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1916

DIVIDING THE INHERITANCE

303

regardless and often ignorant of the National

DIVIDING THE INHERITANCE welfare. Such ja mass-meeting is not fitted to decide, without expert counsel from disin We Americans have inherited a great terested leaders, such questions as, How large estate. We did not make the coal and iron, and what kind of a navy do we need ? how the gold and silver and copper, nor plant the large and what kind of an army do we need ? forests, nor store the prairies with fertile

What The Outlook wants to see is a juices. We found this wealth all here. The Council of National Defense—with power. battle between laborers and capitalists is The existing Council, which was created by largely over the question, How shall we divide the recent Army Appropriation Act, is merely this wealth ? advisory to the Executive, and lacks the It is narrated in the life of Jesus of breadth of purpose and power to enable it Nazareth that he was once asked by one to carry out a continuous policy of National of two brothers to settle a dispute bedefense. It may, however, be the germ from tween the two as to their inheritance. He which a real Council of National Defense replied: It is not my business to settle will grow. Such a Council ought to have in its questions of this kind. Then he took the membership the Secretary of War, the Secre- occasion to tell the brothers and the bytary of the Navy, the Secretary of State, the standers that the underlying cause which Chief of Staff of the Army and an officer of leads to all such controversies is the spirit of the Navy, and a number of civilian menibers, greed; and that the radical remedy is to subas the present Council has ; but in addition stitute for the spirit of greed the spirit of it should include in its membership the Chair- service. If, said he, in substance, men men of the Committees on Appropriations, would give their thought to the question Foreign Affairs, Military Affairs, and Naval how they can bring about in the community Affairs in both houses of Congress. It a spirit of justice, peace, and good will, they should be a non-partisan commission, though would not get into these property controa majority of its members should be respon- versies. My advice to you, he said, is not to sive to public opinion and sufficiently in worry about what you are going to get out of sympathy with the Administration to work life. Give yourself wholly to the question what with it. At the same time a majority of you can do to make the community in which its members should be experts, know you live a just, peaceful, and happy coming their respective subjects thoroughly. munity. Do not get excited about things. Such a commission should be permanent, Keep a level head. Remember that it is and should prepare and report to the Presi- much more important to live an abounding dent, to the Congress, and to the country its life than to possess abundant property. plan for carrying out the kind of preparation, Various methods are proposed as a cure military or moral, which the Nation had for industrial war-2.g., compulsory arbitradecided on. It should have at least one tion, profit-sharing, State ownership. Much member, perhaps a paid secretary, skilled in more important than any of these is the remthe use of the English language, who could edy which Jesus proposed--a substitution of report this plan in such form that the plain the spirit of service for the spirit of greed. people could understand it. Of course Con- No method without this change in spirit will gress would have to approve this report before be effectual ; any method with this change it could be carried into effect, because it would in spirit will be adequate. New York City have to make the appropriation necessary for has lately been undergoing an industrial war that purpose; but the report of the commis- which involved its people in inconvenience sion would give to Congress and the country and might have resulted in a great calamity. expert National counsel, and the country, If the labor union leaders and the managers having that counsel before it, would be able of capital were both solely desirous of ascerto determine whether it approved of the action taining what is just toward each other and of Congress in dealing with the subject. toward the community, there would have

If some such plan as this were organized been no difficulty at all in preventing this and put in operation, the kind of military bill war; in fact, the threat of the war would which Congress has enacted, and which Mr. never have been made. Eric Wood in the current number of the Moreover, the example which Jesus of “Century” analyzes and exposes so effectively, Nazareth set is a good one for his churches would hardly be possible of enactment. to follow. Ministers have neither the temperament nor the training that fits them to and the Far East; and perhaps it is safe to determine which party is in the right in a say that a majority of these are in the habit labor war ; they had better leave that to the of generalizing, confidently and easily, about courts. They are not especially fitted to the traits, qualities, and characteristics of all determine what method the State had better the peoples among whom they have jouradopt to prevent such war ; that they may neyed. And a host of books have been perfectly properly leave to statesmen. But written on all these peoples in which one will they have an unparalleled opportunity, and find a confident and often an interesting they ought to have both the temperament definition of national genius in these different and the training which fits them, to deal with countries. And yet when one wishes really the far more important questions, What is to know a people in their spirit, he can put the cause of labor wars ? and What is the his hand on only a few books. Emerson's radical cure? The cause is the spirit of “English Traits” and Mr. Brownell's greed ; the cure is the spirit of service. If “French Traits" stand out among a host of the churches could inspire in the commu- ambitious volumes on account of their intellinity the resolve to cast out the spirit of greed gence, their insight, and their real knowledge and to enthrone the spirit of service, they of the matters which they discuss. The would end forever all danger of industrial war. majority of the books written about the

French by English and American writers

ought to be to-day in the waste-basket; the CONCENTRATION IN

history of the last two years has shown how

futile and misleading they are. READING

No man or woman can cover the interests A generation ago the way of the lover of of the world ; but those interests come to us good reading was much smoother than it is to to-day with an almost passionate insistence. day. Then it was a fairly well marked path; We pass from one to another without being and there were certain points of view, places aware that we have crossed almost impassable of wide outlook, which were sharply defined; abysses. Popular treatises on every art. and everybody who followed the path was science, religion, industry, national life, give cxpected to find these places of rest and is the feeling that all doors are open to us; inspiration.

that we can go anywhere we choose. De QuinA man or woman who formed the reading cey, in his studies of the Cæsars, pointed out habit could reasonably expect to become the tragic contrast between the possession of fairly well acquainted with English literature universal power and the ability to use it. A before being overtaken by middle life. To- man may have all the resources of the world day there is no such path. It has often at his hand, but the capacity of his senses been said that Humboldt was the last univer- remains what it was; the power of eating sal scholar. To-day universal scholarship is and drinking is not enlarged by the fact that a contradiction in terms ; and even the at the markets of the world are accessible to tempts to systematize all knowledge by phil him. The brain is beguiled in every direcosophical definition and arrangement have tion by an almost infinite variety of interests ; failed. A generation ago hosts of people but its capacity to deal intelligently with those reading Herbert Spencer took up book after interests, to absorb the vast funds of knowlbook with the confident assurance that they edge to which the doors are all open, remains were mastering the principles of knowledge; practically unchanged. We can know only a and it is not many years since Dr. Joseph few things; we can remember only a few things, Cook held large audiences season after sea only those things that are more or less related son in Boston in a heroic attempt to deal to our natural aptitude and to the habits of authoritatively with one department of knowl- our lives. edge after another. The attempt was never One can save the individuality of his mind successful, and, although it was daring and in only by selection and concentration. Many some ways interesting, it had the fatal de people are intoxicated by the fascination of fect of being impossible.

the great variety of things offered them; and Many people to-day know something about they end by becoming as miscellaneous and everything. Thousands of Americans have heterogeneous as some ambitious but unortraveled in other countries; they know some- ganized museums. The attempt to cover too thing about England, Germany, France, Italy, much ground accounts for much of the gen

1916

THE TEST OF PROSPERITY

305

eral superficiality with which Americans are through a time of great calamity, and that, charged. It is better to be honestly ignorant whenever the end of the war comes, it will than to be pretentiously intelligent. The find them burdened with a colossal indebtedAmerican humorist who said, “It is better to ness, with very considerable exhaustion of have a few ideas raised on your own premises resources, and with a tragic depletion of prothan a whole orphan asylum of ideas which ductive workers in every field. This would you have adopted," defined a great principle. seem to mean a great loss of prosperity ; and To do a few things thoroughly involves yet all disinterested people are agreed that character; to do many things superficially France has never held a nobler position involves nothing but intellectual curiosity among the nations of the world than she

One must know the history of his own holds to-day, and that her moral and spiritual time; one must read the newspapers and achievements have been on a level with her the magazines with discrimination ; but the military successes. men or women who wish to live the life of Prosperity means comfort and opportunity the mind must select those lines of reading for a great number of people, and is, thereand study which follow the lines of their taste fore, an eminently desirable thing, someand aptitude, choosing a few subjects that thing to be worked for by governments and appeal to them, and laying the emphasis of by individuals ; but it must be a real prosinterest and work upon them. Ambitious perity, and not merely the making of money. programmes are the bane of many organiza- No country is prosperous unless its conditions for self-cultivation in America, as they tions are producing men and women of a high are the bane of many public conferences. type, and every country is prosperous that The attempt to be omniscient is responsible is producing such men and women. Years for programmes so overloaded that the very ago Lowell, in describing a famous address of sight of them discourages and repels those Emerson's, said of it : “ Every possible critiwho sincerely seek intelligent guidance. cism might have been made on it but oneOne of the most widely known Americans that it is not noble. . . . He boggled, he lost of the time once spoke of Tolstoy as the his place, he had to put on his glasses ; but greatest man living. Asked on which of it was as if a creature from some fairer world Tolstoy's books he based that opinion, he had lost his way in our fogs and it was our replied that he had read none of them, but fault, not his. It was chaotic, but it was of had read a great many newspaper articles such stuff as stars are made of, and you could about him!

not help feeling that if you waited a while all that was nebulous would be whirled into

planets and would assume the methodical THE TEST OF PROSPERITY

gravity of system. All through it I felt There is, perhaps, no word in more fre- something in me that cried, · Ha ! ha!' to the quent use at this moment than “ prosperity," sound of the trumpets.” When there are and yet few people who employ it, if they men in the country whose utterances, characwere suddenly challenged, could adequately ters, and lives have the trumpet quality, it is define it. The country is passing through a a prosperous time no matter what the reports period of intense activity which is likely to of business may be. Years after this address continue for a considerable period of time. was delivered the country was devastated by There is work for everybody who is willing the Civil War. Strong men were burdened by to work. How much or how little this state fear of the future; there was paralysis in many of affairs has been brought about by the departments of trade ; at the close of the war party in power at Washington is a matter Emerson, speaking again in Cambridge, said: of individual opinion. The Democratic party “We shall not again disparage America now has not been associated with periods of that we have seen what men it bears." great business activity ; and there are many That, in a word, is the test of prosperity : who hold that the present state of activity What kind of men and women does a counhas come, not because that party is in con- try or a period bear? Crops may be bountrol, but in spite of it.

tiful beyond all precedent, trade may tax all On the other hand, most people contrast- the resources of enterprise, and yet the proing the condition of France with the condi- duction of men and women may be at the tion of the United States would probably lowest ebb; on the other hand, a decade agree that the French people are passing may be crowded with disasters to property

of all sorts and kinds, and yet its produc- good fortune ? That is a prosperous country tion of men and women may touch the high- in which men die and women labor without water mark of prosperity.

murmuring for something which does no Who shall dare to say to-day that France make for their individual gain. It is said is not passing through the most prosperous that the women of the streets in Paris have period of her history ; that in her deep practically disappeared from the places that silence, so significant of unshaken resolution used to know them ; that they are one and and sublime sacrifice, there is not achieve all at work in the making of munitions. In ment of the very highest order; that in such a statement there is the revelation of a her resolute consecration of all her forces more genuine and enduring prosperity than to defend the integrity of her national soul in all the reports of banks and of commerthere is not a revelation of the very highest cial activity.

THE MEXICAN POLICY OF PRESIDENT WILSON FROM A MEXICAN POINT OF VIEW

The Traitorous Huerta—Non-Recognition versus Overthrow-When Is an Insult Not an Insult ?—Lost in the Labyrinth-Appeasing the Brigand-Carrizal and Cordial Relations—The Cruelty of the Humanitarian-Who Will Pay for Serving Humanity ?—“ Keeping Out of Mexico"

EOPLE who have experienced an the bounds of courtesy. This book is whole

earthquake have said that the terror some reading for Americans.

it inspires arises not from the ruin it “ Peace and liberty," “ constitutional govoccasions but from the fact that the heaving ernment," " the pacification of Mexico," aid of the earth itself deprives one of the sense of for people “ struggling toward liberty," have self-control, as if one were bereft of reason. been the avowed objects of President WilFor more than three years now Mexico has son's Mexican policy. It might seem, therebeen shaken by a. social and political earth- fore, that a Mexican who arraigns that policy, quake, and the terror that it has caused has as the author of this book does, must be a arisen from the fact that the foundations of reactionary, an opponent of democratic aspilife seem to have gone. This, at least, is the rations, a believer in the theory that only impression that is gained from reading a the “best people" are fit to rule or even remarkable small book that has just been to aspire to rule. The most interesting issued from the press of Smith & Thomson, single fact about this book is that the 58 Broad Street, New York City: 1

contrary is true. The author of - The Of all the books and articles that have Mexican Policy of President Woodrow Wilbeen written on Mexican events of the last son as It Appears to a Mexican " was an three or four years, there is none that is writ- associate and coadjutor of the man who ten with more clearness, vigor, compactness, started the uprising against Diaz, President and epigrammatic force ; and although the Francisco I. Madero. He was a member of author speaks his mind frankly and does not Madero's Cabinet, and, later, Mexican Amextract the bitterness from what he is con- bassador to the United States. In his book vinced is the bitter truth, never once, so far he calls Huerta “traitorous," and terms Diaz as we have noted, does he trespass beyond a “tyrant.” He arraigns the Wilson policy,

not because it has aided the cause of popular

1 The Mexican Policy of President Woodrow Wilson as It Appears to a Mexican. By Manuel Calero, Secretary of State and of Foreign Relations of the Mexican Republic in the Cabinet of President Fiancisco I. Madero, and, later, Mexican Ambassador to the United States, Press of Smith & Thomson, New York. Price, 25c. On sale in book-tores and at news-stands.

One might expect a member of Madero's

(Continued on page following illustrations)

Current Events Pictorially Treated

THE OUTLOOK, OCTOBER 11, 1916

[graphic]

PHOTOGRAPH FROM PRE&S ILLUSTRATING SERVICE
A CONTRIBUTION OF THE GREAT WEST TO THE COUNTRY'S HARVEST-

APPLES FROM WYOMING

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