to 6 lb. of flour, 4lb. of currants, 2 lb. of sugar, 8 oz. of lard, 6 oz. of baking powder,

SPONGE Cakes. --Take the whites of 12 a little essence of lemon, and three eggs.

Mix eggs and whisk to a froth, by degrees adding with butter-milk or milk that has become sour.

the yolks of 14 eggs, 1 lb. of sugar, 1 lb. of

flour, and a little sal volatile and essence of If there does not happen to be any sour milk at lemon. Take care to keep whisking in one hand, a little tartaric acid stirred into new direction until all the ingredients are added, milk will turn it sour instantly. The next and bake immediately in a well buttered recipe is for a much richer cake. The pro- mould. portion of ingredients is as follows :

It will be found much more economical to Fruit Loaf.-- Three pounds of flour, 2 lb. make the baking powder at home than to buy of rice flour, 2 lb. of lard or butter, 3 lb. of it ready mixed, and the subjoined recipe is currants, 2 lb. of Sultana raisins, lb. of a very good one :-4 oz, tartaric acid, 5 oz. sugar, 6 eggs, 8 oz. of baking powder, candied carbonate of soda, 5 oz. ground rice. Mix lemon and essence of lemon according to taste. thoroughly, and keep in a dry place. It is Use very

little salt. Mix with sour milk, and best to put it in wide-necked bottles, until ready bake in a moderate oven, in tins well greased to use it, as then it cannot very well get damp. and lined with paper.

Icing for the above cakes, or for any other MAGAZINE, bound in cloth, may be had of the Proprietors. rich cake, is made in the following manner :- Index and Title Page, Post Free, id. Beat the whites of two small eggs to a high froth, then add to them { lb. of white ground MAGAZINE" must be sent in to the Office, 50, Grey Street, or powdered sugar, beat it well until it will lie Newcastle-on-Tyne, not later than the 14th of every month,

Vol. 1.







and written on one side only. in a heap flavour with essence of lemon ; this will frost a small cake.

Printed for the Proprietors by M. & M. W. LAMBERT, 50, Grey Heap what you sup- Street, Newcastle-on-Tyne.

Price 3s. .

BV All matter for insertion in "THE ENGLISH HorsEHOLD






No. 2.


Vol. II.



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The worst is not



Author of Stories of Irish Life,” “ Arnold Percival Montaigne,&c., &c.

demands that would not tarry, with the

hope of gaining time for another venture which So long as we can say-- This is the worst."

EDGAR, IN KING LEAR. would perhaps retrieve his ruined fortune. N the 18th February, 1856, some months

That venture, though sought after almost after the Rowans had taken up temporary not be found; and, every abortive attempt

with tears, and in more directions than one, could residence in Clonmel, there was tremendous to discover it, only plunged the panic-stricken commotion in the streets and byeways of this banker into greater difficulties. The wretched town. The Tipperary Bank had closed its man arrived in his terror at what he deemed doors, and the depositors—very many of them

the lowest deep, a lower deep,

Still threatening to devour him, opened wide, small farmers in the surrounding district—had To which the Hell he suffered seemed a Heaven.” heard the astounding tidings. Hundreds of All alone in his study he sat down, in his town them, mad with despair and rage, rushed into house, London, to write to a relative in Ireland the town, and imagining, in their ignorance, that that “the author of the ruin, misery, and distheir money must be in the building, (notwith-grace of thousands, aye tens of thousands, he

could not bear to live and witness their sufstanding the protest of the manager and officials ferings, that he must die, and that by his own to the contrary),armed with crowbars, pickaxes, hand;" choosing rather to meet his God, who, and spades, and furious as maniacs, cheered on if just, is also merciful, than face his fellows by a vast crowd, they kept driving and delving roused to madness by their losses from his at the doors, bars, and bolts of the bank build-crimes. ings, and when these gave way, at its strong Having finished his letter, perhaps one of safes, to come at the dishonestly concealed the saddest and most despairing ever written, treasures.

about twelve o'clock at night he passed into John Sadlier, M.P., an Ex-lord of the Trea- the hall of his house, Glo'ster Terrace, London, sury, upon which he had been given a seat as and having taken his hat from the stand, told the the rewardof treachery against his political party, butler not to wait up for him. Alas! a long the Irish Tenant-right League—besides forging waiting it would have been, for, the victim of an bills of exchange, bonds, and title deeds to an avenging Nemesis, never, alive, did he again enormous extent—had unscrupulously used, for repass his threshold. his own private ends, the resources of the Tip- Upon Sunday morning, on Hampstead Heath, perary Bank—of which he was the chief pro- the passers-by observed in the frosty light a prietor and director. He had entered into gentleman stretched, as though in sleep, upon the wildest and most extravagant speculations the ground, his head pillowed on a little mound. in London and elsewhere, and several of his Not seen to move for a length of time, two or schemes disastrously failing, he had employed three, their curiosity excited, approached the the money of the depositors of the various recumbent figure, and then a small silver branches of his bank in the county, to meet | tankard, as though it had fallen from his hand,



was found in the grass, and it smelt strongly be altogether unlooked for, for no one in the of prussic acid.

whole neighbourhood had, even for a moment, A crowd soon gathered, the police arrived, suspected the worse than bankrupt state of the and, after examination, lifted a human body, affairs of John Sadlier. all rigid, cadaverous, and cold, from the ground. But, as he hurried along, it came to his It was the corpse of John Sadlier, the late, thoughts that if he were to bear the news too reputed, millionaire, Ex-member of the Cabinet, suddenly it would in all probability be a senand, not long before, supposed to be destined tence of sudden death to his father. to a coronet in the English Peerage. “ O, fatal Oh! the pain of being the bearer of tidings lure of ill-got wealth, -a mocking fiend that, which must be told, but which you know will with promises of good never fulfilled, tempts be a crushing heart-break to those you dearly men so often to their infinite ruin.

love, and who, you feel, have already been On Monday the news, flashed through the called upon to experience trials almost beyond kingdom, reached Clonmel. “ What can be the limits of endurance. the matter ?" said his father to Garrett Rowan. Garrett found his father in the sitting room, “Do you hear those sounds ? The whole town impatiently waiting to hear from him the cause is strangely astir. I wish you would take your of the great commotion in the town. Mr. bat, my son, and make enquiry."

Rowan was in a disposition to chide him for Garrett found that, assuredly, there was a what he deemed the tardy fulfilment of the comstir. Old men, some of them, moved about as mission he had given him, for every new burst though demented, and gasped, unable to breathe, of indignation and fury from the mob, heard in the extremity of their emotion ; others with from a distance, added, naturally, fresh flame heads uncovered and their snowy locks waving to the old man's curiosity. in the air, worked continually with their fingers “ Well, Garrett,” said his father, “what's up, and, mute in despair, gazed into vacancy; widows, my boy! The signs are of some tremendous their bereaved condition known from their dress, Irish row, I think. Has there been a faction knelt in the streets and, wringing their hands, fight in the street ? It's a shame for the asked aloud of God, whether it could be true authorities to allow it. My patience has been that all their means of support were gone, and quite worn out waiting to hear from you the that they were beggars; strong men, their brows particulars; you shouldn't have been such a knitted, their cheeks ashy pale, and their dark poor messenger, my son.” eyes flashing fury, and gripping in their hands “Would to God that it were a faction fight, great blackthorn sticks, vociferously shouted father," said Garrett, and at the words Mr. that they would have vengeance upon those Rowan gave him a surprised and puzzled lookwhom they had trusted to their undoing. " To for he knew that his son was intolerant of these the bank, to the bank!” yelled out a multitude. “Irish irregularities," as he called them. “We'll tear it down to its very foundations, “ Father, there is dismay and grief and and learn for ourselves whether these closed despairing madness in the town, and, woe be doors are not an infernal cheat, and that under the day that I have to add, it is because of a a pretence of insolvency our hard-earned silver calamity which, bringing ruin to thousands, also and gold is not, after all, artfully hidden away, involves our stricken house. Alas ! along with buried in safes and lockers. It cannot be; Holy many a widow and orphan in Clonmel, we are Vargin, Mother o'God, it cannot be ; it's too robbed of all we had, and, I fear, are penniless. dreadful to believe that any man could be fiend • What ! has the bank been broken into and enough to rob us of our hard-earned savings plundered ?” enquired the eager and blanchand fling us, without a penny, on the world.” cheeked Mr. Rowan. “Oh, what depraved and

Garrett pressed on with the crowd, to see what disastrous times we have fallen upon.” bank it was the intention of the mob to assail, “ Yes, plundered the bank has been, but not for there were two or three of those establish- broken into by thieves,” replied Garrett, “and ments in the town, and it was not long before he the plunderer has been the owner. We have, came to know that the defaulting bank was the father, arrived at an age when the courage of very one to whose supposed safe keeping his the highwayman has been superseded by the father had entrusted the fifteen hundred pounds mean and dastardly trickery of the fashionable which remained over and above the sale of swindler. Father, John Sadlier, himself, has Carberry Grange, and which was now the been the spoiler of the funds in his own bank, and Rowans' only capital

. The discovery sent a the wretched man (whom I pity with all my pang through his heart, as though he had been heart, notwithstanding his crimes) has died by wounded with a dagger.

his own hand, recoiling from the execrations of Forcing his way from out the crowd, he his victims. turned his steps to bear home in haste the Garrett did not temper the manner and form dreadful intelligence-intelligence which would of his communication as he had intended. His

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