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on his arrival at Treves. It is insinuated, that a want of ammunition, as much as a taste for art, induced him to free the building from its incumbrances, as he went no further than tearing off the thick lead from the roof, which he melted into bullets. The work of improvement has been executed by the Prussian government; the building has been divested of its ecclesiastical character, and restored, as far as possible, to its original condition, the earth having been cleared from its base. It exhibits various marks of the dilapidations of barbarous ages and people. The masonry, of vast blocks of sandstone, averaging 4 or 5 ft., but in some instances 8 or 9 ft. long, rough on the outside, was originally so neatly fitted together, without the aid of cement, that the joints of the stones could scarcely be discerned; but they have been chipped and mutilated at their angles, in order to extract the metal clamps which united them, and now seem to hang together by their corners. The interior serves to hold a few shattered fragments of antiquity, of no great interest, dug up in the neighbourhood: the most curious pieces are, a bas-relief of gladiators found in the amphitheatre, a mermaid with 2 tails, several earthenware pipes from the baths, and 2 Roman milestones from Bitburg.
Besides the Roman remains already enumerated, there is within the town (in the Dietrichs Strasse, not far from the Rothe Haus), a Tower or Propugnaculum, in an excellent state of pre
The Bridge over the Moselle is most probably the oldest Roman monument in Treves, and founded in the time of Augustus; it is mentioned by Tacitus, and the date of its construction has been fixed by a learned antiquary about 28 years B. C. It originally stood near the middle of the town, which has gradually dwindled away till it has left the bridge at one extremity. Having resisted the storms of barbaric invasion, and the wild times of the middle ages, it was blown up by the French during the wars of Louis XIV.!
In consequence, the only ancient parts remaining are the piers of large stones, brought from the lava quarries at Mendig, near the Lake of Laach. Many single blocks are from 6 to 9 ft. long, 3 broad, and 3 thick.
There were anciently 4 abbeys at Treves, celebrated for their riches and extent all over Germany; but of their wealth nothing now remains, and even the original edifices, destroyed by fires and violence, are replaced by modern structures. They are- St. Matthias, about a mile above the town, now converted into a school. The ch. (partly ancient) is actually visited with many thousand pilgrims. St. Maximin, at one time perhaps the richest Benedictine monastery in Germany, is now used as a barrack; it occupies the site of a palace of Constantine, but possesses no other interest. St. Martin's on the Moselle is a china manufactory. St. Mary of the Four Martyrs, below the town, stands where the residence of the Roman Prefect stood, and where 4 soldiers of the Theban legion suffered martyrdom, according to the tradition.
In the Gymnasiums Gebaude (formerly a University, now removed,) is the Town Library of 94,000 vols., containing many literary curiosities, the chief of them being the famous Codex Aureus, a MS. of the four Gospels written in golden letters, formerly in the abbey of St. Maximin, to which it was given by Ada, sister of Charlemagne. It is bound in plates of silver gilt, on which are embossed figures in high relief, interspersed with precious stones; and in the centre is a splendid cameo, said to represent Augustus and his family. There is also here Archbishop Egbert's copy of the Gospels, as well as other MSS., and many printed books of great value; among them Gutemberg's first Bible. There is also a large collection of ancient coins and medals, and Roman remains, principally found at Treves.
The Fathers of the Church, St. Ambrose was born here, and St. Jerome studied here.
The Environs abound in delightful points of excursion, fine views, &c.
Pallien, a village on the left bank of the Moselle, at the mouth of a ravine up which the road to Aix-la-Chapelle is carried, is worth visiting on account of the picturesque character of the rocky dell, of the water-mills enclosed between its cliffs, and of its brick bridge of a single arch thrown over the ravine by Napoleon. (Rte. 43.) On the height above Pallien stands a pretty villa, called the White House; it commands a good general view of the valley of the Moselle, and of the town of Treves.
IGEL, a small village, with an inn, about 6 m. from Treves, on the high road to Luxemburg, and upon the an. cient Roman highway, is particularly deserving of a visit from all who take an interest in remains of antiquity, on account of the Igel Säule (monument of Igel), a beautiful Roman structure, standing in the midst of it, close to the road. It is a four-sided obelisk of sandstone, more than 70 ft. high, bearing carvings, inscriptions, and basreliefs, but so mutilated in parts, that neither its age nor destination has yet been precisely ascertained. 4 or 5 different explanations have been given of it, and at least as many readings of the inscriptions by the antiquaries. One states it to have been raised to commemorate the marriage of Constantine and Helena; another, that it records the birth of Caligula, tracing some resemblance between his name and that of the place, Igel. A third considers it to allude to the apotheosis of some person of imperial rank. The plain
matter of fact seems to be, that it was set up by two brothers named Secundinus; partly as a funeral monument to their deceased relatives; partly to celebrate their sister's marriage, which is represented on one of the bas-reliefs by the figures of a man and woman joining hands. The Secundini were a rich and powerful family, who, it appears from the inscription, in addition to other offices, held those of post-master and chief of the commissariat, and supplied the Roman army with food, accoutrements, and carriages, which is further denoted by the figure of a cha
riot, filled with armour, &c., the subject of another bas-relief. From the style of the architecture and carvings, the monument has been referred to the time of the Antonines: some imagine it to belong to the era of Constantine. Malte Brun says, "the end of the 4th century.' "It has great excellence as a work of art, and as a successful example of the combination of monumental architecture with sculptural decoration; as a whole, its preservation also is remarkable."- G. C. L.
Schnellposts daily from Treves to Coblenz in 14 hours, to Luxemburg in 6 hours, to Metz in 15:-to Bingen (Rte. 46.); and to Aix-la-Chapelle in 19 hrs. (Rte. 34.)
Steam-boats on the Upper Moselle between Treves, Thionville, and Metz during the summer. See HANDBOOK FOR FRANCE. Daily between Treves and Coblenz. (Rte. 42.)
THE MOSELLE. FROM TREVES TO
Distance, about 150 Eng. m.: more than double that of the land journey, owing to the windings of the river.
Steamers daily :-up to Treves in 1 day, starting from Coblenz at 6 A. M. for Berncastel, and proceeding on the following day to Treves; down in 13 hrs., starting from Treves at 5 A. M. They take carriages. Row-boats may be hired at every village to cross or drop down the river for short dis
Becker's "Map of the Course of the Moselle," and Delkescamp's "Panorama," may be useful.
The voyage up or down the Moselle is a most interesting excursion; 3 or 4 days may be very agreeably spent on its banks. This river offers a new and pleasing route to travellers visiting the Rhine, who have hitherto been content to go and return by Cologne, thus retracing their steps over ground they have seen before. The route by the
Moselle is equally accessible; by taking it, they will add variety to their journey, and make a better use of their time. An agreeable way of seeing the lower part of the Moselle in detail in cne day, is to take the steamer from Coblenz up the river to any given spot of interest where it stops, just far enough to allow the traveller to visit the glens and ruins on each side, making use of a boat occasionally, and working downwards, taking care to stop at some village where the down steamer will put in to take up passengers. Thus he may go up to Carden, Alken, take a walk to Ehrenburg, cross to Gondorf, go up to Cobern, cross back to Niederfell in time for the evening boat, and so return to Coblenz.
The Prussian government have devoted a considerable sum to the improvement of the bed of the Moselle between Coblenz and Treves.
In order fully to appreciate the beauties of the Moselle, it is necessary to land at certain points indicated in the following route, and view it from its high banks.
The Pedestrian alone can reach by bye-paths and cross-roads, not passable for carriages, the finest points of view; at one time creeping along the margin of the river, at another surveying it from the heights above. In every village he may find a boat in which he may embark when tired, and may thus shift about from one side of the river to the other. By crossing the narrow necks of land, he may often save 6 or 8 miles, and reach in half an hour a spot that a boat would require 3 or 4 to arrive at. In making these short cuts, however, he may sometimes miss fine scenes on the river.
The banks of the Moselle, though on the whole inferior in beauty to those of the Rhine, by no means present a repetition of the same kind of scenery. It is generally of a less wild and barren character; instead of black bare ravines and abrupt precipices, it is bordered by round and undulating hills, covered not merely with vines, but often clothed in rich woods, such as the Rhine cannot boast of. It is much enlivened with picturesque towns and villages, of which there are more than 100 between Coblenz and Treves, while ruins of old castles, watch-towers, and Gothic church steeples are not wanting to give a religious or romantic tone to the landscape. The Moselle is particularly remarkable for its very complicated windings, which in several parts of its course form projecting promontories, Some of almost isolated by the river. the side valleys, too, which merge into the Moselle, are in the highest degree picturesque; and the view of the extraordinary windings of the river, from the heights above it, are as singular as they are enchanting. The Moselle is not deficient in classical associations: it is even the subject of a poem by Ausonius, written probably during his residence at Treves; and traces of the Romans may be discovered in almost every village along its banks, if not above ground, at least wherever the soil is turned by the spade.
The first part of the voyage from Treves to Berncastel presents nothing of great interest: and it is not worth while to enumerate names of unimportant villages.
1. The tall chimneys, in the recess of a valley, and the wreaths of smoke proceeding therefrom, proclaim the ironworks of Quindt.
The Inns upon the Moselle are improved, but many of them will by no rt. Neumagen is the Roman Nomeans satisfy fastidious travellers. viomagus, where Constantine had a Those at Berncastel, Alf, and Carden, palace, the " inclyta castra Constanare capital; at Zeltingen tolerable. tini" of Ausonius, of which few fragThe usual Charges at the Inns, seen ments now remain. The Church was and confirmed annually by the magis-built 1190, partly with the materials of trates, are, for dinner 15 S. gr., tea or the Roman palace. coffee 5, supper 10, a bottle of wine from 5 S. gr. to 1 Th., a bed 8 to 15 S. gr., bottle of Seltzer water 5 S. gr.
1. Pisport (Pisonis Porta), Hain's One of the most famous vineyards on the Moselle.
rt. Opposite Dusemond is another vineyard, producing the capital wine called Brauneberger.
rt. Mühlheim. Here the scenery improves in beauty.
rt. Berncastel (Inns: Drei Könige, clean and good fare, and most comfortable; the landlady speaks English: Bey Niederehe; the Post, not bad;)- -a dirty town of 2000 inhab., on the way from Bingen to Treves (Rte. 46.), picturesquely situated under à ruined castle perched on a ledge of the Hundsrück mountains, which here approach close to the Moselle. There is a ferry here. Travellers tired of a boat should by all means cross the hills to Trarbach, an agreeable walk of an hour from Berncastel. The distance by land is about 3 miles, by water 15. The inn at Trarbach is bad.
1. Directly opposite Berncastel lies Cus. The Hospital was founded by Cardinal Cusanus, who was born here, the son of a poor fisherman, and raised himself to that dignity by his talents. Attached to it is a Gothic chapel containing the very fine monument of John of Neuberg (1569). The rt. bank of the Moselle is here draped with vineyards from top to bottom. (rt.) A little below Graach is the Priory of Martinshof, now secularised.
rt. Zeltingen.-Huber's Inn, tolerably comfortable and moderate. This may be said to be the centre of the wine district of the Moselle, in which all the best sorts are produced.
1. Uerzig. Below this village, in the face of a tall red cliff called Michaelsley, a castellated wall is visible. covers the mouth of a cave which once served to harbour a band of robberknights, and afterwards to shelter a hermit. It was accessible only by means of high ladders.
selle; but it is not otherwise interesting, and its narrow and dirty streets offer no temptation to penetrate within its gates. A neat Townhall, in modern Gothic style, has been built. The castle above it, called Gräfinburg was one of the strongest between Treves and Coblenz: commanding entirely the passage of the Moselle. It was the family residence of the noble Counts of Sponheim, and was built in the 14th century (1338) with an Archbishop's ransom. A long and deadly feud had existed between the Archbishops of Treves and the Counts of Sponheim, when, in 1325, the death of Count Henry held out to the reigning Archbishop, Baldwin, the prospect of enriching himself at the expense of the widowed Countess; taking advantage, therefore, of her unprotected position, he made inroads into her domain, plundering her subjects, and laying waste her lands. The Countess Loretta, however, was gifted with a manly spirit, and was not a person to submit tamely to such insults and injury; so, calling together her vassals, she boldly expelled the intruders with loss and disgrace; equally to the surprise and indignation of Baldwin, who little expected such opposition from a female. The very same year, as the bishop was quietly and unsuspectingly sailing down the Moselle to Coblenz, with a small retinue, his barge was suddenly arrested nearly abreast of the Castle of Starkenburg, by a chain stretched across the river below the surface; and before he had time to recover from his surprise, armed boats put off from the shore, and he was led a prisoner into the Castle of the Countess. She treated her persecutor with courtesy, but kept him fast within her walls until he agreed to abandon a fort which he had begun to build on her territory, and paid down a large ransom..
The finest scenery of the Moselle lies between Trarbach and Cobern.
1. Traben. Inn, Hotel Claus, unpretending, but clean and moderate. Opposite Trarbach rises a high hill, converted into a promontory by the
windings of the Moselle. On the submit of it, Vauban constructed for Louis XIV. (1681), in the time of peace, and upon German territory, a strong fortress, completely commanding the river up and down. The pretext for this proceeding was the unjust claim urged by Louis to the domains of the Counts of Sponheim. After 8000 men had been employed in constructing it, and an expenditure of many millions of francs had been incurred, it was razed to the ground, in conformity with the treaty of Ryswyk, 16 years after it was built, and a few broken walls and shattered casemates alone mark the site of Fort Montroyal. The view from it is grand.
rt. Starkenburg, a village on an eminence, which once bore a castle of the same name, belonging to the Counts of Sponheim, and mentioned above. Its outworks extended down to the water side, and some towers and walls still remain.
rt. Enkirch, a village of 2000 inhab.; near it are fragments of shafts of pillars, which go by the name of the Temple, and are perhaps Roman.
On approaching (rt.) the village of Punderich, the ruins of (1.) Marienburg, alternately a nunnery and a fortress, appear in sight; and from their position, on the summit of a high dorsal ridge, which the Moselle by its windings converts into a promontory, remain long in view. The distance to Alf, from (1.) the village of Reil, near which a steep footpath (Rothenpfad, from the red colour of the soil) strikes upwards through the vineyards across the Isthmus, is under 3 miles; by the winding Moselle it is a voyage in ascending of 1 hour. Travellers should on no account omit to land here, opposite Punderich, and walk across the neck to Marienburg and Alf, which may be done in an hour. The view from the eminence a little to the W. of Marienburg, called Prinzensköpfchen, is the most surprising and pleasing that the whole course of the Moselle preIt is a little like that from Symon's Yat on the Wye, but is on a much grander scale. Owing to the
excessive sinuosities of the river, 4 different reaches appear in view at once, radiating as it were from the foot of the rock on which you stand. A waving amphitheatre of hills, covered with dark forest, occupies the horizon, and nearer at hand vine-clad slopes, villages at the water side, and old castles, with the Fort Arras on the Issbach, to the W., are the accessories of this beautiful panorama. There is a little inn within the ruins of Marienburg, where you may breakfast or dine.
rt. Zell (Koch's Inn, not bad) is a little town of 1800 inhab. opposite the point of the promontory on which Marienburg stands, overlooked by a guardian watch-tower.
1. Alf. (Inn, Bey Theissen, excellent-the best on the Moselle.) Alf, a good halting-place for the traveller on the Moselle, is a village prettily situated at the mouth of the winding valley of the Issbach; above it stands the church, and further up the valley rises the picturesque hill fort of Arras, which stood out for a long time in 1138, against Adalbert, Archbishop of Treves, who swore not to shave till he bad taken it, and kept his word. up the valley are the extensive iron forges and furnaces of M. Remy, constructed according to the most improved English method. The iron is brought from Bendorf on the Rhine, the coal from the mines of Saarbruck. About 6 miles up this sylvan valley are the retired Baths of Bertrich (p. 309.); an excellent new carriage road leads to them from Alf, where vehicles may usually be procured. No one should quit Alf without enjoying the very extraordinary prospect from the Prinzensköpfchen near the Marienburg mentioned above half an hour's walk.