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not only against Freemasons themselves, but against all who favored their cause,—all who were in any manner connected with a set of men, who, in the opinion of his Holiness, were hostile to the public tranquility, and to the interests of immortal souls. In this Bull no particular charge, either of a moral or political nature, was brought against any individual of the Order. It was a general denunciation, alleging that the Fraternity had spread far and wide, and were daily increasing; that they admitted men of every religion into their society; and that they bound their members by oaths to conceal their mysteries in inviolable secrecy.

This Bull was followed, the succeeding year, by an edict not less intolerant in its sentiments, and still more severe in its enactments. The servitude of the galleys, the tortures of the rack, and a fine of a thousand crowns in gold, were threatened to persons of every description who should presume to breathe the heretical air of a Masonic Lodge! This again was succeeded by one of those absurd decrees for which his Holiness has become proverbial, condemning a French book, entitled an "Apology for the Society of Freemasons," and ordering it to be burned, by the Ministers of Justice, in one of the most frequented streets of Rome; sagely concluding that, in thus purloining a grain from the magazine, the explosion would be rendered harmless !

In 1740, the Catholic clergy in Holland, attempted to enforce obedience to the commands of their superiors. Availing themselves of the privileges of their clerical station, they excluded from the holy sacrament all applicants from whom, by craft and threats, they were able to extort a confession of Freemasonry. This state of things was not of long continuance. The States General interposed and restrained these minions of papal tyranny, within the proper sphere of their duty.

It was this spirit of Popish persecution, that compelled the Masons of Germany to change the name, and, in some measure, the character of their Institutionthat called forth a most unaccountable edict from the Council of Berne in Switzerland-that brought the venerable Molay and his valiant Templars to an ignominious death,—“whose flesh was lacerated on the rack, and whose bones were disjointed and broken on the wheel:"-This was the spirit that subjected Crudeli to the horrors and cruelties of the Inquisition-that sentenced Mouton and Coustos to walk in the appalling procession of the Auto de Fe-that, in Spain, as recently as the year 1829, hung Lieut. Col. Galvez, and consigned one of his countrymen to the galleys for life-a doom more dreadful than death.

In reviewing the various forms of persecution and trial to which our Brethren have been exposed, at the hands of the powerful and wicked, in various parts of the world, we cannot forbear to observe how completely guiltless the Institution has ever appeared, notwithstanding the artful and powerful means which have been used to demonstrate its iniquity. The proceedings against it have always been instituted on suspicion, and have always remained unauthorized by any proof of evil, either done or contemplated. The charge preferred against it in 1738-that Masons have secrets which they will not expose to the public curiosity, represents, in terms, the universal pretence for Masonic persecutions, in whatever country or period they have taken place,-from the Bull of his Holiness, the Pope, to its contemptible imitations in the form of addresses, appeals,

and denunciations of Antimasonic governors, senators and gossips, in our own day. The burden of delinquency is the same,-an appeal to the jealousy and timidity of others, by the ambition and intolerance of those by whom it is made.

And it is worthy of remark, that, while the opposition to Freemasonry in Europe, was, in every instance, induced by its alleged hostility to the existing civil and religious institutions-which were respectively despotic and intolerant in the extreme,—we are assailed in our own country, on the pretence that it is subversive of Republican Institutions, and dangerous to religious freedom! In Europe, the Institution is to be destroyed, because it is dangerous to tyranny: In America, its members are to be denied the common charities of life, because it is hostile to freedom!

Freemasonry has experienced two periods of persecution in America; which, although not so cruel and tragical as it has encountered in other countries,— where the malevolence of its enemies could employ the arm of secular and ecclesiastical power, and the denunciations of the politician and the priest were followed by sword and torture,-have nevertheless brought much undeserved odium upon its disciples.

The first took place about the year 1798, when the specious writings of Zimmerman, Barruel, and Robison, directed against Freemasonry, in consequence of its alleged connexion with the Illuminati of Germany, and the Jacobin Clubs of France—the former being secret schools of Infidelity, and the latter of revolutionary politics,-had excited considerable suspicion respecting the real objects and doings of the Institution. Availing himself of the suspicions of a portion of the public, in which he affected strongly to participate, the late Rev. Dr. Jedediah Morse, of Charlestown-a clergyman of considerable popularity and address, countenanced the slanders of the foreign alarmists, and, by the help of some other agitators, succeeded in raising an excitement against a peaceful Society, whose members were as deeply interested in the maintenance of religion and good government, as any of their fellow citizens.

But this movement was too strongly tinctured with the selfish spirit of priestcraft, to be successful. The least critical eye could discern in it the same impulse which actuated the profligate Beaufort, Bishop of Winchester, in his persecution of the Masons during the minority of Henry VI.;-for the Catholic Church is by no means alone in having arrogant and jealous priests, who can brook no interference in their assuined exclusive direction of the religion and morals of the community; and are prone to hate and calumniate any Institution, which, like Freemasonry, utters and acts a perpetual rebuke to their spiritual usurpation.

The celebrated Rev. Dr. Bentley, of Salem, engaged in this controversy, and defended the Institution, of which he was an eminent member, with great learning and earnestness, in several Masonic discourses which were published, and in some letters addressed directly to its leading adversary. He further rendered a great service to the cause of truth and peace, by translating and publishing a series of letters, written by a learned German gentleman by the name of Ebeling. They contained an impartial and instructive examination of the question; and the conclusions to which their author arrived-exonerating the Lodges entirely from any participation in the disorganizing assemblies, which it

had been pretended were Masonic-contributed not a little to quiet the apprehensions that had taken possession of some honest minds, in consequence of the misrepresentations of bigoted or interested men.

One of the ablest vindications of our Order, which appeared at this time, is to be found in a Masonic Oration, pronounced before St. Peter's Lodge, in Newburyport, on St. John the Baptist's day in 1798, by our learned Brother, CHARLES JACKSON, formerly one of the Justices of the Supreme Court of Massachusetts; and we cannot forbear to quote a few sentences from his eloquent and searching remarks on the artful essay of Professor Robison. "But it is further argued by the same author," says he, "that although our society is pure in itself, and innocent of all these corruptions; yet, from the secrecy of its proceedings and the perfect freedom of speech which it indulges, it may become the cloak of conspiracy and the asylum of atheism—that we ought therefore voluntarily to sacrifice it to the peace and security of the State. And is it then believed that by abolishing our meetings, we should leave no retreat to the spirit of disorganization and infidelity? And do we not find, in the scenes developed by this author, that the same men could assume a thousand various forms; and were equally dangerous under many other names, as while they observed the sacred title of Freemasons? The secrecy and freedom of our meetings may be an object of terror to many governments in Europe-but never can excite nor indulge a greater ardor for liberty than already warms every American bosom. The levelling system objected to us, may check the intemperance of pride, but can never exceed that political equality which is every day enjoyed by the citizens of this happy country."

Our second season of persecution is of recent date, and its origin, measures, and agents, are not sufficiently interesting to tempt us to any avoidable consideration of them.


AN individual makes application for membership to some Brethren of a Lodge in Georgia, but there being some stains on his character at the time, he is requested to wait till he may be free from these spots. But in the meantime, he goes on to New York, where he remains a few weeks or months, and during that time joins the Lodge in that States, take the degrees and then returns again to Georgia. Ought the Lodge in Georgia to recognize this man as a worthy Brother, and permit him to enjoy the benefits of the Fraternity?

Will our enlightened Brother of the "Freemasons' Magazine," please answer the above query?"-[Masonic Signal, Madison, Geo.


THE receiving of the individual in question, by the Lodge in New York, was in violation of the rights of jurisdiction, and is a proper subject for the action of the Grand Lodge of Georgia. It was a wrong, which we doubt not would receive attention from the Grand Lodge of New York, on a proper representation of the facts in the case.

We do not understand that the person alluded to, was actually propo.

sed for admission to any Lodge in Georgia, but that he made the request of some member to be proposed, and was persuaded to delay his application. If this be the state of the case, then the Lodges in Georgia are bound to receive him as a Brother in good standing, or to prefer charges against him and formally suspend or expel him. He is a Brother, and, until cause be shown to the contrary, is to be recognized as such. That his receiving the Degrees in New York, was a violation of a principle of jurisdiction, recognized by the Grand Lodges of the United States, does not disqualify him as a Mason; because he is presumed to have been ignorant of the existence of such a regulation. But even if he had been aware of its existence, he is not to be held responsible for its violation. The responsibility was assumed by and rests with the Lodge which admitted him. It is not more a legal than a Masonic maxim, that every man is presumed to be innocent until the contrary is proved.

There are two other points of view in which the case may be considered, and as we may not fully understand the terms of the "query,” it may be proper briefly to state them. It may be asked, how the question would stand if the application had been laid before the Lodge, and " there being some stains" found on the character of the petitioner, he was, through an unwillingness on the part of the Brethren to reject him, permitted or desired to withdraw his petition? This would be an irregular proceed. ing, though it is one which, we regret to say, is frequently practised by the Lodges. It would not, however, change the state of the case. There having been no definite action on the petition, the petitioner would stand precisely as before he made his application, and at liberty to apply to any other Lodge for initiation. The Lodge to which he should apply would be under no other than the ordinary restrictions.

If, on the other hand, his petition was acted upon and rejected by the Lodge, and that rejection was certified up to the Grand Lodge, he is, in our judgment, to be regarded as having obtained his initiation in a clandes tine manner, and may properly be rejected by the Lodges in Georgia.

We of course take it for granted that the individual is a resident of Georgia, and that he was on a visit to New York when admitted to Masonry.

The case here stated shows the necessity of a strict adherence on the part of the subordinate Lodges to the rights of jurisdiction. The general rule is, that the application for admission shall be made to the Lodge in or nearest the residence of the applicant. This is not only just, but is the safest course.



Boston, July 4, 1844.

SINCE my arrival in this city, a few days since, I have, for the first time, had an opportunity of examining "The Masonic Trestle-Board," as published by yourself and Brother Carnegy, under sanction of the late Baltimore Masonic Convention. Permit me to congratulate you on the excellence of your performance as far as it goes; I could have wished however it had gone farther and embraced the whole of Ancient Freemasonry, and entered more into detail.

All intelligent Masons admit that Freemasonry was first introduced into this country, among the Anglo-Americans, from England. If such be the case, whence arises the difference which now exists in the Lectures and manner of Work between the Lodges of the two countries? No man, or set of men, can delegate or possess, under our Constitutions, the power to make innovations of any kind. Yet innovation or change has taken place to a far greater extent than most Masons are aware. The change doubtless has been gradually going on for many years, until we at present behold a considerable difference between their lectures and our lectures, and in the forms and ceremonies of opening and closing the Lodges, and in the Work therein. Think not, R. W. Brother, that I am actuated in these remarks, by the love of finding fault. I assure you on the honor of a Brother Masou, such is not the fact;-I feel that I am influenced only by a sincere desire to promote the prosperity of the Institution, restore the ancient landmarks, and advance the true glory of Freemasonry. I myself am a Texian Mason, which, in reality, is, in every respect, except in name, the same as an American Mason. In 1842, I was appointed by the M. W. the Grand Lodge of Texas, Special Masonic Delegate to the several Grand Lodges of America and Europe. In that capacity I visited the M. W. Grand Lodge of England. At an interview had subsequently with his R. H. the Duke of Sussex, the late illustrious and much lamented M. W. Grand Master of Freemasons in that kingdom, an excellent opportunity was afforded me to compare and note the difference between the lectures of the two hemispheres. I would here remark that it is much to be regretted that the several Grand Masters in America do not take the same interest in our Institution, and make themselves as intimate with the lectures of the several Degrees, the principles of the Order, and the minutia of the Lodgework, as the late Duke of Sussex did. The English Lodges of Instruction are worthy of imitation, and the "Inner Guard," who has for some unknown cause been ejected from our Lodges, should be reinstated. The plan there pursued, of distinguishing the three first Degrees by rosettes on their aprons-all the aprons in the separate Degrees being uniform-and adapting the clothing worn, to the grade, in which it is worn, is the ancient custom and far more appropriate than our plan of intermingling all varieties of forms and colors in the same Lodge. The Knight Templar in a Lodge of Entered Apprentices, is, to all intents and purposes, for the time being, only to be regarded as an Entered Apprentice, and should be clothed accordingly. But this is digression from the subject under consideration, although, it may, perhaps, serve to illustrate the position I have assumed ;-namely, the necessity of entering more fully into, detail in our text

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