« 上一頁繼續 »
stress is laid upon the signification of the word ktisis. The phrase pasa ktisis, "every_crea ture," is used five times only in the N. Testament. In Mark xvi. 15. our Saviour said to his apostles "Go ye into all the world and preach the Gospel to every creature (pase te ktisei) It is conceded, that in this text, the phrase means all mankind,and neither more nor less. In Col. i. 15. we read that Jesus is," the first born of every creature (pases kliseos.) It is warmly disputed whether the phrase here refers to the new creation in the church, the creation of all terrestrial things at the beginning of the world, or the creation of all intelligencies in the universe both human and angelic. I incline to the last opinion, for Christ is as much the first born of angels as of men, inasmuch as he is far superior to both; therefore, the phrase in this text means more than all mankind. In Col. i. 23; we read "The Gospel which was preached to every creature (en passe te ktisei) under heaven. As it would be impossible to believe the gospel was preached, by a few men, in the days of the apostles, to every human being on the whole earth, so we must believe the phrase in this text, has a limited signification, and means only a part of the human race. 1 Peter II. 13, the phrase passa anthropine ktisei is rendered, 'every ordinance of man," but should be "every human creature." That pasa ktisis does not always mean all mankind, and neither more nor less, is manifest. 1 From the use of the adjective "anthropine human, in this text which confines the meaning to mankind to the exclusion of animals and angels. 2 From the absurdity and
impossibility of obeying every human being on the face of the globe. No man will say, that either reason or revelation requires every christian to be subject to every human being whether woman, man, child, tyrant, king, &c. Consequently the phrase "every human creature' must signify the magistrates or proper rulers or their laws and institutions and not all mankind. Now if the phrase in question means more than all mankind in Col. i. 15, and less than all man kind in Col i. 25, in Pet. ii. 13 as it unquestionably does,it may mean either more or less than all mankind in Rom. viii. 22, unless there is something else in the sentence to define its signification besides the necessary import of the word. That the phrase does not mean all mankind, is evident by the language of the epistle, in the 23d verse, where he speaks of himself and those to whom he wrote as not being included in the meaning of the phrase "whole creation," saying "And not only they (the whole creation) but ourselves also, which have the first fruits of the Spirit," &c. The word ktisis, in these verses, has been supposed by Wesley, and Henry to signify the brute creation; others, among whom are the Universalists, think it means all mankind; while Clarke, Locke, and many other critics confine it to the Gentile world, and this last signification I think to be the only one that con veys the apostle's meaning.
The word ktisis creature without pasa occurs 14 times only in the N. Testament and 5 times with pasa as cited above, making in all nineteen times. It does not appear to me that ktisis alone ever means all mankind in theN.
Testament. Sometimes it signifies the regeneration of the heart by the spirit of God, as in 2 Cor. v. 17; Gal. vi. 15 Sometimes it signifies an earthly building. Heb. ix. 11. The following are the fourteen places where the word occurs, which the reader may consult at a convenient time, and judge for himself. Mark. x. 6; xiii. 19; Rom. 1. 20, 25; viii. 19, 20, 21, 39; 2 Cor. v. 17; Gal. vi. 15; Heb. iv. 13, ix. 11; 2 Pet. iii 4; Rev. iii. 14.
The word ktisis occurs only three times in the Septuagint version of the old Testament. In 2 Chron. xiv. 15. it is translated cattle; Ezra viii. 21, it is rendered substance, and in Psal. civ. 24, it is translated riches.
Ktisis occurs in the Apochrypha in the nine following places only, and in no instance signifies all mankind, and neither more nor less: Judith ix. 12; xvi. 14; Wis. ii. 6; v. 17; xvi. 24; xix. 6; Ezel. xvi. 17; xliii. 25; xlix. 16. The general use which is made of this word, in the New Testament, in the Septuagint, and in the Apocrypha,clearly shews, that its signification is various, and must be determined by the construction of the sentence and sense of the passage where it occurs. Therefore Universalism can claim no support whatever from the signification of ktisis.
You appear to think the phrase "all things" in Eph. I. 10, must mean all mankind, and therefore Universalism must be true. But if we examine the places where the original word (pas) is used, the fallacy of your argument will be manifest The word (ta panta) "all things" may not mean all mankind, for we read, (Matt. viii,
33,) "And they that kept them (the swine) fled and told everything," (panta;) certainly not every human being. "All things (panta) that offend,” Matt. xiii. 41. Surely all mankind do not offend, nor as such will be plucked out of Christ's kingdom." "All things (panta,) are ready, come to the marriage," Matt. xxii. 4: not all human beings certainly. "All things (panta) are possible to him that believeth." Mark. ix. 23. With God all things (panta) are possible." Mark ix. 27. "Martha, Martha, thou art troubled about many things," (panta.) Luke x. 41. "When he is come he will tell us all things," (panta.) John iv. 25. "See a man which told me all things," (panta.) John iv. 27. "He shall teach you all things, (panta.) John xiv. 26.— "I perceive that in all things (panta) ye are too superstitious." Acts xvii. 22. From these citations it is evident that the phrase "all things" is so far from proving "indisputably" your position, that it proves nothing at all. Nor am I eertain, that this phrase in the New Testament ever means all mankind, and neither more nor less; so far is it from proving that all mankind shall be finally restored.
In your argument on Heb. ii. 10, you say"The word here rendered many, is polloi, and signifies, according to Parkhurst, the whole bulk of mankind,' and is equivalent to pantas anthropous, (all men) in Rom. v. 12." To this I reply, Although you, in common with other Universalists, wish to make the world believe pollci means all mankind, I am certain that its signification is variable and must be determined by the scope and general design of the passage where it occurs.
This will be evident by the following quotations: "Wide is the gate and broad is the way that leadeth to destruction, and many (polloi) there be, which go in thereat,” Matth. vii. 13. It will not be pretended that all mankind will go to destruction. "They brought unto him many (pollous) that were possessed with devils.” Matt. viii. 16. No one will affirm that all mankind were possessed with devils, and were brought to our Lord, in the days of his flesh, to have them "And many (polloi) shall come in my name, saying, I am Christ, and shall deceive many (pollous.) Matt. xxiv. 5: It would be absurd to say, all men shall come and deceive all men; therefore pollous is limited here. "And many (polloi) were there." Matt. xvii. 55. Certainly not all the women in the world, And straightway many (polloi) were gathered together." Mark ii. 2. Not all mankind. "Insomuch that many (pollous) said he is dead." Mark ix, 26. All mankind did not say he was dead."Many (polloi) of the Jews, and religious proselytes followed Paul." Acts xiii. 42. All the human family did not follow, Paul. From these quotations it is manifest that (polloi) seldom, if ever, means all mankind; consequently, it is no proof whatever of the final restoration of all mankind.
The duty enjoined in 1 Tim. ii. 1-7 to offer up prayers and snpplication for all the human race, is no proof whatever of the doctrine of Universalism, but it merely shews that all are in a state of probation, and may possibly be eternally saved. Of like import is that doctrine which teaches that Christ died for all mankind.