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thus to speak, it even precedes the deed. But the crown glit tered before his eyes; and, supposing that he could escape detection and punishment, he stretched out the murderous arm and spilt the life-blood of his kinsman whom he had entertained, and charged the flagrant crime upon his guards. The compunctious stings of conscience left him no rest either night or day. True to the life has the great poet of nature painted the picture. Macbeth exclaims:

"Will all great Neptune's ocean wash this blood
Clean from my hand? No; this my hand will rather
The multitudinous seas incarnardine,
Making the green-one red.”

"Better be with the dead,
Whom we, to gain our place, have sent to peace,
Than on the torture of the mind to lie
In restless ecstasy [agony]—”

Macbeth means, that his hands are so deeply stained with blood, that should he wash them in the vast ocean, it would change its aspect from green to that of red throughout. If it be read as it is punctuated in some, if not all the editions of Shakspeare, thus: "making the green one red," the absurd idea is conveyed, that there was only blood enough upon his hand to make a green sea red, in contradistinction to one of some other color. The word "green" implies "the multitudinous seas,"" all great Neptune's ocean" it should, therefore, be punctuated and read thus: "making the green-one red.” The word "green" should be read exactly as if it were

sea or ocean.

The above extracts from Shakspeare are in the last scene of the first act, and the second scene of the second act of Macbeth.

It may not be unimportant or unprofitable to the reader, to give an example from Coriolanus. In the fifth act and third scene of Coriolanus, in answer to the question of his mother, Volumnia: "Do you know this lady?" he says:

"The noble sister of Publicola

The moon of Rome-chaste as the icicle,

That's curded by the frost from purest snow,
And hangs on Dian's temple-Dear Valeria!"

How are we to understand Coriolanus? According to the mythology of the Romans, Diana was the goddess of chastity

The word "moon," implies the goddess Diana, upon whose temple the icicle is represented to have hung. The sentiment intended to be conveyed by the "swan of Avon," is, that the matron Valeria, was chaste as the goddess Diana. This specimen does not require a very rhetorical reading; it is given to show the importance of what is called intellectual elocution.

It is a fault of many readers and speakers, to close their sen tences or speeches, as though their voices died away, and they with them. Others make small and comparatively unimportant words too prominent; thus, "This is a question of fact for the jury, and not of law for the court, and if the court assume the responsibility of deciding this question, which belongs to the jury and not to the court, then I shall say in the language of the immortal bard:

"Farewell, liberty, and farewell freedom."

It need not be said, that elocution requires the words in italic in the above, and the following specimens, to be pronounced with less, instead of greater emphasis, than the more important words. "If the gentleman could see a man in the presidential chair of a lofty stature, manly eloquence, easy manners, and a defender of a high tariff, he would be, doubtless, contented."

There are, however, some instances in which the meaning of a sentence depends upon the emphatic manner in which small words are pronounced. In the "Merchant of Venice," Bassanio thus apologises to his wife, for having given a ring which he received from her, to a friend:

"If you did know to whom I gave the ring,
If you did know for whom I gave the ring,
the ring,

And would conceive for what I
gave
And how unwillingly I left the ring,
When naught would be accepted but the ring,
You would abate the strength of your displeasure."

An emphatic stress upon the small words in italic, in this example, makes it intelligible and interesting.

The art of reading in a graceful and impressive manner, is of great value to ladies, as well as gentlemen. The subject is presented in its true and interesting light, in the following extract from the North American Review: "It ought to be a leading object in our schools, to teach the art of reading. It ought to occupy three-fold more time than it does. The

teachers of these schools should labor to improve themselves. They should feel, that, to them, for a time, are committed the future orators of the land. We had rather have a child, of either sex, return to us from school, a first rate reader, than a first rate performer on the piano. We should feel that we had a far better pledge for the intelligence and talent of our child. The accomplishment, in its perfection, would give more pleasure. The voice of song is not sweeter than the voice of eloquence. And there may be eloquent readers, as well as eloquent speakers. We speak of perfection in this art, and it is something, we must say in defence of our preference, which we have never yet seen. Let the same pains be devoted to reading, as are required to form an accomplished performer on an instrument; let us have our formers of the voice, the music masters of the reading voice, as the ancients had; let us see years devoted to this accomplishment, and then we shall be prepared to stand the comparison. It is, indeed, a most intellectual accomplishment. So is music, too, in its perfection. But one recommendation of the art of reading, is, that it requires a constant exercise of mind. It demands continual and close reflection and thought, and the finest discrimination of thought. It involves, in its perfection, the whole art of criticism on language."

ON QUANTITY, OR THE PROLONGATION OF THE VOCAL ELEMENTS.

All well informed individuals know the meaning of quantity in vocal music. In elocution, it seems not to be equally well understood. In speech, as well as in song, it consists in prolonging the vocal elements, which are usually called the vowe! sounds, without elevating the voice upon them. It is decidedly the most important part of expression. It is emphasis by time. It should not be given, except upon words or sentences of unusual importance. Solemn subjects, prayers, every thing of deep pathos, all pieces, whether in prose or poetry, relating to the great and imperishable interest of man, as a being who has entered upon an interminable state of duration, such as St. Paul's description of the resurrection, Montgomery's Grave,

Thanatopsis, Adam and Eve's Morning Hymn, and our Lord's Prayer, should be read or recited with quantity.

In giving quantity, singing and drawling must be avoided. There should be no admixture of either. Pure speech should be preserved. Shakspeare warns us against "mouthing our words," by which he doubtless means, drawling. Half a century since, public speakers and readers were more in the habit of degenerating into singing or drawling, or both, than now. But whoever will be at the trouble, to become theoretically and practically acquainted with elocution, will see, that our cotemporaries are not entirely free from such faults. Those who read and partly sing at the same time, do neither well. It is related of Cæsar, that a person read with such a degree of song before him, that he inquired: "Do you read, or sing?"

The sound of an agreeable voice is made by inhaling the air into the recesses of the lungs, and throwing it skilfully through the lips and nostrils.

In pronouncing an element, a certain amount of time is unavoidably consumed. It is easy to perceive that in the word name, we necessarily give the letter a, a longer sound than in man. In name, the e is silent. It has therefore three sounds. The word man, too, has three sounds. The only difference is in the word name, the a has a long sound; in man, short. In pronouncing either of the words, the organs of speech assume three distinctive positions. Nearly all words are susceptible of quantity, to some extent. It can, however, much more easily be given upon words, the vocal sounds of which are long, as in ale, all, eve, isle, old, ooze. It is peculiarly improper to attempt to give quantity to syllables, the time of which cannot be extended, without changing their elementary and natural sounds. Act, pit, end, art, flood, memory, are of this description.

The syllables and words marked in italic, in the following examples, require quantity.

"Oh! happiness, our being's end and aim."

"Green be thy fields, sweetest isle of the ocean."
"Roll
on,
thou dark and deep blue ocean, roll.”
"Hail holy light." "We praise thee, O Lord."

" O, thou that roll-est above."

"The curfew tolls."

"Sorrow breaks seasons and re-po-sing hours, Makes the night morn-ing, and the noon-tide night."

"And every turf beneath their feet, Shall be a sol-dier's sepulchre."

"When I am forgotten, as I shall be, And sleep in dull, cold marble."

"Roll on, ye dark, brown years; for ye bring no joy in your course."

"On the cold cheek of death, smiles and roses are blending, And beauty immortal awakes from the tomb."

"Yet a few days, and the all-be-hold-ing Sun shall see no more, in all his course."

"Oh! flowers, that never will in other climate grow."

High on a throne of royal state."

"Join voices, all ye living souls."

"Hail, universal Lord."

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O, my mother Earth, take home thy child."

"Come to the bridal cham-ber, Death."

"So let it be with Cæsar."

"Here comes his body, mourn-ed by Mark Antony."

"The roll-ing surf, as it breaks over the reef, will resound to him a deep and sol-emn requiem."

"Hear'st thou the groans that rend his breast?"

"Fare-well awhile; I will not leave you long."

"Could we but climb where Moses stood, And view the landscape o'er,—

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