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1863 1869 1871 1877





Francis H. Pierpont, of Marion county, See UNITED STATES, WEST VIRGINIA, in governor; Daniel Polsley, of Mason county, vol. ix.; VIRGINIA. lieutenant-governor; and executive

STATE GOVERNORS. council of five members. The governor Arthur I. Boreman.... inaugurated.. immediately notified the President of the William E. Stevenson.

John J. Jacob .. United States of insurrection in western Henry M. Matthews... Virginia, and asked aid to suppress it. Jacob B. Jackson..


E. Willis Wilson... He raised $12,000 for the public use, pledg. A. B. Fleming.

1890 ing his own private fortune for the William A. MacCorkle.

George W. Atkinson..

1897 amount. A legislature was elected and Albert B. White......

1901 met at Wheeling, on July 1, and John

UNITED STATES SENATORS. S. Carlile and Waitman T. Willey were

No. of Congress. chosen to represent the “ restored commonwealth” in the Senate of the United Waitman T. Willey: 38th to 42d 1863 to 1871

Peter G. Van Winkle. 38th 41st 1863 1869 States. The convention reassembled on Arthur I. Boreman.


1869 1875 Aug. 20, and passed an ordinance for a

Henry G. Davis..

" 48th

1871 “ 1883 Allen T. Caperton.


1875 - 1876 new State, which was submitted to the Samuel Price


1876 people, and by them ratified.

Frank Hereford.

44th to 47th 1877 to 1881 Johnson X. Camden.

47th "50th 1881 • 1887 At a session of the convention on Nov. John E. Kenna..


1883“ 1893 27, the name of West Virginia was given Charles E. Faulkner. 50th " 56th

Johnson X. Camden..

1893 1895 to the new State. A new constitution was Stephen B. Elkins.

1895 Nathan B. Scott..

56th "




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1887 66 1899


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Westcott, THOMPSON, editor; born in Philadelphia, Pa., June 5, 1820; educated in Pennsylvania; admitted to the bar in 1841; was a law reporter on the Public Ledger in 1846–51; editor of the Sunday Despatch in 1848–84; editor-in-chief of the Inquirer in 1863–69; and became editor of the Philadelphia Record in 1884. He has contributed articles to periodicals, and written Life of John Fitch, the Inventor of the Steamboat; The Tax-payer's Guide; The Chronicles of the Great Rebellion against the United States of America ; Historic Mansions and Buildings of Philadelphia, etc. He died in Philadelphia, Pa., May 8, 1888.

Westerlo, EILARDUS, clergyman; born framed, which the people ratified on May in Cantes, Holland, in October, 1738; grad3, 1862. On the same day the legislature uated at the University of Gröningen; approved all of the proceedings in the was pastor of the Dutch Reformed Church matter, and established a new common- in Albany in 1760–90; sympathized with wealth. On July 20, 1863, West Virginia the colonies during the Revolutionary War, was admitted into the Union as a State, and when Washington visited Albany in by act of Congress, which had been ap- 1782 he made the address of welcome. He proved by the President, Dec. 31, 1862. died in Albany, N. Y., Dec. 26, 1790. A State seal, with an appropriate device, Western Company, THE. John Law was adopted, inscribed, State of West was the successor of Crozat in a commerVirginia. Montani Semper Liber” (moun- cial scheme in Louisiana (see LOUISIANA). taineers are always free), and the new He formed a company under the sanction commonwealth took its place as the of the regent of France (August, 1717), thirty-fifth State of the Union, covering and it was called the Western Company. an area of 23,000 square miles. Popula- The grants made to it were for twenty-five lation in 1890, 762,794; in 1900, 958,800. years, and the sovereignty of all Louisiana


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-an undefined region—was given to the the latter rate began to buy something
company. The sole conditions were hom- else besides shares the bonds quickly fell.
age to the French monarch and a gold Depreciation was rapid, and wide-spread
crown at the beginning of every reign. ruin was the consequence. See LAW,
With a capital of 40,000,000 livres, Law John.
and his associates entered upon a great Western Lands. There was a “lion in
scheme of

and colonization. the way" of the ratification of the ArtiArmed vessels bearing troops and colo- cles of Confederation--namely, the vexed nists were soon seen upon the ocean. Law question of the Western lands, within appointed Bienville governor of the do- vague or undefined boundaries of States. main, and he selected the site of New Or- The boundaries of New Hampshire, Rhode leans for its capital, where, in February, Island, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, Dela1718, he left fifty persons to clear the ware, and Maryland-six of the thirteen ground and to build. Great prosperity -had boundaries exactly defined. These was promised. The shares of the company were “non-claimant States." Massachurose in value, and in May, 1719, Law ob- setts, Connecticut, Virginia, and the Carotained from the regent power to join with linas extended, inder their charters, to it the French East India Company, hav- the Pacific Ocean, or to the Mississippi ing the exclusive right of trading beyond River since that had been established the Cape of Good Hope. Then the name (1763) as the western boundary of Britof the association was changed to “ The ish possessions in America. Georgia also Indian Company,” and it was authorized claimed jurisdiction to the Mississippi ; so, to issue 50,000 new shares. It made con- also, did New York, under color of cercessions of land to private adventurers tain alleged acknowledgments of her jurisunder the control of the company, and diction made during colonial times by the these sent out settlers.

Six Nations, the conquerors, it was preNew establishments for trade were open- tended, of the whole Western country beed on the Mississippi, the Red, and the tween and including the Great Lakes and Missouri rivers, and these plantations the Cumberland Mountains below the Ohio proved to be permanent ones. Success River. These were “claimant States." As caused Law to venture upon the gigantic all that vast territory was to be wrested scheme of paying off a large portion of from Great Britain by joint efforts, it the public debt of France through the was claimed that it ought to be joint cperations of the company. It was pro- property. The “claimant States” expectposed to take up, by the issue of company ed great revenues from these Western stock, government stock to the amount of lands that would pay their debts, and 1,500,000,000 livres, in exchange for the they strenuously adhered to their rights: privilege of collecting the revenues of the while the landless, or “non - claimant, kingdom. The new shares were sought States,” regarded with jealousy the prosfor by the French people with such avidity pect of the overflowing treasuries of their that 300,000 new shares were applied for neighbors. The claimant States secured when there were but 50,000 to distribute. the insertion of a provision in the Articles The enlargement of currency and universal of Confederation that no State should be confidence in Law made every form of deprived of territory for the benefit of industry prosperous. But the attempt of the United States. All the non-claimant a company of directors in Paris to man- States excepting Maryland reluctantly age a colony in America, the dishonesty consented to this provision; the latter of agents, the reliance for profit on mines steadily refused to sign the articles while that were never found and upon tobacco that provision was retained. that was never cultivated, together with New York led the way towards reconthe wild spirit of speculation that con- ciliation by giving a discretionary power vulsed all France and made it a nation to her delegates in Congress (February, of lunaties, soon brought the operations 1780), to cede to the Union that portion of the company to an end. Shares had of her claim west of a north and south risen from the par value of 500 livres line drawn through the western extremity to 5,000 livres. When the purchasers at of Lake Ontario. The other claimant


States were urged by the Congress to fol. inary movements. It was provided that low this example, under guarantee when any such State had acquired 20,000 (Sept. 6, 1780) that the lands so ceded inhabitants, the latter, on giving due proof should be disposed of for the common ben- thereof to Congress, should receive authorefit, and, as they became peopled, should ity from that body to call a convention of be formed into republican States to be representatives to esta sh a permanent admitted into the Union as peers of the government for themselves on the followothers. Connecticut offered (Oct. 10, ing basis: First, that they should forever 1780) to cede her claims to the region west remain a part of the Confederation of the of Pennsylvania, excepting a broad tract United States of America; second, that south of Lake Erie, immediately adjoin- they should be subject to the Articles of ing Pennsylvania. This was afterwards Confederation equally with those of the known as the Connecticut Reserve. Vir- original States; third, that they should in ginia ceded to the United States (Dec. 31, no case interfere with the rights of the 1780) all claim to the territory northwest United States to the soil of such States, of the Ohio, provided that State should nor with the ordinances and regulations be guaranteed the right to the remain- which Congress might find necessary for ing territory east of the Mississippi and securing the title of such soil to bona fide north of lat. 30° 30' N. The New York purchasers; fourth, that they should be delegates executed a deed to the United subject to pay a part of the national debt States (March 1, 1781) of the territory contracted or to be contracted; fifth, that 'west of the line before mentioned; and no tax should be imposed on lands belongon the same day the delegates from Mary- ing to the United States; sixth, that these land, authorized by the Assembly imme- respective governments should be republidiately after the Virginia cession, signed can in form; and, seventh, that the lands the Articles of Confederation. This com- of non-resident proprietors should in no pleted the ratification of that fundamen- case be taxed higher than that of the restal law of the Union, and henceforth it idents within any new State. It was also was the supreme constitution until super- provided that whenever any of the new seded by another and a better one. States should have as many free inhab

Western Reserve, THE. See GARFIELD, itants as the least populous of the thirteen JAMES ABRAM.

original States, it should be admitted into Western Territory, ThE. In 1784 Con- Congress by delegates on an equal footing gress provided a temporary government with the original States, provided the for the country ceded by the several States requisite number of the States forming the and the Indians “ beyond the mountains.” Union should consent to such admission. Such territory was to be divided into dis- Westinghouse, GEORGE, inventor; born tinct States; the inhabitants of any such in Central Bridge, N. Y., Oct. 6, 1846 ; division might be authorized to hold a settled in Schenectady in 1856; received convention of “ their free males of full a high school education; served in the age” for the purpose of establishing a National army in 1863–65. After the temporary government, and to adopt the war he engaged in the manufacture of constitution and laws of any State already machinery under his various patents. His established, and, under certain restric- inventions include a rotary engine; sevtions, to make political divisions in the eral devices in railway signals; electric newly organized territory into counties machinery; the Westinghouse air-brake, and townships. These were to be prelim- etc.


Westminster Abbey. Founded by Ed- first cruciform church erected in England. ward the Confessor when released from In it the sovereigns of Great Britain were his vow to make a pilgrimage to the grave crowned from the time of Edward the of St. Peter at Rome. It was built on Confessor to the present, and many of the site of an older church, and was the them are buried there.

The present church is mainly the work Archdeacon of Westminster (now Dean of of Henry III. (1220–69) and Henry VII., Canterbury): who laid the corner-stone of the chapel which bears his name, Jan. 24, 1502. Westminster Abbey is most frequently The western towers were rebuilt by George entered by the great northern door, usualI. and George II.

ly known as Solomon's Porch. I will,

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The Share of America in Westminster however, ask the courteous American Abbey.—The following article was written visitor to walk through St. Margaret's by the Venerable F. W. Farrar, D.D., church-yard, and round the western façade of the Abbey, and to enter by the ment reared by the nation to the memory door under Sir Christopher Wren's tow- of Captain Cornewell, who perished nobly ers. Pass through the western door, and in the sea-fight off Toulon in 1742. A pause for a moment

passage recently cut through the Sicilian

marble pediment of this block of sculpture * Where bubbles burst, and folly's dancing admits you into the baptistery, which

foam Melts if it cross the threshold.”

stands under the southwest tower. There

you will see the seat in which the judges Of all the glory of this symbolic archi- sat when the baptistery was used as a tecture, of the awe-inspiring grandeur consistory court, the tomb of Craggs, and beauty of this great minster, which with its poor epitaph by Pope, and the makes us feel at once that

beautiful memorials of Wordsworth, Keble,

Maurice, and Kingsley. An American * They dreamt not of a perishable home Who thus could build,"

may well look with peculiar interest on

the fine bust of Kingsley, for his lecture how much may be claimed in part by on the abbey was delivered to many America ?

thousands of Americans in their great In one sense all of it which belongs to cities. But there are two other memorials the epoch which elapsed between the age which combine with these to give to this of Edward the Confessor and the disas spot in the abbey the name of “ Little trous days of Charles I. and Archbishop Poets' Corner.” They are the stainedLaud. An English writer who lives in glass windows in memory of George America has said that “in signing away Herbert and William Cowper. They behis own empire George III. did not sign long entirely to America, for they are the away the empire of English liberty, of gift of an American citizen, my honored English law, of English literature, of Eng. friend, Mr. George W. Childs, of Philalish blood, of English religion, or of the delphia. In the stained glass are the English tongue.” Americans enjoy, no effigies of the two poets. Both of them less than we, the benefit of the great were Westminster boys, and the most charter, the petition of right, the habeas beautiful representatives of all that is corpus act. They need not go back for holy in two very opposite schools of retheir history to Indian annals or Icelandic ligious thought. It was a happy inspirasagas. Theirs are the palaces of the Plan- tion which suggested the erection of this tagenets, the cathedrals which enshrine window. George Herbert and William our old religion, the illustrious hall in Cowper were well deserving of memorials which the long line of our great judges in the abbey, apart from the fact that reared by their decisions the fabric of our they had so often played in its cloisters law, the gray colleges in which our intel- and worshipped in its choir.

The comlect and science found their earliest home, bination of the two suggests the higher the graves where our heroes and sages and unity which reconciles all minor points of poets sleep. Indeed, I have understated ecclesiastical difference. their share in the abbey. It reaches down Leaving the baptistery, and walking to not only to the days of the Pilgrim the third pillar of the nave on the north Fathers, but to the War of Independence. side, the visitor will see opposite to the Chatham and Burke and Barré as well as pillar a slab in the floor which covers an Patrick Henry advocated the American empty grave. In this respect the slab is cause, which engaged the sympathy of the unique. It marks the spot where lay, for great mass of Englishmen, if not that of a few days only, the mortal remains of the Grenville and North.

generous American citizen, George PeaWe shall not have far to walk before body. The name of Mr. Peabody will be we find those memorials of the abbey remembered for centuries to come in Eng. which belong to America in some special land, because it is perpetuated by the and distinctive way, and it is to those buildings for the residence of the poor that I shall closely confine myself. On which are due to his great bequest. It entering the western door you will see will be brought into yet more constant immediately to your right the huge monu- remembrance by this his temporary grave.

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