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At Cubero, 60 miles westward, they came within range, tearing through obtained more provisions and some their ranks, but not stopping their ammunition. Still advancing on advance. A short but desperate Santa Fé, the Confederates encoun- hand-to-hand conflict ensued, our intered,14 at Cañon Glorietta, or Apache fantry interposing to protect their Pass, 15 miles from Santa Fé, near guns, which were saved and brought Fort Union, a new Federal force of off, with most of our wagons. But 1,300, composed partly of regulars, our infantry soon gave way, and the but mainly of green Colorado volun- Texan victory was complete. Their teers, the whole commanded by Col. loss was reported by Scurry as 36 John P. Slough. The Rebel force killed and 60 wounded; but among actually present, under Col. W. R. the former were Majors Shropshire Scurry, was decidedly inferior in and Raguet, Capt. Buckholt, and numbers, 16 but in nothing else. The Lt. Mills. During the fight, which narrowness of the cañon precluded lasted from noon until about 4 P, M., all flanking, enabling the Rebels to Maj. Chivington, of Colorado, with span it with a line of infantry, which four companies, gained the rear of instantly charged, with the Texan the Rebel position, and destroyed a yell, revolver and knife in either hand. part of their train, also a cannon, Our forces scarcely waited to be in which he spiked; when, learning that danger before breaking and flying in Slough was defeated, he decamped. the wildest confusion. In a few mo- Our total loss was reported at 23 ments, not a man of them remained killed and 50.wounded; while in a in sight of the Rebels.

skirmish with Pyron's cavalry, the Scurry halted, re-formed his men, morning before, Slough took 57 prisbrought up his guns, and fired a few oners, with a loss of only 15. shots to ascertain the position (if po- Sibley entered Santa Fé in triumph sition they still had) of his adversa-soon afterward, meeting no further ries, and then ordered Maj. Shrop-resistance. He collected there all shire, with his right, and Maj. Rag- that remained of his little army, and uet, with his left, to charge with cav-confiscated to its use whatever of alry and develop the new Federal provisions and clothing, of wagons line, while he would lead forward the and animals, he could lay hands on. center at the first sound of their guns. But he found the population, with Delay ensuing, he moved to the right few exceptions, indifferent or hostile, to ascertain its cause, and found that the resources of food and forage exShropshire had been killed. Imme-tremely limited, and his hold upon diately taking command of that wing, the country bounded by the range of he advanced and attacked--the left his guns. Never had heroic valor opening fire, and the center advanc- been persistently evinced to less puring, as he did so. Three batteries of pose. Before he had rested a month, 8 guns each opened a deadly fire of he found himself compelled to evacugrape, canister, and shell, as they ate his hard-won conquest, and retreat

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14 March 24. :

16 Col. Scurry, in his official report, de15 Representative from Texas in the XXXIIId clares that he had but 600 men present fit for Congress.

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THE TEXANS ABANDON NEW MEXICO.. 25 by forced marches to Albuquerque, that "sufficient funds in Confederate his depot, which Canby, advancing paper was provided them to meet from Fort Craig, was seriously threat- every want, if it be negotiated;" ening. He reached it in time to save and honors the brothers Raphael his supplies, but only to realize more and Manuel Armijo—wealthy native completely the impossibility of attach- merchants—who, on his arrival at ing New Mexico to the Confederacy, Albuquerque, had boldly avowed or even of remaining in it. He evac- their sympathy with the Confederate uated it on the 12th of April, moving cause, and placed stores containing down both banks of the river to Los $200,000 worth of goods at his dis

side, where he found Canby looking uated Albuquerque, they abandoned for him. Some fighting at long range luxurious homes to identify their ensued, with no serious results; but, future fortunes with those of the Sibley, largely outnumbered, crossed Southern Confederacy, and considthe river during the night, and pur- erately adds, “I trust they will not sued his retreat down the west bank be forgotten in the final settlement.” next morning, Canby moving almost In closing, Gen. Sibley expresses parallel with him on the east. The the unflattering conviction that, “extwo armies encamped at evening in cept for its political geographical poplain sight of each other.

sition, the Territory of New Mexico Sibley, in his weakened condition, is not worth a quarter of the blood evidently did not like this proximity. expended in its conquest;" and inti"In order," as he says in his re- mates that his soldiers would deciport, “ to avoid the contingency of dedly object to returning to that another general action in our then inhospitable, undesirable country. crippled condition,” he set his forces These and kindred considerations silently in motion soon after night- had induced his return to Fort Bliss, fall, not down the river, but over the Texas, and now impelled him to trackless mountains, through a des- meditate a movement without orders olate, waterless waste, abandoning still further down the country. most of his wagons, but packing Col. Canby wisely declined to run seven days' provisions on mules, and a race of starvation across those desthus giving his adversary the slip. olate mountains, in the rear of the Dragging his cannon by hand up flying foe, but returned to Santa Fé, and down the sides of most rugged whence his order, of even date " with mountains, he was ten days in ma- Sibley's official report, claims that king his way to a point on the river the latter had been “compelled to below, where supplies had been or- abandon a country he had endered to meet him, leaving his sick tered to conquer and occupy, leavand wounded in hospitals at Santa ing behind him, in dead and woundFé, Albuquerque, and Socorro, to fare ed, and in sick and prisoners, oneas they might. He naïvely reports half of his original force.”

? May 4, 1862.



GEN. STERLING PRICE was a good thereupon issued an order, threatendeal less indignant than any Union- ing to shoot any Rebel caught bridgeist at the unaccountable desertion of burning within the Union lines-a south-western Missouri by the new threat which the guerrillas habitually Union commander, directly on the defied, and President Lincoln declined heels of Fremont's triumphant and to make good. unresisted advance, when assured Gen. John Pope, commanding the that his scouts were not mistaken in district of Central Missouri, having reporting the evacuation of Spring- collected and equipped an adequate field and retreat to Rolla, by an army force, at length demonstrated against which he would not have dared to the Rebels occupying Lexington, unattack. He gradually retraced his der Rains and Stein, compelling them steps from the Arkansas border, en- to abandon the line of the Missouri, tering Springfield in triumph, and and retreat southward. Having, by subsequently advancing to Osceola, forced marches and his strength in on the Osage, thence pushing forward cavalry, gained a position between his forces unresisted over the greater them and their base at Osceola, he part of southern and western Mis- forced them to a hurried flight, with souri, occupying in force Lexington the loss of nearly 300 prisoners and and other points on the great river, most of their baggage, including 70 where Slavery and Rebellion were wagons laden with clothing and supstrong, and subsisting his army on plies for Price, who lay at Osceola the State from which they might and with 8,000 men. Meantime, a deshould have been excluded. The tachment of Pope's forces, under Col. village of Warsaw was burned, and Jeff. C. Davis, surprisedo a Rebel Platte City partially so, by Rebel camp at Milford, not far from Warincendiaries or guerrillas; and there rensburg, and compelled its surrender were insignificant combats at Salem, at discretion. Three colonels, 17 Rogers' Mill,o near Glasgow, Potosi, captains, over 1,000 prisoners, 1,000 Lexington, Mount Zion, near Stur- stand of arms, 1,000 horses, and an geon, and some other points, at which abundance of tents, baggage, and the preponderance of advantage was supplies, were among the trophies of generally on the side of the Unionists. this easy triumph. Pope's losses in Even in North Missouri, nearly a these operations scarcely exceeded hundred miles of the railroad crossing 100 men; while his prisoners alone that section was disabled and in good were said to be 2,500. Among them part destroyed' by a concerted night was Col. Magoffin, brother of the foray of guerrillas. Gen. Halleck late Governor of Kentucky.

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27 Price, thus roughly handled before that general. Sending his train he had been able to concentrate his ahead under escort, he covered its forces, did not choose to risk a general retreat with his best battery and inengagement. He retreated rapidly fantry, planting his guns on each through Springfield and Cassville, favorable position, and pouring grape closely pursued, and fighting at inter- and shell into the pursuing masses, vals, until he had crossed the Arkan- until their advance was arrested and sas line, forming a junction, soon disorganized, when he would limber afterward, near Boston Mountains, up and fall back to the next elevawith Gen. Ben McCulloch, command tion or turn in the road, where he ing a division of Texas and Arkansas would renew the dispensation of Confederates, thus raising his entire grape with like results, then conforce to a number fully equal with cede another half-mile, and repeat the that which had so keenly pursued operation. Thus fighting and falling him, which was now commanded back, he wore out the day and the by Gen. Samuel R. Curtis, of Iowa, distance, repelling his foes, who at and which, after continuing the pur- times enveloped his flanks as well as suit down to Fayetteville, Arkansas, his rear, with a loss of less than 100 had retraced its steps to and halted men, a good part of these from the at Sugar creek, not far over the 2d Missouri, Col. Schaefer, who, misState line. Meantime, Price was taking an order, had left Bentonville joined to and backed by Earl Van considerably in advance, and who Dorn, late a captain " of U. S. regu- fell into an ambuscade by the way. lars, now Confederate major-general, Before 4 P. M., Sigel was met by recommanding the Trans-Mississippi enforcements sent him by Gen. Curdepartment, and by Gen. Albert tis, when the pursuit was arrested, Pike, of Arkansas, heading a consid- and he deliberately encamped near erable brigade of Indians, swelling Leetown, across Sugar creek, and in the numbers of the Rebels to about close proximity to General Curtis's 20,000.

center position. PEA RIDGE is the Van Dorn promptly resolved to designation of the elevated table-land, give battle, and to fight it in such broken by ravines, and filling a large manner that the defeat of the Union- bend of Sugar creek, on which the ists should involve their destruction. ensuing battle was fought. Advancing rapidly from his camp at Gen. Curtis, knowing himself Cross Hollows, covering Fayetteville, largely outnumbered by the motley he struck at 12 the division of Gen. host collected to overwhelm him, Franz Sigel, holding Bentonville, the had chosen a very strong position on extreme advance of the Union posi- which to concentrate his retreating tion, 8 or 10 miles southwest from force, provided the Rebels would atGen. Curtis's center, near Mottsville, tack it in front, as he expected. The on the direct road from Fayetteville country being generally wooded, he to Springfield. This attempt to iso- had obstructed most of the lateral late, overwhelm, and crush Sigel was roads with fallen trees; while his arbaffled by the coolness and skill of tillery and infantry, well posted and . 10 March 3, 1862.

11 See page 18.

12 March 6.


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strongly intrenched, were prepared | Price, with his Missourians, formed to give the foe the warmest kind of re- the right; McIntosh was in the cenception as he advanced against them ter, and McCulloch on the left. up the main road, leading from Texas The dispositions being made, at 101 through Fayetteville northward to o'clock, Osterhaus was directed by Keytesville and Springfield. But Curtis to advance, supporting his Van Dorn perceived neither the ne- cavalry and light artillery, and open cessity nor the wisdom of running the ball; while, at nearly the same into such a trap. Advancing from moment, McCulloch fell with overFayetteville obliquely by way of whelming force upon Carr's division Bentonville, and chasing Sigel off at and near Elkhorn Tavern.. A the direct road from the latter to broad, deep ravine, known as CrossKeytesville upon the cross-road that Timber Hollow, but termed in some passes through the little village of reports Big Sugar creek, rendered Leetown and intersects the Fayette- almost impassable by a windfall of ville road at Elkhorn Tavern, he dili- heavy timber, crossed the battle-field, gently improved the night following severing the lines of either army, but Sigel's retreat in placing his entire especially those of the Rebels. army along the road from Benton- Osterhaus advanced with great galville toward Keytesville, on the flank lantry from Leetown nearly to the and in the rear of his foe; so that Bentonville road, on which he found all Curtis's elaborate preparations to the enemy moving rapidly in great receive him on the Fayetteville road force toward Elkhorn Tavern, where went for nothing.

McCulloch's attack upon Carr was Curtis woke late on the morning already in progress. Assailed in turn of the 7th to a realizing sense of his by greatly superior numbers, he was critical condition, with a far more soon driven back in disorder, with numerous foe practically between the loss of his battery. Col. Davis, him and his resources, rendering re- who had been ordered by Curtis to treat ruinous, and compelling him to support Carr, was now directed to fight the Rebels on the ground they advance through Leetown to the reshad chosen, which proffered him no cue of Osterhaus, which he did with advantage, and with which their such vigor and determination that, guides were far more familiar than though largely outnumbered and rehis. But every moments delay must peatedly compelled to recoil, his divinecessarily be improved by Van Dorn sion held the ground assigned them, in making matters worse; so Curtis losing two guns of Davidson's batpromptly changed front to rear, mak- tery by the sudden advance of the ing the first and second divisions, un enemy when their horses were disader Sigel and Asboth, his left, the bled, but regaining them by a desthird, under Jeff. C. Davis, his center, perate charge of the 18th Indiana, and the fourth, Col. Carr, his right. which, with the 22d, was honorably The line thus formed stretched about conspicuous throughout the day. Col. three miles, from Sugar creek, Hendricks, of the 22d, was killed through Leetown, to Elkhorn Tav- while leading a charge of his regiern; of the Rebel line confronting it, ment. Night closed on this division,

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