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pore, he was met by a policeman, who immedi- one morning on my way from one hospital to ately procured an echa. (An echa is an Indian another, and sitting in my study heard a shriek cab, of very primitive construction, mainly of in the drawing room. On rushing out I saw a bamboo, and contains neither iron nor springs. big rough blackguard standing over my wife. A platform, about a yard square, raised above I had him by the scuff of the neck before he the two wheels, is what the passenger has to saw my approach, and out he went and down squat on, tailor fashion, and there is a covering my drive until I shot him into the public road. of curtains overhead.) In this (to the loafer) He solemnly protested that he particularly luxurious carriage he was driven into Jhansi, wanted to see me, but thought it prudent not where again a policeman met him, and con- to await the arrival of the European guard, for ducted him to a comfortable room, where he was whom I had sent to make him a prisoner. served with a good meal, but nothing stronger And he was wise, because when the guard than water to drink. He was not a prisoner, came the sergeant told me he was after a man but wherever he went the inhabitants told who had just before frightened the wife of the him they were not allowed to give either money Brigade Major out of ten shillings, and he or drink, having given a solemn promise to the heard he had repeated the trick four or five chaplain that they would send all applicants for times that morning. money to him.

When they came to me, I Well, these worthies had got complete said everything necessary was supplied at the possession of Lucknow. They sat down on house in the bazaar, and that a carriage would the doorsteps of the house and refused to be ready next morning at six a. m. to convey move until they got money. Four of them them on their way to any station they pleased, had imprisoned my predecessor in his own and that on quitting our district they would house, and said they would “ do for him " if have a sufficient sum handed to them for three he did not give them each ten shillings; and days' support. I advertised in the newspapers it was only after many hours of siege that he of the admirable arrangement I had made for managed to get information conveyed to the “ Loafers and other distressed Europeans.” police to release him. I found I was powerless One genuine loafer came our way, and, I sup- to contend against their perfect organisation, and pose, told the others there was no drink to be so had a confab with the Chief Commissioner, had, anyway I saw no more. Several Europeans the Secretary to the Oude Government, and two really seeking work were passed on in this way, or three others I had known some years, and at and were thankful to escape the weary tramp last succeeded in hitting on a plan to get the of sixty miles, which would have occupied four upper hand. My Jhansi plan, of course, days of fatigue, and which my plan accom- would not do, as we had no power to stop plished without fatigue or the degradation of travellers by rail, and we had too many loafers having to ask alms of any one; and the expense already to think it wise to open a home to to us as a community was less for a whole year attract more; but the pledge system would than what our merchant friends had mulcted stop the supplies, and thereby diminish the us of in a single day.

evil, if we could not extinguish it altogether. With this experience before me, two years We accordingly issued a subscription book for later, after having been in the interim at a distressed Europeans, which all residents were Hill Station, I was posted to Lucknow Civil requested to sign and give monthly what they Lines, and soon learnt that Lucknow was at could afford; but every page had this pledge the mercy of the loafers. This place, besides printed on the top :-"All subscribers to this being a railway centre, contained other works fund solemnly pledge themselves not to give which supplied employment, so there was a any money or intoxicating liquors to any nonfair excuse for men to come there in search of resident European, but to refer all such to the work. The loafer, therefore, had a right to be chaplain.” By far the majority at once subpresent; and, in the meantime, he had a very scribed; two or three only refused on the large station, with hundreds of houses occupied grounds that they preferred being the almoners by officers, civil and military, and a large of their own charity. I soon, however, comEuropean garrison of four regiments, from pelled them also to join, by sending to them whom to draw resources.

every loafer who applied to me; and


loafer Matters had become so bad that no lady was friends entered heartily into the joke, and I safe in her house after her husband had left doubt not led them a bad life until they also for office or parade. The loafer watched the were able to reply, “ I have given my word to gentleman get into his buggy or mount his the chaplain that I will not give money to any horse, and then walked straight into the draw- European except through his hand,” when, of ing room, startling the lady at her writing course, they had peace. desk and accounts, with a demand of ten shil- In another paper I will relate how I fared lings. I chanced to return to my own house | as the almoner of the whole community.

the upper


A SPANISH BULL FIGHT. proper. At first it consists of some ten con

centric rows of seats and a promenade, rising VERY trite old saw affirms that “one above one another, differing only from the

half the world doesn't know how the ordinary English circus in size, and in being other half lives.” This does not adequately solidly built of stone. Above and around express the varieties of temperament and the rose two tiers of galleries, the front of which diversities in the different modes of life and was strongly but tastefully framed of cast and recreation which obtain among the numerous

wrought iron columns and supports, and the families of mankind, in the observation of outer walls of the building. I should estimate

back, with corridors and stairs, by the massive which consists much of the pleasure of travel, its capacity to be not less than twelve to more especially if pursued out of the ordinary thirteen thousand persons, and I understand well-beaten tracks of modern tourists. Not that over ten and a-half thousands were unfrequently, however, actual contact dispels actually present on that occasion. rudely the romantic halo with which we are

With regard to the costumes of the spectators little remark is necessary;

classes apt to invest some much-belauded institution.

were attired in the ordinary European garb, but A striking example of which sentiment is the the ladies almost universally cleave to the pic subject of this sketch.

turesque lace mantilla; and long may they do One Sunday in May I found myself in the so, for it is certainly most becoming, much port of Malaga, and was soon apprised that a more so to my mind than many of the incongreat bull fight was to come off the same after- gruous, not to say hideous, head gears that

It was not without a severe twinge of fashion has forced upon our charmers. Fans conscience that I determined to go, but I heard and screens were in general use by both sexes, such glowing accounts of the excellence of the more especially on the sunny or cheaper side bull ring, the skill of the artists, and the high of the house, which had the appearance of breed of the bovine gladiators, that I thought being in a continual flutter; and vendors of I might not have an opportunity again of various edibles and drinkables drove a brisk witnessing the spectacle under like advantages. trade, making the usual vociferations in praise I

propose to relate my experience in the follow of their wares. A small military band was quite ing "plain unvarnished tale."

insufficient to satisfy the impatient demands On landing, I soon found that my informant of this mass of spectators, especially as the had not over-estimated the interest felt in the minutes sped away after the advertised time, proceedings by the good people of the town till nearly thirty had so passed without a and district; for, though it wanted fully two commencement being made. hours of the advertised time for the commence- A single hugle-call, however, produced & ment of the proceedings, I found no difficulty calm, as it announced the arrival of the perin ascertaining the direction of the locality of formers, who thereupon made a pompous entry the Plaza del Toros, but simply joined the in procession in two lines, headed by a couple motley throng of vehicles and pedestrians of heralds, or marshals, on horseback. Their which was steadily setting towards it. Nor function seemed to be simply to introduce the was I long in doubt as to the scene of the toreadors to the president, after which they sports, for they have provided an edifice worthy retired, leaving the future actors in possession à much better purpose than the debasing of the arena. exhibition that we were shortly to witness. The usual plan seems to be that two Having arrived in good time, I was able to matadors are engaged, and they have each a secure an excellent position; indeed, it was certain number of subordinate assistants ; the too good, for I forgot to provide for the con- stars, however, only taking part in every tingency of retiring before the conclusion. alternate course. On this occasion there were

I found myself in a spacious circular edifice two matadors, twelve banderilleros, four surrounding an area fully forty yards in picadores, and two puntilleros, whose duties will diameter, enclosed by a palisade about five and be described as we pass through the details of a half feet high, provided with gates to admit the sports (?). The rear of the procession was the combatants.

brought up by two teams of gaudily caparisoned Between the palisade and the spectatorium mules, harnessed three abreast, who would runs a narrow gangway for the performers and evidently be afterwards employed to drag out attendants, for whose accommodation a few the carcases of the defunct animals, and as screens are set up here and there in case the six bulls and twenty-seven horses were adverbull should pay them an unbidden visit, which tised to take part, it was evident that most of was, as I afterwards saw, occasionally done, them would finish their mortal career in that Around the gangway rises the amphitheatre arena. The biped performers were dressed in dazzling costumes, short jackets, or vests, of the cases confined his attention to the cloak, which typical Spanish cut, and knee breeches of some be sniffed, and perhaps treated to a disdainful brilliant hue, lilac and rose colour predominat- toss, always affording the original bearer time ing, and covered with gold or silver embroidery, to get clear away. By judicious repetitions of flesh-coloured stockings, and shoes, with the this manœuvre, the cloak wavers could thus well-known turban hat, and scarf around their draw the bull in almost any direction they loins was the dress of those on foot, the wished, in fact they came more or less into banderilleros. The picadores, who are mounted, play in all the different stages of the fight. and consequently not so able to protect their Of these, properly speaking, there were limbs, are well padded as to their legs, which three ; in the first the picadores are engaged, in are encased in yellow pantaloons; they also the second the banderilleros proper, and in the wear a wide grey felt sombrero or hat, and are third and last the matador. armed with a long lance.

The picadores, as I have already stated, are The procession being over, and the banderil- mounted on horseback and armed with a lance. leros and picadores having dispersed themselves I had always been under the impression that about the arena, a second bugle-call announces these cavaliers took an active and foremost the actual commencement of the fray; and pre- part in the fray, and that their rôle was decided sently the bull makes his appearance, under all to act on the offensive. This notion, however, the signs of great excitement, with a little was in my case speedily dispelled by the knot of ribbons fastened to his shoulder by mounts and armaments. As regards the some sharp instrument, as the blood which former, their period of active work of any

kind trickled from the wound clearly showed. had long since passed away ; and it seemed to Head down and tail up, he rushes into the require all the urging of the heavy spurs of their enclosure, until he begins to realise the fact riders to get them to budge, while a faint ghost that something unusual is happening. He of a canter was evidently regarded as a knightly stops and glares round him, and thus begins caracole; and to see them at the commencement the first act of poor Toro's last drama. His of the course, standing with drooping heads proportions and general appearance were beside the palisade, it was quite apparent that much canvassed, and I naturally took stock of they would be far more passive than active; so him with more than ordinary curiosity, as the it turned out. I have mentioned that the first representative of a celebrated breed of riders carried a long lance, but it must not fighting bulls that I had seen. He was all be supposed that they were at all of a dangerous black, or nearly so, well shaped, though con character. From a distance it was difficult to siderably smaller than I had anticipated, and discern anything more than the wooden shaft. in good condition. His head was furnished There was no spear-like head, but in its place with a fine pair of horns, long, symmetrical a short, sharp, steel point, certainly not more and sharp, and with his fierce-looking red eyes than one and a half inch long. So they stood he looked like mischief. He was not allowed until the bull, having been drawn into their to stand still very long, for the show began in vicinity, got his eye on one of them. If he earnest.

seemed disposed to attack, the picador laid his One of the banderilleros, each of whom car- lance in rest, and as he came to the assault he ried a dark crimson and yellow scarf or cloak received a prod in the shoulder, close to where (the national colours), ran across in front of the knot of ribbons hung. If the lance held him, and at the same time waved his cloak firm, it sometimes served to check him in his close to the bull's face, a maneuvre which was career, but more often it only ripped up the frequently repeated by one or other of these. skin, serving to further madden him, and then Th is a good deal of grace in this action, the poor horse caught it, being sometimes killed and doubtless a certain amount of dexterity is outright, and nearly always brutally gored. required to perform it neatly and efficiently, If the bull happened to charge with any force, but to call it an act of great daring would be which was but rarely, down went man and horse an exaggeration, for their valour is tempered like lead, and the assailant had to be diverted with a considerable share of discretion. The by the waving cloak device, till the fallen bull never appeared to see anything but the cavalier was extricated, and the poor nag set on cloak, at which he generally lunged; but if he his legs again, or, if dead, stripped of its trapseemed inclined to follow with too much per- pings and its rider assisted over the barricade, sistence, either his attention was distracted by for the padding on his legs made walking another performer crossing his path, or the difficult for him, much more so any greater cloak was dropped, and its bearer made for the exercise of agility. This class of performance palisade, over which he vaulted—this action lasted some twenty minutes, and the bugle-call being facilitated by a step or shelf which ran announced a change of scene. all round for that purpose. The bull in all The picadores left the ring with such of the

In one

horses as could walk out; the dead ones, if any, fully dealt, and in more than one a second being left lying. Their place was taken by two of sword had to be called in requisition. the leading banderilleros, who each carried a or two cases the poor beast fell on his haunches couple of darts, covered with coloured paper. and had to be despatched by the puntillero, One of these would post himself in the centre who simply came behind and drove a sharp of the ring, and by gestures and action strive pointed instrument into his brain at the back to attract the bull's attention. As the latter of his skull. Only one exciting incident made a rush at him he skipped nimbly to one occurred, fraught with any danger to the side, and, at the same time, plunged the darts human actors, and this was when one of the into his shoulder, and the points being barbed, matadors having delivered an ineffectual coup, if his aim was good, the darts stuck there. the bull fell on his knees, and striking out, All through the proceedings it was evident that caught the matador by his breeches and gave the bull, when hurt, always kept straight on in him two tosses. I did not hear that he was his course, quite long enough for his biped foes much injured, but he was evidently shaken to get clear away, and the incessant cloak considerably. waving and moving about appeared to bam- It will be seen by the foregoing description, boozle and wind him thorougbly. The dart which is given faithfully and without any sticking process was repeated three or four exaggeration, that, though the amount of times, and the poor animal seemed pretty well torture the bull has to go through is considerblown before the third and last act was able, it is not until the finale that anything like announced by the usual bugle-call.

a vital wound is given him. The darts and This brought the star performer upon the goad-like lances only give flesh wounds which scene—the matador, whose function it was to serve to madden him, and it seemed to me that give poor Toro his coup-de-grace. He carried the locality of the shoulder was peculiarly a small straight sword in his right hand, and sensitive to pain. The constantly recurring in his left a bright scarlet cloak, much smaller wounds, added to the chasing hither than that used by the ordinary toreadors, but and thither, which kept him ever in motion, proportionately more vivid in colour. After a wrought him up to a helpless pitch of bewilderlittle play, by which he attracted the bull's ment, and being, besides, thoroughly out of attention, and got it thoroughly riveted to his wind, his conquest by the matador was scarlet cloth, he prepared to deal the fatal rendered a much easier task than if he had blow. This required considerable coolness and tackled him when fresh. The risk to human a certain amount of dexterity. To assist the life is reduced to a minimum; plenty of acromanipulations of his cloak, it was partly bats, high-rope walkers, Zazels, &c., expose fastened to a short staff, which enabled him to themselves daily to greater risks; and there is handle it rapidly. Standing in front of the certainly no heroic bravery about it. bull, he spread it out on his right side, or But where the concentrated brutality of the backhanded, inducing Toro to butt at it. Just bull fight lies is, to my mind, in the exposure of as he did so, he (the matador) waved it the poor semi-animate dummies of horses to the right in his eyes briskly, and exposed it on his bull's horns, encumbered with a heavy man on left side, at the same time stepping back a a heavy demipique saddle. Resistance was pace. If the manouvre was successful, and almost impossible. One horse only out of the Toro butted at it again, in doing so, he exposed whole lot had any spirit, and I fancy there his left shoulder, and gave the matador the must have been some mule about him, for, as opportunity to plunge his sword in just before the bull came on, he turned round and lashed the shoulder, and below the spinal column. out with his heels, disconcerting his rider, but If the aim was good, the sword was driven up effectually keeping Toro at a distance, better to the hilt, and the wound was vital. This than his master could have done. It was a was the case with the first bull, who stood a cowardly sickening sight to see the bull actually moment, blood and foam gushing from his enticed towards the poor nags. I daresay the mouth and nostrils, when, with a hoarse bellow, statement will scarcely be credited, that after he fell dead. The matador was received with one of the poor nags had been ridden out after acclamation by the spectators. The mule teams the first bugle-call, severely gored, and with were driven in, and the carcass of the bull and part of his bowels protruding out, he was horses dragged out by a rope made fast round actually allowed to stand in the stables and the head or horns; and so ended the first and brought out again to withstand the onslaught best of a series of five of these cruel spectacles of a fresh bull

. This was not successful to the which I was unfortunately compelled to witness. extent of killing the poor beast, though he was

The subsequent courses were simply repe- again gored, and, the bugle sounding, he was titions of the first, with variations of horror. taken out again, an additional portion of his In no instance was the death-stroke so success- entrails depending, and actually touching the


ground. I was truly glad to see him taken unusually respectful to myself, indeed rather away, thinking they would surely despatch hin

more respectful than I wished, as he interinside, when, judge of my borror and disgust, larded his sentences with the word "Sir" so to see him brought out before a third bull, again attacked, and then fall down and die often, that I at last hinted to him that he through sheer torture.

might use it once, twice, or fifty times in the These are the sights which constitute the course of an hour, but upon no account to staple attraction in Spain, which, on a good use it so frequently. Sunday, can draw thousands of intelligent He was 17 years of age when I engaged civilised men! women! and children!! together, him, I offered him 10s. per week to begin and keep them in delighted attention for three with, which sum he seemed to consider munihours and a half. Is it any marvel that the ficent indeed. As time went on I began to people which can patronise such sports fails to keep its place in the roll of nations ?

suspect irregular conduct in my assistant, and

on several occasions I thought that I detected “Le voyageur malgré lui."

the smell of something like spirits about him;

but I said nothing, as the aroma was strangely MR. BROWN'S SECOND JOURNEY: mixed with a distinct sensation of snuff and

onions; and as all men are apt to form hasty Or Further Reminiscences of a Commercial Traveller.

judgments, I thought that I might be wrong CHAPTER IV.

in my supposition, so I resolved in the mean

time to hold my tongue and keep my eye upon ( Continued from page 244.)

John. Na few more days I succeeded in finishing my labours in the city of Edinburgh. I

CHAPTER V. had met with a kindly reception on the whole, and did not find my customers so formidable as I was led to expect. Their only fault was a kind and the second largest city in the British empire,

GLASGOW, the metropolis of the west of Scotland, of unconscious consciousness which they dis- was the next town which I had “to do," and, played, that they were by culture, education, having bid farewell to Auld Reekie (by which or something or other, superior to similar kindly term Edinburgh is mentioned by its traders in other towns, and which superiority sons, and which, when in distant lands and I was unable to discover. My inability to and ancient city which is their birthplace, the

under other skies, lovingly recalls the grand do this must have been from some mental home of beauty and their country's pride), I obliquity, but as time went on I discovered took an early train for the west. Yes, I was that this feeling was not confined to our trade, now going to Glasgow on my first visit in the but pervades all classes and conditions alike; capacity of a full-blown traveller representing the only solution which I have heard of it, was

a first-class house. Not now, I am glad to say, suggested by an old bagman, that it must be on seeking a situation--not now having the prosaccount of the east wind, which prevails more then to be rewarded by impertinent prying

pect of a two hours' patient waiting, and only largely in Edinburgh than elsewhere, and into my antecedents, or the prospect of serving which its inhabitants will never part with, under Mr. Thick. “My advices” (by which is although most people appreciate it more by its meant the preliminary notes by which every absence than by its presence.

I must own traveller announces his intended arrival) were that I did a good trade. I should not grumble; usually forwarded direct from London, and, at

the same time, the batch of accounts for any my books were in constant demand, and, unless our customers wished to be behind particular town or district were sent to me. By

some oversight at headquarters, these latter only the times, they required to have them in reached me on the morning of my departure stock.

for Glasgow, and, being fond of a peep at the By my esteemed employers I was permitted, morning newspapers, I did not look at them as I stated in a previous chapter, to have the until the train reached Linlithgow, when I services of a clerk to attend to my orders and took out my accounts in order to examine and keep up stock. I was successful in securing a plan of the day's proceedings. I found that I

see who were my customers, and arrange the youth from the Metropolis of the North, a "real had upwards of twenty parties to call upon. Aberdeen," named John Granite. John was Having abundance of time, I examined them very attentive to his duties—at first; and was seriatim ; but judge of my surprise when I

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