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produces the chords of the 6th and the 4. See CHORD. The ancient Greeks admitted of still fewer consonances in their system of music, as they treated the third and sixth as dissonances; a proof that their system of harmony was not the same as ours. Their name for C. was symphony, and for dissonance, diaphony. Early in the middle ages, only the octave, fifth, and third were treated as consonances. Franco of Cologne was the first who divided C. into perfect, semi-perfect, and imperfect. In the writings of Marchettus, and of Joannes de Muris, in the first half of the 14th c., we find already the important rule, that two perfect consonances following in similar progression are not allowable. The study of the C. was carried still further in the 16th c. by Zerlino, who ascertained the true mathematical proportions of the major and minor thirds. Notwithstanding this, Palestrina, up to the end of the same century, and, long after him, all who wrote in the same style, carefully avoided the use of the third in the final chord, finishing always with the perfect consonances according to Franco. Of late years, the importance of the C. has attracted the attention of many eminent theorists in music, as well as philosophical writers of undoubted judgment, some of whom do not hesitate to consider the interval of the seventh a C., because it differs from other dissonances in not requiring preparation. There cannot be a doubt that the chord of the seventh, C, E, G, and B flat, considered individually, and not in connection with other chords, is as euphonious and satisfying as the common chord; and when these intervals are placed at the distance from the fundamental note they harmonically arise at, the consonant nature of the combination is still more obvious. A scientific organ-builder in Scotland has long been in the practice of introducing the seventh as an interval in his mixture stops, forming with the fundamental stops a union of sound decidedly consonant, and producing a remarkably brilliant effect. The exact limit of C., or the point where dissonance begins, seems not definitely fixed, if fixed it can be. To define C. to be agreeable sounds, and dissonance to be the reverse, as some do, is clearly absurd, because they both essentially belong to harmony or concord, or, as the Germans more properly call it, Die Kunst des Wohlklangs, in which there can be nothing absolutely discordant.

A perfect C. causes a musical effect known as Tartini's grave harmonic, it having been first observed by the eminent violinist of that name. Along with any two musical notes sounded continuously, there may be heard (if the notes are in accord) a third deeper tone, caused by that number of vibrations which is the greatest common measure of the numbers producing the primary notes, and upon this Tartini founded his theory of harmony (now obsolete), by assuming that the grave note is the natural base of the chord producing it. The note thus sounded may be too deep to be appreciated by the uneducated ear, although felt as a succession of beats, and these should not be confounded with the “beats' resulting from the sound of a discordant interval, a species of jar or flutter known to tuners as the consequence of the imperfection of a consonance. The subject is treated at length by prof. de Morgan in a paper published in the transactions of the Cambridge philosophical society, 1858.

CONSONANT. See LETTERS.

CONSORT, literally, one who throws in his lot with another. In English constitutional law, the term is applied to the husband or wife of the reigning sovereign, viewed not in a private but a public capacity, as participating to a certain limited extent in the prerogatives of sovereignty. The extent of these prerogatives in the case of a queen C. are stated by Blackstone. She is, he says, a public person, exempt and distinct from the king, and “not, like other married women, so closely connected, as to have lost all legal or separate existence so long as the marriage continues." For this, sir Edward Coke gives the curious reason, that “the wisdom of the common law would not have the king (whose continual care and study is for the public, and circa ardua regni) to be troubled and disquieted on account of his wife's domestic affairs." In addition to this peculiarity in her domestic position, the queen C. enjoys several exemptions and minute prerogatives. She pays no toll, and is not liable to amercement in any court. But where no such exemption is expressly recognized by law in favor of the royal C., she is on a footing of equality with other subjects, and the privileges which the title conveys are chiefly those of precedence, and belong to court etiquette. Up to the year 1857, the husband of queen Victoria possessed no distinctive English title, and no place in court ceremonial except such as was conceded to him by courtesy. In that year, the title of prince C. was conferred upon him by letters-patent.

CONSPIRACY, a combination between two or more persons to perpetrate an unlawful act. See COMBINATION.

CONSPIRACY BILL. In consequence of an attempt to assassinate the emperor and empress of the French whilst going to the opera on the evening of the 14th Jan., 1858, by the Italian refugee Orsini and others, by means of explosive shells partly manufactured in England, a bill was introduced into parliament by lord Palmerston, declaring conspiracy to murder, which the law of England had hitherto treated as a misdemeanor, to be a felony, punishable with penal servitude, and applying that provision to all persons whether English or foreign, and to all conspiracies to murder wherever intended. In place of being regarded merely as a piece of law reform, the C. B. obtained a political character partly from a dispatch from the French minister, count Walewski, demanding some such change in our law, and partly from expressions contained in certain addresses

which were presented to the emperor by the French army, and published in the govern. ment organ, the Moniteur, which were regarded as insulting to England. The ministry were accused of truckling to France; and though on the motion for leave to bring in the bill they had a majority of 200 (299 against 99), an amendment by Mr. M. Gibson on the second reading, virtually amounting to a vote of censure, was carried by a majority of 19 against them (234 to 215).

CONSTABLE (Lat. constabulus). Whether this officer was called originally comes stabuli, the count of the stable or master of the horse (as alleged by Ducange), or the koning-stapel, staff and stay of the king (as Coke, Selden, and others, with less reason, have maintained), the C., both in France and England, was a military personage of the very highest rank. The C. of France rose gradually in importance from the comparatively modest position of an officer of the household, till at last he became, ex officio, the commander-in-chief of the army in the absence of the monarch, the highest judge in military offenses and in all questions of chivalry and honor, and the supreme regu. lator and arbitrator in all matters connected with tilts, tournaments, and all martial displays. The office of C. is traced back by Anselme to Alberic, who held it in 1060; but The first C. of France who appeared at the head of an arıny was Matthew, the second seigneur de Montmorency. The office was suppressed by Louis XIII. in 1626. Among the offices of the ancient monarchy which were restored by Napoleon for mere purposes of state, that of C. was one. His brother, prince Louis Napoleon, afterwards king of Holland, was created grand C., the vice-C. being marshal Berthier. The office was again abolished on the restoration of the Bourbons, and has not since been re-established. But besides the C. of France, almost all the great vassals of the crown had constables who filled analogous offices at their minor courts. There were constables of Burgundy, of Champagne, and of Normandy; the latter of whom may be regarded as the progenitor of the C. of England.

Shortly after the conquest, a lord high C. of England appears, with powers and privi. leges closely corresponding to those of the C. of France (13 Rich. II. st. 1. c. 2). His position as judge of the court of chivalry, in conjunction with the earl-mareschal, and the limitation of his power, which followed on the statute 13 Rich II. c. 2, are explained under CHIVALRY, COURT OF. The office was abolished by Henry VIII. on the attainder of Edward Stafford, duke of Buckingham; and a lord high C. is now appointed only on the occurrence of great state ceremonies, e.g., a coronation, The high C. of Scotland was an officer very similar to the C. of France and England. After the rebellion, the offices of the inferior constables dependent on the high C., such as the C. of the castle (q.v.), were abolished, but that of the high C. himself was expressly exempted, and still exists in the noble family of Errol. The privileges attaching to this office are now entirely honorary; but in virtue of it, the earl of Errol is said to be the first subject in Scotland after the blood-royal; and on the occasion of the visit of king George IV. to Edinburgh, the then carl was allowed to take precedence of the possessors of all other hereditary honors. The present earl of Errol is the 22d high C. of Scotland.

CONSTABLE OF A CASTLE was the keeper or governor of a castle belonging to the king or to a great baron. These offices were frequently hereditary; thus there were constables or hereditary keepers of the tower, and of the castles of Dover, Windsor, etc. -CONSTABLE OF THE HUNDRED, and CONSTABLE OF THE VILL, were the predecessors of the high and petty constables of later times. The statute of Winchester (13 Ed. I. st. 2, c. 6), by which the office of high constable is usually, though probably not correctly, said to have been first introduced, ordains that in every hundred or franchise there shall be chosen two constables, to make the view of armor, and to see to the conservation of the peace. The petty constable exercised similar functions within the narrower limits of the township or parish, and was subordinate to the high constable of the hundred. The high constables are appointed by the courts Jeet of the franchise or hundred over which they preside; or, in default of such appointment (7 and 8 Vict. c. 33, s. 8), by the justices at their special sessions. The appointment of petty constables is by 5 and 6 Vict. c. 109, and 13 and 14 Vict. c. 20, given to justices, who are directed annually to require from the overseers of parishes a list of those within the parish qualified and liable to serve as constables. When not specially exempted, every able-bodied man, between 25 and 55 years of age, resident in the parish, and rated to the poor or a tenant to the value of £4 per annum, must be included in this list. These lists are to be revised by the justices, who shall choose therefrom such number of persons as they deem requisite. No person who has served shall be liable to serve again till all the others are exhausted. Certain penalties are imposed by the act on those who shall refuse to serve, and an oath of office is prescribed. This act entirely supersedes the ancient method of appointing petty constables.-SPECIAL CONSTABLES are persons sworn in by the justices to preserve the peace, or to execute warrants on special occasions. By 1 and 2 Will. IV. c. 41, and 5 and 6 Will. IV. c. 43, any two justices of the peace who shall learn, on the oath of a credible witness, that a tumult, riot, or felony has taken place, or is apprehended, may, if they are of opinion that the ordinary officers are insufficient, swear in as many householders or others as they may think fit (not belonging to the classes of persons exempted from the duties of ordinary petty constables) to act as special constables for a limited time or for a particular place. The lord-lieuten

ant may also, by direction of one of the principal secretaries of state, cause special con. stables to be appointed for the whole county, or any part of it, in which case exemptions may be disallowed. For county constabulary, see POLICE.

CONSTABLE (ante). In the United States, the duties of constables in regard to keeping the peace and making arrests are generally the same as in England, but generally only petty constables are retained. There was a high constable in New York until about 50 years ago, but the office was merged in that of chief of police. Philadelphia also has had the office of high constable. Some of the states have an official known as constable of the commonwealth.

CONSTABLE, ARCHIBALD, 1774-1827; widely known as a publisher of books in Edinburgh, Scotland. He was a bibliopolist by nature, and before coming of age went into business on his own account. He took great interest in Scottish literature, and the elegance of his publications soon brought him prominently into notice. Among publications wholly or partially under his care were the Scot's Magazine and the Edinburgh Review. His acquaintance and friendship with sir Walter Scott is well known, and nearly all the works of the great novelist came to the people through Constable's press. Among his latest effort were the purchase and enlarging of the Encyclopaedia Britannica, and the starting of Constable's Miscellany, a series of original standard works to be issued in cheap form. This was continued but a short time, and the firm became heavily in debt and failed in 1826, leaving Walter Scott largely involved in their liabili

ties.

CONSTABLE, JOHN, 1776-1837; an English artist excelling in landscapes and scenes from nature. Among his pictures are “Stratford Mill," the “Hay Cart,” • Salisbury Cathedral," "The Loch," "Valley Farm,” and “The Cornfield.

CONSTANCE, LAKE (called by the Germans Bodensee or Bodmansee, from the old castle of Bodman--the Lacus Brigantinus of the Romans), lies on the north side of the Alps of Switzerland, and forms a meeting point of the five territories--Baden, Würtemberg, Bavaria, the Tyrol, and Switzerland. It has an elevation variously estimated at from 1250 ft. to 1385 ft. above the sea. Lake C. is traversed by the Rhine from e. to W.; its greatest length is about 44 m., utmost breadth 9 m., and depth 964 feet. It is divided into the upper and lower lakes, the latter of which extends from Constance to Stein. Anciently, the lake was more extensive toward the s. than now. In the 4th c., it is said to have extended as far as Rheineck, now some miles distant from the shore. The shores are formed by hilly lands, with low tracts at the mouths of the Rhine and smaller rivers. Corntields, vineyards, pastures, orchards, and wooded declivities, with here and there the ruins of old castles interspersed, surround the lake. The water has a dark-green hue, often rises suddenly some 10 or 12 ft. during a thaw, and rolls in high waves during the prevalence of a strong s., n.w., or e. wind. Without visible cause, it sometimes rises and falls to a considerable degree. In one hour, in 1770, it rose between 20 and 24 feet above the ordinary level. It is seldom frozen, except in very severe winters. The lake contains sixty kinds of aquatic fowl; twenty-five species of fish, including fine salmon and salmon-trout; and several species of shell-fish. Since 1824, steam-navigation has added to the facilities of commerce across the lake, and its commercial importance has been greatly increased by the opening of a railway from Friedrichshafen, by Ulm and Stuttgart, to Heilbronn.

CONSTANCE, or KOSTNITZ (anciently Constantia), a city of Baden, once a free imperial city, is situated on the s. shore of the lake of Constance, at the place where the Rhine connects the upper and lower lakes together. C. is one of the most ancient towns in Germany, but it is very much decayed, its pop. once 40,000, being now not more than (1880) 13,372. Its cathedral was erected in the 11th century. C. is notable in history for the ecclesiastical council held in 1414-18. The object of the council of C. was to put an end to the disorders in the popedom and in the election of popes, and also to prevent the spread of the doctrines of Huss. There assembled, with the emperor Sigismund and pope John XXIII., 26 princes, 140 counts, more than 20 cardinals, 7 patriarchs, 20 archbishops, 91 bishops, 600 prelates and doctors, and about 4,000 priests. The three rival popes, John XXIII., Gregory XII., and Benedict XIII., were deposed, and Martin V. was elected. Huss and Jerome of Prague were condemned and burned. The emperor was disappointed in his hope of a thorough ecclesiastical reform, and the council of Basel was afterwards called to carry on the work which the council of C. had failed to accomplish. The hall in which the council met is now the markethall of Constance. C. has manufactures of silk, cotton, and watches, active fisheries, and the cultivation of vineyards and gardens employs a considerable number of the inhabitants.

CONSTANS, FLAVIUS JULIUS, 320-350; second son of Constantine the great, and emperor of Rome, after having defeated and killed his brother (Constantine II.) at the battle of Aquileia in 340. He was rapacious and profligate, but he protected the Christians and closed many of the pagan temples. His reign became so obnoxious that his troops in Gaul revolted, and sent emissaries to slay him, which they did while he was flying towards Spain,

CONSTANT is the name given, in mathematical analysis, to a quantity which remains the same for all cases of the problem, in opposition to a variable. Thus, in questions about the fall of bodies in given times, the force of gravity is a constant quantity. In the integral calculus, the name of constants is given to those quantities which, after integration, are annexed to the integral.

CONSTANT, BENJAMIN. See page 890.

CONSTANT DE REBEQUE, HENRI BENJAMIN, one of the most distinguished political writers and orators of France, was b. at Lausanne on the 25th Oct., 1767. Educated in a German college, he afterwards spent some time at Edinburgh university, and here he is supposed to have imbibed those ideas of political freedom which guided him through life. In 1796, he published in Paris a pamphlet on the government then existing, which brought him into note; and three years later, he was placed on the “tribunat" by Napoleon, who, however, two years after, dismissed and banished him for the spirit he displayed in resisting the first consul's encroachments on liberty. During his banishment, he traveled for some time with Madame de Stael, and afterwards settled in Germany. In 1813, he published his celebrated pamphlet, On the Spirit of Conquest and Usurpation. In 1814, he returned to Paris, where he wrote several pamphlets in favor of constitutional liberty, which he maintained was enjoyed under Louis XVIII. Napoleon's government he described as a “government of Mamelukes," and the emperor himself as “a Genghis khan.” Yet during the hundred days he became a councillor of state, and assisted in framing the Acte Additionnel. In 1819, he was elected a deputy, became ultimately leader of the opposition, and in this capacity gained unbounded popularity. C. de R. was a true patriot. He loved liberty better than monarchies or mobs, and therefore, while he opposed the despotic measures of the government of Charles X., he deplored the revolution of July, 1830. He died Dec., 1830. As a public speaker, C. de R. was in his day the clearest and most persuasive advocate of constitutional principles in France. As a political writer, he was even fully more effective than as a speaker. Among his works may be mentioned Discours Prononcés à la Chambre des Députés (2 vols., Par. 1828); the Cours de Politique Constitutionnelle (4 vols., Par. 1817-20, 2d ed., 1833), in wbich are collected his minor works on representative government. Among his most ambitious works are Mémoires sur les Cent Jours (Par. 1820); De la Religion considérée dans sa Source, ses Formes, et ses Développements (5 vols., Par., 1824-31), to which posthumous work his Du Polythéisme Romain, considéré dans ses Rapports avec la Philosophie Grecque et la Religion Chrétienne, forms a kind of supplement.

CONSTANTIA, a district of Cape Colony, in South Africa, lying on the eastern and n.e. slopes of Table mountain range, and distant from Cape Town about 12 miles. C. consists of only two estates, Great Constantia and Little Constantia, which have long been famed for the quality of the wines produced upon them. Many attempts have been made in other parts of Cape Colony, as also in France and the s. of Europe, to produce a wine similar in quality and flavor to the C., but all have failed; and it is now known that not only to the quality of the C. grape, but also to the character of the soil, as well as to the peculiarly genial exposure of the district, the characteristic excellence of the C. (proper) wines is traceable. The soil of the estates is rich in alkalies to an extent perceptible in the grape itself, and the vineyards have a very equable exposure, being sheltered froin all sudden changes of temperature by spurs of the great granite mountain. The grapes under this shelter ripen very uniformly, so that the earthy taste, which spoils the character of other cape wines, and which is produced by using unpicked grapes of different degrees of ripeness in the same bunch, does not attach to the C. wines.

Although the attempts made on other farms in the colony to produce wine similar to that of C., have failed in so far as the peculiar flavor as well as lusciousness of real C. are concerned, yet they have led of late to great improvements in the quality of sev. eral of the South African wines; and where care continues to be bestowed, and the habits of different vines in relation to soil and exposure are more studied, we have evidence in the quality of the improved “ Pontac," and other wines of Wynberg, of what can be accomplished with increased labor by Cape Calony as a wine-producing country. Statistics of the wine trade of this settlement show, however, that only a small quantity of genuine wines finds its way into the market-much of that which passes under the name being similar but inferior cape wines. The produce of the C. vineyards sells even in the colony at not less than 68. per bottle.

CONSTANTI'NA, a t. of Spain, in Andalusia, situated in a mountainous district, about 40 m. n.n.e. of Seville, to which city it supplies much fruit and ice. It has manufactures of leather and soap, distilleries, flour-mills, etc. Pop. 10,988.

CONSTANTINE, the capital of a province of the same name (the easternmost province of the French colony of Algeria), is situated on a hill with flat summit, three sides of which are washed by the Rummel, flowing through a deep and narrow ravine, and the fourth is connected by a natural mound with the surrounding mountains. Lat. 36° 22' n., long. 6° 37' east. It is 830 ft. above the river, and 2,162 ft. above the sea. It is sur. rounded by walls constructed by the Arabs out of Roman sculptured stones, and a fine old Roman bridge spans the ravine on one side. The streets, as in the other towns of Barbary, are very narrow and dirty, and the houses mean. An old church in the Byzantine style is included in the citadel. C. was anciently one of the most important towns of Numidia, called Carta by the Carthaginians, Cirta by the Romans, and was long a royal residence. It was destroyed in the wars of Maxentius against Alexander about 311 A.D., but was soon rebuilt by Constantine the great, from whom it derives its present name, and continued to subsist, and was a flourishing town in the 12th century Subsequently, it shared in general the fortunes of Algeria (q.v.). C. has manufactures of woolen cloths, saddlery, and other articles of leather. Pop. '81, 38,357, of whom some 7,000 are Europeans.

CONSTANTINE I., FLAVIUS VALERIUS AURELIUS, surnamed “the great," a Roman emperor, was b. 272 or 274 A.D., at Naissus, in Mesia. He was the eldest son of Constantius Chlorus, and first distinguished himself by his military talents under Diocletian, in that monarch's famous Egyptian expedition, 296; subsequently he served under Galerius in the Persian war. In 305, the two emperors, Diocletian and Maximian, abdicated, and were succeeded by Constantius Chlorus and Galerius. Galerius, who could not endure the brilliant and energetic genius of C., took every means of exposing him to danger, and it is believed that this was the period when he acquired that mixture of reserve, cunning, and wisdom, which was so conspicuous in his conduct in afteryears. At last C. fled to his father, who ruled in the west, and joined him at Boulogne just as he was setting out on an expedition against the Picts in North Britain. Constantius died at York, July 25, 306, having proclaimed his son C. his successor. The latter now wrote a conciliatory letter to Galerius, and requested to be acknowledged as Augustus. Galerius did not dare to quarrel with C., yet he granted him the title of Cæsar only. Political complications now increased, and in a short time no less than six emperors were “in the field "-viz., Galerius, Licinius, and Maximin in the east, and Maximian, Maxentius his son, and Constantine in the west, 308 A.D. Maxentius having quarreled with his father, forced him to flee from Rome; he took refuge with C., but was ungrateful enough to plot the destruction of his benefactor. This being discovered, he fled to Marseilles, the inhabitants of which city gave him up to C., who put him to death, 309 A.D. Maxentius professed great anger at the death of his father, and assembled a large army, with which he threatened Gaul. Crossing the Alps by Mont Cénis, C. thrice defeated Maxentius-first near Turin, then under the walls of Verona, and finally in the vicinity of Rome, 28th Oct., 312, Maxentius himself in the last of these engagements being drowned in an attempt to escape across the Tiber. C. now entered the capital, disbanded the Prætorians, and adopted other judicious measures for allaying the public exitement. He was also honored with the title of pontifex maximus, or supreme dig. nitary of the pagan hierarchy.

C. was now sole emperor of the west. Similarly, by the death of Galerius in 311, and of Maximin in 313, Licinius became sole emperor of the east. In 314, a war broke out between the two rulers, in which Licinius had the worst, and was fain to conclude a peace by the cession of Illyricum, Pannonia, and Greece. C. gave Licinius his sister Constantina in marriage, and for the next nine years devoted himself vigorously to the correction of abuses in the administration of the laws, to the strengthening of the frontiers of his empire, and to the chastising the barbarians, who learned to fear and respect his power. In 323, he renewed the war with Licinius, whom he defeated, and ultimately put to death. C. was now at the summit of his ambition, the sole governor of the Roman world. He chose Byzantium for his capital, and in 330, solemnly inaugurated it as the seat of government, under the name of Constantinople or City of Constantine. In 324, he committed a deed that has thrown a dark shade over his memory. He had a gallant and accomplished son, named Crispus, who was exceedingly popular, and him, along with Constantina and others, he put to death on a charge of treason. Niebuhr shows that it was not unlikely Crispus cherished ambitious designs. Next year occurred the great council of Nice. C. sided with the orthodox fathers, probably for very heterodox reasons. As yet he was a pagan, but his sense of justice, and his conviction of the growing importance of the Christians, both as a moral and political element in the life of the empire, had from the very first induced him to protect them. As early as 313, he had everywhere granted them toleration, and since then continued to favor them more and more decidedly. As president of the Nicene council, he opposed the Arians, on political grounds, as the weaker party; but not being theologically interested in the dissensions, he refrained from active persecution. During the latter years of his life, Christianity became the state religion, the pagan temples were clozed, and sacrifices forbidden. Yet it was only a short time before his death, which occurred 22d July, 337, that he would allow himself to be baptized.

The question has been much discussed, whether or not °C. was a Christian. The truth seems to be, that he looked upon religion as a statesman, who feels that his first duty is to rule the nation over which he is set in an orderly and peaceable manner. Had paganism been still in its prime, and possessed any real political vitality, it is not likely that a man of C.'s secular temperament would have troubled himself in regard to the new faith; but when he found that the latter was making rapid progress in spite of the fiercest persecution, he must have felt it wisest, and probably also conceived it right, to protect and favor it. But he continued to the last addicted to many pagan superstitions. As an emperor, however, he ranks very high. He was beloved by his people, for whose welfare he seems to have honestly labored. Severe

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