« 上一頁繼續 »
Q. You will not deny that the preceding war, the war. with Spain, was entered into for the sake of America; was it not occasioned by captures made in the Americaii Seas?
4. Yes; captures of ships carrying on the British trade there, with British manufactures.
Q. Was not the late war with the Indians, since the peace with France, a war for America only?
A. Yes; it was more particularly for America than the former, but it was rather a consequence or remains of the former war, the Indians not having been thoroughly pacified, and the Americans bore by much the greatest share of the expence. It was put an end to by the army under General Bouquet; there were not above 300 regulars in that army, and above 1000 Pennsylvanians.
Q. Is it not necessary to send troops to America, to defend the Americans against the Indians ?
A. No, by no means ; it never was necessary. They defended themselves when they were but an handful, and the Indians much more numerous. They continCually gained ground, and have driven the Indians over the mountains, without any troops sent to their assistance from this country. And can it be thought necessary now to send troops for their defence from those diminished Indian tribes, when the colonies are become so populous, and so strong ? There is not the least occasion for it; they are very able to defend themselves.
Q. Do you say there were no more than 300 regular troops employed in the late Indian war?
A. Not on the Ohio, or the frontiers of Pennsylvania, which was the chief part of the war that affected the colonies. There were garrisons at Niagara, Fort Detroit, and those remote posts kept for the sake of your trade ; I did not reckon them, but I believe that on the whole the number of Americans, or provincial troops, employed in the war, was greater than that of the regulars. I ain not certain, but I think so.
Q. Do you think the assemblies have a right to levy money on the subject there, to grant to the Crown?
A. I certainly think so; they have always done it.
Q. Are they acquainted with the declaration of rights ? and do they know that, by that statute, money is not to be raised on the subject but by consent of parliament?
1. They are very well acquainted with it.
Q. How then can they think they have a right to levy money for the Crown, or for any other than local purposes?
A. They understand that clause to relate to subjects only within the realm ; that no money can be levied on them for the Crown, but by consent of parliament. The colonies are not supposed to be within the realm; they have assemblies of their own; which are their parliaments, and they are in that respect in the same situation with Ireland. When money is to be raised for the Crown upon the subject in Ireland, or in the colonies, the consent is given in the parliament of Ire. land, or in the assemblies of the colonies. They think the parliament of Great-Britain cannot properly give that consent till it has representatives from America; for the petition of right expressly says, it is to be by common consent in parliament, and the people of America have no representatives in parliament, to make a part of that common consent.
Q. If the stamp-act should be repealed, and an act should pass, ordering the assemblies of the colonies to indemnify the sufferers by the riots, would they obey it?
A. That is a question I cannot answer.
Q. Suppose the king should require the colonies to grant a revenue, and the parliament should be against their doing it, do they thing they can grant a revenue to the king, without the consent of the parliament of Great Britain ?
A. That is a deep question. As to my own opinion,
I should think myself at liberty to do it, and should do it, if I liked the occasion.
Q. When money has been raised in the colonies upon requisitions, has it not been granted to the king?
A. Yes, always; but the requisitions have generally been for some service expressed, as to raise, clothe and pay troops, and not for money only.
D. If the act should pass, requiring the American assemblies to make compensation to the sufferers, and they should disobey it, and then the parliament should, by another act, lay an internal tax, would they then, obey it?
A. The people will pay no internal tax ; and I think an act to oblige the assemblies to make compensation is unnecessary, for I am of opinion, that as soon as the present heats are abated, they will take the matter into consideration, and, if it is right to be done, they will do it of themselves.
. Do not letters often come into the post-offices in America, directed to some inland town where no post
up those letters, and carry them as directed?
A. Yes; any friend of the person may do it, paying the postage that has occurred.
Q. But must he not pay an additional postage for the distance to such inland town?
Q. Can the post-master answer delivering the letter without being paid such additional postage?
A. Certainly he can demand nothing, where he does no service.
Q. uppose a person, being far from home, finds a letter in a post-office directed to him, and, he lives in a place to which the post generally goes, and the letter is directed to that place, will the post-master deliver him the letter, without his paying the postage receivable at the place o which the letter is directed? Å. Yes; the office cannot demand postage for a letter that it does not carry, or farther than it does car
Q. Are not ferrymen in America obliged, by act of parliament, to carry over the post without pay?
A. Yes. Q. Is not this a tax on the ferrymen ? A. They do not consider it as such, as they have an advantage from persons travelling with the post.
Q. If the stamp-act should be repealed, and the crown should make a requisition to the colonies for a sum of money, would they grant it ?
A. I believe they would.
A. I can speak for the colony I live in; I had it in instruction from the assembly to assure the ministry, that as they always had done, so they should always think it their duty to grant such aids to the Crown as were suitable to their circumstances and abilities, whenever called upon for the purpose, in the usual constitutional manner; and I had the honour of communicating this instruction to that honourable gentleman then minister.
Q. Would they do this for a British concern; as sup: pose a war in some part of Europe, that did not affect them?
A. Yes, for any thing that concerned the general interest. They consider themselves as a part of the whole.
Q. What is the usual constitutional manner of calling on the colonies for aids?
A. A letter to the secretary of state.
Q. Is this all you mean, a letter from the secretary of state ?
A. I mean the usual way of requisition, in a circular letter from the secretary of state, by his Majesty's command, reciting the occasion, and recommending it to the colonies to grant such aids as became their loyalty, and were suitable to their abilities.
Q. Did the secretary of state ever write for money for the Crown?
1. The requisitions have been to raise, clothe and pay men, which cannot be done without nioney.
Q. Would they grant money alone, if called on?
A. In my opinion they would, money, as well as men, when they have money, or can make it.
Q. If the parliament should repeal the stamp-act, will the assembly of Pennsylvania rescind their resolutions?
A. I think not.
Q. Before there was any thought of the stamp-act, did they wish for a representation in parliament ?
Q. Don't you know that there is, in the Pennsylvania charter, an express reservation of the right of parliament to lay taxes there?
A. I know there is a clause in the charter, by which the king grants that he will levy no taxes on the inha bitants, unless it be with the consent of the assembly, or by act of parliament.
Q. How then could the assembly of Pennsylvania assert, that laying a tax on them by the stamp-act was an infringement of their rights?
A. They understand it thus; by the same charter, and otherwise, they are entitled to all the privileges and li. berties of Englishmen; they find in the great charters, and the petition and declaration of rights, that one of the privileges of English subjects is, that they are not to be taxed but by their common consent; they have therefore relied upon it, from the first settlement of the province, that the parliament never would, nor could by colour of that clause in the charter, assume a rigbt of taxing them, till it had qualified itself to exercise such right, by admitting representatives from the peopie to be taxed, who ought to make a part of that common consent.
Q. Are there any words in the charter that justify that construction ?
A. The common rights of Englishmen, as declared by Magna Charta, and the petition of right, all justify it.