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geology and natural history, agriculture, chemistry and physics, with mathematics; also certificates of proficiency in physiology and hygiene. The degree of Sci. M. requires diplomas in the schools of like studies with the above, but, of course, of higher grade. Sabstitutes for some of these studies are allowed.

Bethany College, Bethany, had, in 1882–83, under the head of “scientific course,” a 4-years school of mathematics and astronomy; another of mental and political philosophy and belles-lettres, with apparently briefer ones in moral philosophy, natural sciences and modern languages, all preparing for the Sci. B. degree.

For statistics, see Table X of the Appendix; for a summary, see a corresponding table in the report of the Commissioner preceding.

PROFESSIONAL. THEOLOGY.--Theological instruction is given in Bethany College, in a 4-years ministerial course, embracing the schools of sacred literature, Greek, Latin, mathematics and astronomy, natural science, mental and political philosophy and belles-lettres, and of sacred history and moral philosophy. The course leads to the degree of B. L.

LAW.--Legal training is offered in the State university, in a 2-years course of study, leading to the degree of B. L. The course embraces common and statute law, mercantile law, equity, evidence, and constitutional and international law.

MEDICINE.- Medical instruction is given in the State university school of anatomy, physiology, and hygiene, its aim being to teach anatomy thoroughly. Subjects for dissection are provided for the students. Physiology and hygiene are taught by specimens, the microscope, drawings, lectures, models, etc. Members of the class who give evidence at the final examination of successful study receive certificates of proficiency in the branches taught.

SPECIAL INSTRUCTION. EDUCATION OF THE DEAF AND DUMB AND THE BLIND. The West Virginia Institution for the Deaf and Dumb and Blind, Romney, in 1884–85 enrolled 75 deaf pupils and 30 blind. They were taught the common school branches, with cabinet making, printing, shoemaking, and tailoring for the former, and chair caning and broom and mattress making for the latter. The average time spent the school by the pupils is 7 years. The institution owns 25 acres of land, valued, with buildings, etc., at $80,000. State appropriation for the year, $25,000; expenditure, $22,956.

EDUCATIONAL CONVENTIONS.

WEST VIRGINIA EDUCATIONAL ASSOCIATION. The State association met at Keyser, July 7-9, 1885, Hon. B. L. Butcher in the chair. The meeting was held in the commodious hall of the new school building, and was said to have been of the best ever held in the State. More than 100 teachers were in attendance, but some were not enrolled as members. An interesting paper on “Pestalozzi” was read by E. I. Hall, principal of Glenville Normal School, and was ably discussed by others. Mrs. N. Bayly, of Chicago, gave an instructive address, with illustrations, on “Object teaching. A paper was read the second day by Prof. U. S. Fleming on “Obedience,” and one by Miss A. Abbott on “Primary teachers." "Civil service reform in our public schools” was discussed by Mr. J. N. David, who pointed out defects and recommended improvements. Addresses were delivered the third day by Hon. E. M. Turner, Dr. M. A. Newell of Maryland, and Hon. B. L. Butcher, the former State superintendent, after which the last named gentleman introduced his successor, Hon. B. S. Morgan, and the association adjourned.

CHIEF STATE SCHOOL OFFICER.
Hon. B. L. BUTCHER, State superintendent of free schools, Wheeling.

(Term, March 4, 1881, to March 4, 1885.)
Succeeded by Hon. B. S. MORGAN.
[Term, March 4, 1885, to March 4, 1889.)

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Average monthly pay of men in cities.
Of women in cities..
Monthly pay of men in counties.
Of women in counties..
Expenditure for public schools.
Amount of arailable school fund
Permanent school fund.---
Value of public school property

$98 23
35 81
42 85

$1 10

32

$105 72

38 54
41 75

28 52 2,964, 861

28 20 3, 300, 455 2,953, 528 a 4, 616, 841

6, 132, 635

335, 594

a Includes permanent common school fund, $2.838,739; university fund, $225,673; Agricultural college sund, $283,418; and normal school fund, $1,296,981,

(From returns of Hon. Robert Graham, State superintendent of public instruction of Wisconsin, for the years indicated.)

STATE SCHOOL SYSTEM.

ADMINISTRATION. A State superintendent, elected biennially by the people, has general supervision of the public schools. Each county has a superintendent, and counties with 15,000 or inore inhabitants may have 2 of these officers. Districts have boards of 3 directors. Towns which bave adopted the township system have township boards consisting of the

clerks of the several sub-districts belonging to the township. Women are eligible to all school offices except that of State superintendent. Public schools must be non-sectarian, and free to all resident youth of school age (4-21). A census of such youth is taken annually by the district clerks. Children 7-15 years of age must attend school at least 12 weeks in each school year, unless their education has been otherwise provided for, or unless they are excused for specified cause. The public school system includes high and normal schools and a State university. There are also State institutions for the blind and the deaf, and a State reform school.

SCHOOL FINANCES. Public schools are supported from the income of a State school fund and from local taxation. The income of the State school lund is distributed annually to such towns and districts as send the required reports, showing that they have raised toward the support of common schools one-half the amount last appropriated to them from the State fund, and have maintained schools at least 5 months in the year, a 3-months term being accepted in extraordinary cases. School money is apportioned according to the school census.

NEW LEGISLATION. For the improvement and unification of local school supervision, State Saperintendent Graham presented an important expedient which became a law in 1885. The statute provides that the State superintendent must hold annually at least 4 conventions for advice and instruction, and for consultation with county superintendents in regard to the supervision and management of public schools. It is made the duty of every superintendent to attend annually at least one of these conventions.

SCHOOL SYSTEMS OF CITIES WITH 7,500 OR MORE INHABITANTS.

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ADDITIONAL PARTICULARS. The school age in all these cities is 4 to 20. All report graded schools, classed as primary, grammar, and high, covering from 11 to 13 years. Music, drawing, and classical studies are included, and teachers' meetings are held throughout the school year.

Appleton, with a small increase in school population, enrollment, and attendance, reported 10 more teachers and $16,203 additional expenses. The schools were taught 176 days in 7 buildings, with a seating capacity of 2,450 pupils. School property was advanced in value from $110,500 in 1883-'84 to $142, 100 in 1884–85. Enrollment in private schools, 520.

Eau Claire public schools were taught 180 days in 13 buildings, containing 44 rooms with 3,000 sittings, valued, with other school property, at $58,700.

Fond du Lac reported a falling off in school population, with a corresponding advance in enrollment and attendance, 5 more teachers, and a slight increase in expenditure. The schools were in session 200 days in 17 buildings, containing 24 rooms for primary schools, 18 for grammar, and 4 for high, aggregating 3,800 sittings for study. Public school property was valued at $125,500. Enrollment in private schools, 600.

Janesville reports an increase in school population and in daily attendance, but a decrease in the enrollment in its public schools, with 4 fewer teachers. This decrease in enrollment is partly accounted for by the fact that 50 more children than in the year b: fore were attending private schools, making in all 300. Public schools were taught 186 days

in 11 buildings, with 35 rooms and 1,605 sittings, valued, with all other school property, at $100,000.

La Crosse reports increase in all points except expenditure, which was about $10,000 less than in the preceding year. The public schools were held 196 days in 13 buildings, with accommodations for 2,628 pupils. School property was valued at $138,000. Ëstimated enrollment in private schools, 1,273.

Madison reported advancement all along the line, holding its schools 185 days in 8 buildings, with 1,900 sittings for study, valued, with all other school property, at $100,000. Enrollment in all private schools, 300.

Milwaukee includes kindergarten training in its city school system. The entire graded course covers 13 years, and music, drawing, and German are given throughout. А business course is offered to students beyond the eighth grade, embracing the ordinary English branches, elementary science, short-hand, type-writing, book-keeping, and letter-writing. The college preparatory course covers 3 years, and includes Latin, Greek, German, French, English studies, and the sciences. Special teachers employed in 1884'85 were 1 in music, i in drawing, and 16 in German. Evening schools were taught in day-school buildings, and enrolled 1,200 pupils, with an average attendance of 700 boys and 150 girls. Schools were taught 192 days in 27 buildings, containing 16,070 sittings for study and recitation. Public school property was valued at $863,800. Enrollment in private schools, 13,010.

Oshkosh in 1884-'85 showed an increase in youth of school age and in enrollment, with 1 more teacher, but expenditures were considerably less than in the preceding year. One school-bouse was added, making 10 in all, furnishing accommodations for 3,200 pupils, and valued, with all public school property, at $102,500. A great difference is made in the salaries of the sexes teaching in the public schools, as the men receive an average annual salary of $831, the women only $384. The highest paid any man during the year was $1,750; the bigbest paid any woman, $650. The grades of instruction cover 10 years, closing with a full classical course, if desired. Public schools were in session 196 days during the year. Private schools enrolled 1,550 pupils.

Racine reported fewer youth of school age in 1884-'85, with a slight increase in enrollment and 2 more teachers. Public schools were taught 200 days in 8 buildings, containing 49 rooms, with 2,900 sittings for study, valued, with all school property, at $112,000. Estimated enrollment in private schools, 963, occupying 9 rooms under 16 teachers. PREPARATION AND QUALIFICATIONS OF TEACHERS.

GENKBAL STATE BEQUIREMENTS. Teachers, to be legally employed in public schools, must have a certificate of qualification from their county superintendents or from the State board of examiners, unless they are graduates of one of the State normal schools, of the State university, or of some college in the State with equivalent courses of study; and no person may receive a certificate who does not write and speak English easily and correctly. Certificates granted by county superintendents are of three grades. For third-grade certificates, good for time specified by county superintendents, not to exceed a year, applicants must be examined in common school branches; for second-grade, good for a year, there are added grammatical analysis, physical geography, and elementary algebra; and for first-grade, good for two years, applicants must pass a satisfactory examination in all the foregoing, also in higher algebra, natural philosophy, and geometry. Each county superintendent establishes for his county, under the advice of the State superintendent, the standard of attainment which must be reached by applicants for the different grades of certificates. The board of examiners, which is appointed by the State superintendent, gives State diplomas good for 5 years and for life. The State superintendent also has power to grant diplomas to graduates of the un' ersity and of colleges, which hold good until annulled. Diplomas of graduates from the full 4-years course of the State normal schools, countersigned by the State superintendent, become unlimited State certificates after the holder has successfully taught one year.

STATE NORMAL TRAINING. The 4 State normal schools, located respectively at Oshkosh, Platteville, River Falls, and White Water, are sustained from the income of the State normal school fund and from tuition fees. Normal instruction in each school covers 4 years. All have primary, intermediate, grammar, preparatory, and training-school departments, and that at Oshkosb has a kindergarten class. Children are received into this department between the ages of 4 and 7 years, and are classified in 3 divisions. The aggregate number of pupils in the 4 schools in 1884-'85 was 2,045; of normal students, 1,199-an advance over the preceding year of 74 in the aggregate attendance, and of 259 in normal students.

The grounds and building provided by the city of Milwaukee at an expense of $53,000 were presented by that city for a State normal school, and accepted by the board of regents, in June, 1835, to be opened for pupils the following September. Free tuition in all these schools is extended to normal stadents who declare their intention to follow the profession of teaching.

OTHER NORMAL TRAINING. Normal instruction enters into the city school system of Milwaukee in connection with the 3-years high school course.

The National German-American Seminary, Milwaukee, offers a 3-years normal course, and in 1884-'85 had 17 students under 6 instructors. Vocal and instrumental music and drawing are taught, and a model school for practice teaching is connected with the institution.

The Catholic Normal School, St. Francis, bas a 4-years course of normal training, and reports 101 male students under 5 instructors; 8 of these students graduated during the year, all of whom engaged in teaching. Music and drawing are taught. No model school attached.

Milton College has a teachers' course divided into elementary and advanced sections, each requiring 2 years for its completion.

A class in methods of teaching, meeting once or twice a week, was connected with Galesville University in 1884.

The Kindergarten Training School, Eau Claire, in 1884-'85 had 12 normal students in its 1-year course, of whom 4 were graduated and engaged in teaching.

TEACHERS' INSTITUTES. The law provides for at least one State teachers' institute annually, to be conducted by the State superintendent, and for at least one institute in each county annually, held by the county superintendent. In the spring of 1885, teachers' institutes were held in 19 counties, with an aggregate attendance of 1,594 teachers. They are said to have been well attended, and very profitable. The time occupied by these institutes ranged from 2 days to 2 weeks.

EDUCATIONAL JOURNAL. The Wisconsin Journal of Education, published at Madison and conducted by State Superintendent Graham and his assistants, is the organ of the State Teachers' Association and of the department of instruction. In 1885 it was in its fifteenth volume.

SECONDARY INSTRUCTION.

PUBLIC HIGH SCHOOLS. The State appropriates $25,000 annually for the maintenance of free high schools; and any district establishing a high school according to law, and maintaining the same not less than 3 months in any school year, is entitled to receive from this fund annually onehalf the amount actually expended for such instruction. High schools are maintained in the cities of Appleton, Berlin, Eau Claire, Fond du Lac, Janesville, La Crosse, Madison, Milwaukee, Oshkosh, Racine, and others, with classical courses of 3 or 4 years each, those of Madison and Milwaukee adding business courses. The State superintendent reports 119 high schools in the State, 4 more than in 1883–84, with an enrollment of 7,761 pupils, an increase of 72.

OTHER SECONDARY SCHOOLS. For statistics of business colleges, private academies, and preparatory schools reporting, see Tables IV, VI, and VII of the Appendix, and summaries in the report of the Commissioner preceding.

SUPERIOR INSTRUCTION.

COLLEGES FOR YOUNG MEN OR FOR BOTH SEXES. The University of Wisconsin, Madison, with endowment from the State and from the Congressional grant for the benefit of agriculture and the mechanic arts, with an annual income of nearly $30,000, and with grounds, buildings, and apparatus valued at $400,000, receives an annual appropriation from the State, and gives its students free tuition, admitting both sexes on equal terms. Its 4-years collegiate department includes a college of arts and one of letters, the latter having an ancient and a modern classical course, each leading to its appropriate degree. In both courses Latin is required, the ancient classical also requiring Greek; the modern classical, German or French in place of Greek. A graluate course is also provided. Graduates of accredited high schools are received without further examination by the university into any of its courses for which they have been fitted.

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