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this city by the Romans remain not only in various fraginents of walls, originally part of the outer defences, though now far within the city, and in the numerous altars, inscriptions, coins, &c., which come to light almost wherever the ground is turned up; but even in the features and complexions of its inhabitants, who are said to betray their hereditary blood, and to differ considerably from their German neighbours. The inhabitants were so proud of their Roman origin, that up to the time of the French revolution, the higher citizens styled themselves patricians the 2 burgomasters wore the consular toga, and were attended by lictors while the town banners bore the pompous inscription S. P. Q. C., The foundations of the Roman walls may be traced in the very heart of the present city through the street Auf der Burgmauer, by the Zeughaus by the Klarenthurm, a tower of brick in opus reticulatum, called Roman, though really a work of the Franks - but standing on the Roman wall; thence through numerous gardens past the Apostles church to the Lach, where is another so-called Roman tower, and the Marsilstein; thence eastward to St. Mary's Church, where the capitol stood; thence past the Rathhaus, which occupies the site of the Roman Prætorium, to the Dom.

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The existing outer walls of Cologne present one of the most perfect examples of the fortifications of the middle ages, with picturesque flanking towers and gate-houses. They were built between the 12th and 15th centuries. The greater part is probably of about the year 1185. The extent of Cologne along the bank of the Rhine, from the tower at the upper end, called the Bayenthurm, down to the small tower at the lower end called the Thürmchen, is 11,560 Rhenish feet, about 2 Eng. miles, and the extent round the wall on the land side between these same towers is 21,600 Rhen. ft., or about 4 Eng. miles.

Agrippina, mother of Nero, was born here, in the camp of her father Germanicus; Trajan here received the

summons to assume the Imperial purple; Vitellius and Sylvanus were proclaimed Emperors of Rome or the spot, and the latter was murdered in the Capitol. At a later period, 508, Clovis was declared king of the Franks at Cologne. From the middle of the 12th nearly to the end of the 15th century, Cologne was the most flourishing city of Northern Europe, one of the chief emporiums of the Hanseatic League, concentrating the trade of the East, and keeping up a direct and constant communication with Italy. From this connection, not only the productions, but also the arts, of the East, were at once transferred to the then remote West of Europe. The architecture of many of the oldest churches is identical with that of Italy, and there is some similarity between the paintings of the early Italian and Rhenish schools; it is even probable that the southern school of art was indebted to the artists of the North for some portion of its excellence. "In the middle ages, from its wealth, power, and the considerable ecclesiastical foundations of its bishops, it was often called the Rome of the North."-Hope. Another relic of the ancient alliance with Italy is the Carneval, which is celebrated here, and nowhere else in the North of Europe, in the same manner, and almost with as much spirit and pomp of masquerading, &c., as in Rome or Venice. The procession of masks is tolerated even in the streets here, and in one or two other towns of the Rhenish provinces, as an ancient custom. Another amusement common in Italy, but found nowhere in Germany but at Cologne, is the Puppet Theatre (Puppen Theater-Henneschen), Blind-Gasse near the Haymarket, where droll farces are performed by dolls; and the dialogue, spoken in the patois of the country, and full of satirical local allusions, is carried on by persons concealed behind the scenes.

Cologne has an interest for the Englishman, inasmuch as William Caxton settled here, 1470, and here learned the art of printing, which he speedily transferred to his own country.

wine down the Rhine, and into the neighbouring countries of Holland, Belgium, and Westphalia, employs a great many vessels and persons. There are considerable sugar refineries here.

Of late years, trade has greatly revived; improvements have followed increasing prosperity, and under the Prussian government, the town is throwing off the dirty and gloomy appearance for which it was notorious. Many of the streets have been widened and paved new streets and houses built, and old ones repaired; and some of the thoroughfares boast of traffic and crowds like those of London. A large portion of the space enclosed within the walls, formerly the fields and gardens of conventional houses, is rapidly becoming covered with buildings.

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In 1259, Cologne obtained the staple right by which all vessels were compelled to unload here, and ship their cargoes in Cologne bottoms. The Cologne merchants enjoyed important privileges in England; Henry VI. granted them the exclusive use of the Guildhall in London. After its period of prosperity and splendour, during which the city could send forth 30,000 fighting men, came the season of decay. Commerce took a new route across the continent of Europe, and Cologne fell under the blighting domination of priests. The uncontrolled sway of bigoted ecclesiastical rulers, on three occasions, marred its prosperity, and finally completed its downfall. The first injurious act of intolerance was the persecution and expulsion of the Jews, 1425; the second, the banishment of the weavers; One of the leading causes of the deand the third, the expatriation of the cline of the prosperity of Cologne in the Protestants, 1618. The injury done to 16th cent., was the closing of the nathe city by these arbitrary acts is best vigation of the Rhine by the Dutch. proved by the desolate condition to This restriction was removed in 1837, which they reduced it, contrasted with pursuant to treaty, and Cologne now the increasing prosperity of Aix-la- trades directly with the countries beChapelle, Verviers, Elberfeld, Düssel-yond sea. Seagoing vessels are condorf, Mühlheim, Solingen, and other cities, in which the exiles, victims of these persecutions, who were almost invariably the most industrious and useful citizens, settled themselves. During this period the number of churches and convents multiplied enormously. Cologne is said to have had as many steeples as there were days in the year; there are still 20 churches here. Before the French revolution, the number of buildings devoted to religious uses was 200; she is now content with 29, but many of the buildings remain, applied to the secular purposes to which the French first turned them. 2500 of the inhab, were ecclesiastics; and, as a natural consequence, more than twice that number were beggars, who subsisted principally on the monks. French revolution nowhere created a greater change than here; the rich Begin with the Cathedral; close to foundations were all plundered, the it is the Museum; thence by the convents secularised, the churches strip- Jesuits' Church (a gorgeous combinped, and converted into warehouses and ation of Gothic and Italian architecstables. ture) to St. Ursula; (the curious in The transport of corn and Rhenish architecture should visit St. Cuni


structed here. A new quay with

bonded warehouses has been constructed just below the bridge. Seagoing vessels lie alongside. The yearly increasing prosperity, fostered by the continuance of peace, and augmented by the convergence to this point of the Railroads from Paris, Antwerp, and Berlin, have caused Cologne again to raise her head high among the chief cities of Europe. This huge carcass of ruined buildings and vacant enclosures, revived by increasing wealth, is swelling out into its former proportions, and flourishing both in population and industry.

The objects of interest in Cologne being spread over a wide space, the following plan for seeing them in succession, without retracing his steps, may be useful to the stranger:

bert's;) from St. Ursula to St. Gereon, pass the Roman (?) Tower to the Apostles' Church; to St. Peter's; St. Mary's in the Capitol; the Gürzenich, and the Rathhaus, which completes the circuit.

The Cathedral (Dom Kirche), though begun in 1248, by Archbp. Conrad of Hochsteden, remained up to the present time a fragment and a ruin. The choir was consecrated in 1322: but in 1509 a stop was put to its further progress. Had the original plan been completed (views of the intended edifice are to be procured), it would have been the St. Peter's of Gothic architecture. Even in its present state, it is one of the finest and purest Gothic monuments in Europe. It is to be regretted that the name of the great architect who designed so splendid a structure has been lost: one Master Gerhard, who was living 1252, is the builder earliest named, but nothing is known of him. The two principal towers, according to the original designs, were to have been raised to the height of 500 feet. That which is most finished at present is not above one third of the height. On its top still remains the crane employed by the masons to raise the stones for the building.

And it has stood for centuries. It was once taken down; but a tremendous thunder-storm, which occurred soon after, was attributed to its removal by the superstitious citizens, and it was therefore instantly replaced, or a similar one set up in its stead. Its permanent presence there may have indicated that the idea of completing this noble structure was not abandoned; and until recently (1849), its completion appeared probable even in the present generation. From 1824 down to 1842 large annual grants, amounting to 215,000 thalers, had been made to the building by the late and present King of Prussia, All this, however, was expended merely in repairs rendered indispensable by long ages of neglect. This restoration has been conducted in a masterly manner, the faulty stone from the Drachenfels, on the exterior, replaced by another of a sounder texture, and the

workmanship in the new sculpture and masonry is at least equal to the old. The stone used is no longer that of the Drachenfels, but is brought from Andernach and Treves, and is of volcanic origin.

A fresh impulse was given to the works on the accession of the present king, who contributed more largely to its funds, and on 4th Sept. 1842, laid the foundation stone of the transept. An Association, also, called Dom-bau Verein, has been established, with branches in all parts of Europe, to collect subscriptions for completing the edifice according to the original design. The architect, Zwirner, estimates the cost of finishing it at 2,000,000 dollars for the nave, transepts, &c.. and 3,000,000 doll. for the towers and façade; in all 750,000Z. In Sept. 1848, the nave, aisles, and transepts, were thrown open; a temporary wooden roof, covering in the nave and transept just above the triforium. It is possible, therefore, now to judge of the full extent of the interior. The late King of Bavaria has presented 5 painted windows, which have been placed in the S. aisle of the nave. The 5 painted windows in the N. aisle were executed in 1508; the 4th from the W. entrance is the best.

The entire length of the body of the church will be 511 ft., equal to the height of the Towers when finished; the breadth, 231 ft., corresponds with the height of the gable at the W. end.

"The Choir is the only part finished; 161 ft. high, and internally, from its size, height, and disposition of pillars, arches, chapels, and beautifully coloured windows, resembling a splendid vision. Externally, its double range of stupendous flying buttresses, and intervening piers, bristling with a forest of purfled pinnacles, strike the beholder with awe and astonishment. If completed, this would be at once the most regular and most stupendous Gothic monument existing.' Hope. The fine stained windows of the choir (14th cent.) have been thoroughly cleaned and repaired; and some concealed frescoes brought to light on the walls, have caused them

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to be decorated afresh by Steinle and | Corpora sanctorum recubant hic terna Magoartists of the Düsseldorf school. Round Ex his sublatum nihil est, alibive locatum. the choir, against the columns, stand 14 colossal statues of the 12 Apostles, the Virgin, and Saviour, gaudily coloured and gilt, sculptured in the beginning of the 14th century. Of the same date are the finely carved stalls and seats of the choir.

In a small chapel immediately behind the high altar is the celebrated Shrine of the Three Kings of Cologne, or Magi, who came from the East with presents for the infant Saviour. Their bones were carried off from S. Eustorgio at Milan by the Emp. Frederic Barbarossa, when he took that city by storm (1162), and were presented by him to Rainaldo Archbp. of Cologne, who had accompanied him on his warlike expedition. N. Italy Hdbk. 166. The case in which they are deposited is of plates of silver gilt, and curiously wrought, surrounded by small arcades, supported on pillars, enclosing figures of the Apostles and Prophets. The vast treasures which once decorated it were sadly diminished at the time of the French revolution, when the shrine and its contents were transported for safety by the chapter to Arnsberg, in Westphalia. Many of the jewels were sold to maintain the persons who accompanied it, and have been replaced by paste or glass imitations; but the precious stones, the gems, cameos, and rich enamels which still remain, will give a fair notion of its riches and magnificence in its original state. The skulls of the three kings, inscribed with their names— Gasper, Melchior, and Balthazer · written in rubies, are exhibited to view through an opening in the shrine, crowned with diadems (a ghastly contrast), which were of gold, and studded with real jewels, but are now only silver gilt. Among the antiques still remaining are 2, of Leda, and Cupid and Psyche, very beautiful. On the front of the shrine are these two monkish leonine lines, asserting the possession of the entire royal remains, against all rival proprietors of relics:

Those who show the tomb assert that its treasures are still worth 6 millions of francs 240,000l.; this is an exaggeration, no doubt.


This shrine is opened to the public gaze on Sundays and festivals; but those who desire to see it at other times, or to have a nearer and more minute view of it, must apply to the sacristan, and pay a fee of 1 Th., which admits a party to see it and the sacristy. Tickets at 15 S. gr. each are taken from the verger to see the choir, Dombild, and altars; 20 S. gr. are paid for ascending to the roof.

Under a slab in the pavement, between the high altar and the shrine of the three kings, the heart of Mary of Medicis is buried. In the adjoining side chapels around the choir are several monuments of Archbishops of Cologne; the most remarkable are those of Conrad of Hochsteden (its founder), of bronze (1261), and that of Phillip of Heinsberg (1191), surrounded by a mural parapet, to signify that he built the walls of Cologne.

In the side chapel of St. Agnes, on the right of the Magi, is a very ancient painting, in distemper, called the Dombild (the Cathedral picture), bearing the date 1410. It represents the Patron Saints of the city of Cologne, viz. in the centre, the Adoration of the Magi, or the Three Kings; on the one side St. Ursula and the 11,000 Virgins; on the other, St. Gereon with the Theban Legion. It is a masterly production for so early a period. The artist is not known, but is conjectured to be Stephen of Cologne, a pupil of Muster William of Cologne, mentioned in the Limburg Chronicle as the best painter in Germany.

In the Sacristy are many relics of Saints, including a bone of St. Matthew; St. Engelbert's shrine of silver, ornamented with reliefs of good workmanship, date 1635; some church plate, and the like curiosities; among them the Sword of Justice, with a finely

chased scabbard, borne by the Electors | downwards is certainly a more extraof Cologne at the coronation of the ordinary object than in its natural Emperor; and 10 elaborate carvings in place. Many parts of this picture are ivory. The State Cross of the Arch- so feebly drawn, and with so tame a bishop, 7 ft. high, ornamented with pencil, that I cannot help suspecting enamel; and a Pax of solid gold, 5 that Rubens died before he had cominches by 4. pleted it, and that it was finished by some of his scholars."-Sir J. Reynolds. "The composition is the best part of this picture; the bringing of the figures together is most original and skilful, and presents the difficulty of a bad subject overcome. Still the painting, ex

It is well worth while to climb up to the triforium gallery to appreciate the grandeur of the edifice, and to examine the painted glass; or even to mount to the roof for the sake of the view of the town, and of the exterior of the edifice. No one should omit likewise to visit the workshops (Bauhütten), to inspect the sculptured capitals, bosses, &c. prepared for the new buildings 20 S. gr. entrance.

The best description of the Dom is that by Binzer.

The Church of St. Peter contains the famous altar-piece of the Crucifixion of that Saint, with his head downwards, by RUBENS, who presented it to this church, in which he was baptized. The picture usually exposed to view is a copy made when the original was carried to Paris; but for a fee of 15 S. gr. (for a party), the sacristan will turn the picture round, and display the original at the back of the copy. On Sundays and festivals, the original is turned outwards. "It was painted a little time before Rubens's death. The body and head of the Saint are the only good parts in this picture, which is finely coloured (broad light and shade), and well drawn; but the figure bends too suddenly from the thighs, which are ill drawn, or rather in a bad taste of drawing; as is likewise his arm, which has a short interrupted outline. The action of the malefactors (executioners) has not that energy which he usually gave to his figures. Rubens, in his letters to Gildorp, expresses his own approbation of this picture, which he says was the best he ever painted; he likewise expresses his content and happiness in the subject, as being picturesque; this is likewise natural to such a mind as that of Rubens, who was perhaps too much looking about him for the picturesque or something uncommon. A man with his head

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cept in the left shoulder and breast of the Saint, is below the usual run of this great master-though done indeed with great power, yet in the drawing of the figures, the indication of anatomy is far from good."- Wilkie. painted east windows are fine, representing-1. Christ bearing his Cross; 2. Crucifixion; 3. Descent from the Cross. They were executed 15281530.

The brazen font in which Rubens was baptized still exists in this church.

The Ch. of St. Ursula, and of the 11,000 Virgins (built partly in the 12th, partly in the 14th and 15th centuries), is too singular a sight not to be visited. It is situated just within the walls, and is not remarkable in its architecture, but is filled with the bones of St. Ursula's companions. That saintly lady (according to the legend, a princess of Brittany or Armorica) set sail with her virgin train from Brittany for Rome, and sailed up the Rhine to Bale, whence she proceeded to Rome, on her return from which place the whole party was slaughtered at Cologne by the barbarian Huns, because they refused to break their vows of chastity. (See p. 129., and the Cologne version of the story, for there are many versions, in Mrs. Jameson's Sacred and Legendary Art, vol. ii. p. 115.) On entering the church these hideous relics meet the eye, beneath, above, around: they are built into the walls, buried under the pavement, and displayed in gaunt array in glass cases about the choir. The Saint herself reposes in a coffin behind the altar, while the skulls of a select few of her associates are

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