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Weather Bulletin of the Cincinnati Ob- transferred to the signal service at the serratory, for the benefit of the Cincinnati instance of Prof. Joseph Henry chamber of commerce, Sept. 1, 1869. His
Feb. 2, 1874 success led Professor Lapham, of Mil. Meteorological reports of army post surwaukee, to cause memorials for a nation- geons ordered by the surgeon-general to al system, to be endorsed by all chambers be sent to the chief signal office of commerce and boards of trade, and pre
June 19, 1874 sented to Congress with a bill by Gen. Daily publication of Bulletin of InterH. E. Paine, resulting in the act of national Simultaneous Meteorological Ob1870. The great value of the service servations of the Northern Hemisphere lies in simultaneous weather observations begun at Washington. ......Jan. 1, 1875 throughout the United States, trans- Publication of graphic synoptic Intermitted twice daily by telegraph to Wash- national Weather Maps of Simultaneous ington, from which are made synoptic Observations begun by General Myer weather maps and press reports telegraph.
July 1, 1878 ed to all points. Cautionary storm-sig. Brig.-Gen. W. B. Hazen appointed chief nals are displayed for the shipping at signal officer,
.... Dec. 6, 1880 all sea port and lake stations, and spe- Gen. A. W. Greely appointed chief sig. cial flood reports at river stations. For nal officer..
March 3, 1887 the benefit of agriculture, special farmers' Weather bureau transferred to the Debulletins are issued from the Washington partment of Agriculture, and Prof. Mark office at 1 A.m., and distributed by the W. Harrington appointed chief “ railway weather bulletin service," so
June 30, 1891 that, in the remotest sections, the farmer Weathersford, WILLIAM, Indian chief; may know at an early hour the “ proba- born on the Hickory Ground, in the bilities”
for the day. The title “Old Creek nation, Ala., about 1770. His faProbabilities," familiarly applied to the ther was an itinerant white peddler, sordid, head of the weather bureau, was first treacherous, and revengeful. His mother given in 1869 to Professor Abbé, chosen was a full-blooded Creek, of the tribe of in 1870 by General Myer to prepare the Seminoles. Weathersford inherited the “ probabilities,” or storm-warnings. bad qualities of each, but honor and hu
Chronology.-First weather bulletins of manity predominated in his character. simultaneous observations issued and tele. He was possessed of rare eloquence and graphed to more than twenty cities courage, and these, with his good judg
Nov. 4, 1870 ment, procured for him the respect of the First storm-warning bulletins along the old among his countrymen; while his lakes issued about......Nov. 10–15, 1870 vices made him the idol of the young and
Systematic tri-daily weather predictions unprincipled. He was of a commanding begun....
. Feb. 12, 1871 person — tall, straight, and well proporDisplay of cautionary signals on the tioned; his eyes black, lively, and penesea-coasts and lakes begun..Oct. 24, 1871 trating in their glance; his nose promi
Signal service changed to extend its re- nent and thin, but elegant in formation. searches in the interest of agriculture, Passionately devoted to wealth, he had by act approved.......... June 10, 1872 appropriated a fine tract of land, im
Signal - service stations established at proved and settled it, and had embellishlight-house and life-saving stations on the ed it from the profits of his father's pack. lakes and sea-coast, by act of
He entered fully into the views of TECUM
March 3, 1873 SEH (q. v.), and if there had been no Monthly Weather Revieic first publish- delay in perfecting the confederacy and ed
...1873 opening war he might have overrun the System of international co- - operative whole Mississippi Valley. He led in the simultaneous weather observation, pro- attack upon Fort Mims, and used all his posed by General Myer at the congress of power and persuasion to prevent the masmeteorologists convened at Vienna, is sacre of the women and children, but begun...
September, 1873 without success. That massacre aroused All Smithsonian weather observers all the white people of the great valley against the Creek nation, and the sons of the only wise policy for him to pursue. all Tennessee marched to their country “ If, however,” said Jackson, “ you desire and in the course of a few months de. to continue the war, and feel prepared stroyed the nation.
to meet the consequences, you may depart It was made a condition of peace with in peace and unite yourself with the warthe Creeks by Jackson that they should party if you choose.” Half scornfully, bring to him Weathersford, their great half sorrowfully, Weathersford replied: “ I leader, for he could not pardon him. He may well be addressed in such language then knew neither the great Creek chief now. There was a time when I had a nor his own plasticity. Weathersford did choice and could have answered you: I not wait to be caught and dragged like have none now—even hope is ended. Once a felon to the feet of the leader of the I could animate my warriors to battle: but pale-faces. He saw in the events at the I cannot animate the dead. My warriors Horseshoe Bend that all hope for his nation can no longer hear my voice. Their bones was gone. He mounted his fine gray are at Talladega, Tallushatchee, Emuehorse, which had saved his life, and rode faw, and Tohopeka. I have not surrento Jackson's camp, where he arrived at dered myself thoughtlessly. While there sunset. He entered Jackson's tent and was a chance for success I never left found the general alone. Drawing himself my post nor supplicated peace. But my up to his full height and folding his people are gone, and I ask it for my arms, he said: “I am Weathersford, the nation, not for myself. On the miseries chief who commanded at Fort Mims. I and misfortunes brought upon my country have nothing to request for myself. You I look back with deepest sorrow, and can kill me if you desire. I have come wish to avert still greater calamities. If to beg you to send for the women and I had been left to contend with the Georchildren of the war-party, who are now gia army I would have raised my corn starving in the woods. Their fields and on one bank of the river and fought them cribs have been destroyed by your peo- on the other. But your people have deple, who have driven them to the woods stroyed my nation. You are a brave man; without an ear of corn. I hope that you I rely upon your generosity. You will exwill send out parties who will conduct act no terms of a conquered people but them safely here, in order that they may such as they should agree to. Whatever be fed. I exerted myself in vain to save they may be, it would now be folly and the women and children at Fort Mims. madness to oppose. If they are opposed, I have come now to ask peace for my you will find me among the sternest suppeople, but not for myself." Jackson porters of obedience. Those who would expressed astonishment that one so guilty still hold out can be influenced only by a should dare to appear in his presence mean spirit of revenge, and to this they and ask for peace and protection. “I must not and shall not sacrifice the last am in your power; do with me as you remnant of their country. You have told please,” the chief haughtily replied. “I our nation where we might go and be safe. am a soldier. I have done the white peo- This is good talk, and they ought to listen ple all the harm I could. I have fought to it. They shall listen to it.” Thus spoke them, and fought them bravely; and if Weathersford for his nation. Words of I had an army I would yet fight and honor responded to words of honor, and contend to the last. But I have none. Weathersford was allowed to go freely My people are all gone. I can now do to the forest to search for his scattered no more than to weep over the misfortunes followers and counsel peace. of my nation.” Here was a man after The chief returned and became a Jackson's
heart- patriot who spected citizen of Alabama. He settled fought bravely for his people and his on a farm in Monroe county, well supland, and fearlessly expressed his patriot- plied with negro slaves, where he mainism in the presence of one who had power tained the character of an honest man. over his life. He was told that absolute Soon after his return he married, and submission and the acceptance of a home Gen. Samuel Dale, with whom he had beyond the Mississippi for his nation was several encounters, was his groomsman.
He said he could not live there, for his in command of the prize slaver Ardennes ; old comrades, the hostile Creeks, ate his served through the Civil War, winning cattle from starvation, the peace party distinction in the actions at Plaquemine, ate them for revenge, and the white squat- La., Donaldsonville, and in those which ters because he was a “damned red-skin"; occurred below that place after the fall so he said, “I have come to live among of Port Hudson. In 1865, while in comgentlemen.” Weathersford died from the mand of the monitor Mahopac he took effects of fatigue caused by a desperate part in the capture of Fort Fisher, and bear-hunt in 1824.
with the same vessel was present at the Weather Signals. GEN. ALBERT J. surrender of Richmond. He commanded MYER (q. v.), the originator of the sig. the iron-clad Dictator in Cuban waters nal service of the United States, also in- during the threatened war with Spain on vented and organized a weather signal account of the Virginius affair in 1873; service, which has been the means of con- promoted captain in 1876; commodore in ferring great benefits upon agriculture and 1886; and rear-admiral, June 27, 1893; commerce especially. This system, as ar- and was retired Sept. 26 following. ranged by General Myer, was established Weaver, JAMES B., lawyer; born in by Congress in 1870, and for twenty years Dayton. O., June 12, 1833; graduated at was a part of the signal service of the the Law School of the Ohio University in United States army. The Fifty-first Con- 1854; served in the National army in gress passed an act providing that while 1861–65; was promoted colonel of volthe signal service should remain as a unteers and brevetted brigadier-general; branch of the army, the forecasting of the member of Congress in 1879–81 and in weather should become one of the duties 1885-89. In 1880 he was the candidate of the Agricultural Department and be of the Greenback party for President and conducted by a special bureau. This law received 307,306 popular votes; and in went into effect on July 1, 1891, and all 1892 was the candidate of the People's the duties connected with the system of party for the same office, and received weather signals were transferred to the 1,041,028 popular and twenty-two electoral new bureau. The first chief of the bureau votes. was Prof. Mark W. Harrington, of Michi- Webb, ALEXANDER STEWART, military gan. Simultaneous weather reports from officer; born in New York City, Feb. 15, simultaneous observations, taken at differ. 1835; son of James Watson Webb; grad. ent places are transmitted to the bureau uated at West Point in 1855. Entering at Washington. Three of these simultane. the artillery, he served against the ous reports are made in each twenty-four Seminoles in Florida in 1856, and from hours, at intervals of eight hours; and 1857 to 1861 was assistant Professor of warnings are given by signals, maps, bul. Mathematics at West Point. In May, letins, and official despatches, furnished by 1861, he was made captain of infantry, the bureau, three times a day, to nearly all and in June, 1863, brigadier-general of the newspapers in the land. So thorough- volunteers. He was one of the defenders ly is this work done, by means of the tele- of Fort Pickens; fought at Bull Run and graph, the perfect organization of the sys- through the campaign on the Peninsula ; tem, and the discipline of the operators, was chief of staff of the 5th Corps at Anthat it is estimated one-third of all the tietam and Chancellorsville; served with families in our country are in possession, distinction at Gettysburg, and commanded each day, of the information issued from a brigade in the 2d Corps, in Virginia, the weather bureau. Fully 90 per cent. from October, 1863, to April, 1864. He of the predictions is verified by actual re- commanded a brigade in the campaign sults.
against Richmond in 1864-65, and in Janu. Weaver, AARON WARD, naval officer; ary, 1865, was General Meade's chief of born in the District of Columbia, July 1, staff. In March he was brevetted major1932; graduated at the United States general, United States army, and was disNaval Academy in 1854; commissioned charged in 1870. In 1869 he was chosen lieutenant in 1855; cruised along the coast president of the College of the City of of Africa in 1858–59 and returned home New York. His publications include The Peninsula: McClellan's Campaign of about the same time. In 1767 he went 1862; and a number of articles relating to New York City, and there aided Philip to the Civil War in the Century Mag. Embury in the work of the Methodist Soazine.
ciety. After being retired from the army Webb, JAMES Watson, journalist; with the rank of captain, he devoted his born in Claverack, N. Y., Feb. 8, 1802; time to missionary work in New Jersey, entered the army in 1819, was first lieu. Delaware, and Maryland. In 1757 he estenant in 1823, and resigned in 1827, when tablished the first Methodist Society in he became a journalist, soon taking a lead- Philadelphia, Pa. He visited England seying position in that profession as editor eral times, and permanently settled there and proprietor of the New York Courier at the outbreak of the Revolutionary War. and Enquirer. In 1850 he was appointed He died in Bristol, England, Dec. 20, chargé d'affaires at the Court of Vienna, 1796. but the Senate did not confirm the Webb, WILLIAM HENRY, ship-builder ; nomination. In 1861 he was appointed born in New York City, June 19, 1816; minister to Brazil, where he settled long. received a private education; learned the pending claims against that government; ship-builders' trade in his father's yard, and he was chiefly instrumental, through and started in business for himself in his personal intimacy with Napoleon III., 1843. He built over 150 vessels; devised in procuring the withdrawal of the French a new model for navy vessels; and controops from Mexico. For many years he structed many vessels of great speed and exerted a powerful influence in the politics capacity. He built and endowed the Webb of the United States. Among his special Academy and Home for Ship-builders, publications are Altowan, or Incidents of Fordham Heights, N. Y. He died in New Life and Adventure in the Rocky Moun- York City, Oct. 30, 1899. tains ; Slavery and Its Tendency; and a Webber, CHARLES WILKINS, journalist ; treatise on National Currency. He died born in Russelville, Ky., May 29, 1819. in New York City, June 7, 1884.
He went to Texas when that Territory was Webb, SAMUEL BLATCHLEY, military struggling for independence (1838); was officer: born at Weathersfield, Conn., Dec. for several years connected with the Texan 15, 1753; father of the preceding and Rangers; returned to Kentucky, where he step-son of Silas Deane; was thanked for studied medicine; later entered Princeton his gallantry in the battle of Bunker Theological Seminary: and subsequently ( Breed's) Hill, where he was wounded, settled in New York and engaged in and in June, 1776, was appointed aide-de- literary work. He contributed to The camp to Washington. In the battle of New World, The Democratic Rerieu, and White Plains he was again wounded; also The Sunday Despatch; and was at Trenton. He was in the battle of ciate editor and joint proprietor of The Brandywine, and in 1778 raised and took Whig Review. In 1849 he attempted to command of the 3d Connecticut Regiment. lead an exploring and mining expedition, In 1779 he, with most of his men, were but failed; in 1855 went to Central Amercaptured by the British fleet while cross- ica, where he joined William WALKER ing to Long Island with General Parsons, (q. v.) in Nicaragua. He was killed in and was not released until 1780, when he a skirmish, April 11, 1856. He wrote took command of the light infantry, with Old Hicks the Guide, or Adventures in the brevet rank of brigadier-general. He the Comanche Country in Search of a lived in New York City after the war, Gold Jine; The Gold Mines of the Gila, until 1789, when he removed to Claverack, etc. N. Y., where he died, Dec. 3, 1807.
Webber, SAMUEL, educator; born in Webb, THOMAS, clergyman; born in Byfield, Mass., in 1759; graduated at England in 1724; was an officer in the Harvard College in 1784; entered the British army; served with the Royal ministry; and became a tutor in Harvard American forces, being wounded at Louis- in 1787; was Professor of Mathematics burg and Quebec: became a Methodist in and Natural Philosophy there in 1789– 1765, and was licensed to preach ; and was 1804, and then became president. He was made barrack master at Albany, N. Y., one of the commissioners appointed to set
tle the boundary-line between the United on President Willard; and reviser of States and the British provinces; vice. Jedidiah Morse's American Universal president of the American Academy; au- Geography. He died in Cambridge, Mass., thor of System of Mathematics; Eulogy July 17, 1810.
Webster, DANIEL, statesman; born in cabinet of Mr. Fillmore the same year as Salisbury, N. H., Jan. 18, 1782; gradu- Secretary of State, which post he filled, ated at Dartmouth College in 1801, defray with great distinction, until his death. ing a portion of his college expenses by Mr. Webster delivered many remarkable teaching school. After teaching in Maine orations on occasions, notably on laying he studied law, and was admitted to the the corner-stone of the Bunker Hill monubar in 1805. He soon rose to eminence in ment (June 17, 1825), and on the complehis profession at Portsmouth, N. H., and tion of the monument (June 17, 1843).
a member of Congress in 1813–17, He paid much attention to agriculture at where he soon took a foremost rank in Marshfield, and was fond of hunting and debate. In 1816 he settled in Boston, and, fishing. His last great effort in the courts by his services in the Dartmouth College was in January, 1852, when he argued an case, which was carried to the Supreme important India-rubber patent case Court (1817), he was placed in the front Trenton, N. J. He died in Marshfield, rank in his profession. In that court he Mass., Oct. 24, 1852. ably argued many important cases, in Webster's Reply to Hayne.—The followwhich he exhibited superior skill and ing is the text of Senator Webster's reply ability. In 1820 he was a member of the to the speech of SENATOR Robert Y. Massachusetts constitutional convention. HAYNE (q. v.): He again entered Congress in 1823, when he made a famous speech on the Greek Rev. Mr. President,-When the mariner has olution, and, as chairman of the judiciary been tossed for many days in thick committee, effected measures for a com- weather and on an unknown sea, he natplete revision of the criminal law of the urally avails himself of the first pause United States. While John Quincy Adams in the storm, the earliest glance of the was President he was the leader of the sun, to take his latitude, and ascertain friends of the administration, first in the how far the elements have driven him from House and afterwards in the Senate, of his true
Let imitate this which he was a member in 1827-39. prudence, and before we float farther re
His celebrated speech in reply to Hayne, fer to the point from which we departed, of South Carolina, delivered in the Senate that we may at least be able to conjecture in 1832, is considered the most correct and where we now are. I ask for the reading complete exposition ever given of the of the resolution. true powers and functions of the national
[The secretary read the resolution, as government (see below). In 1839 he follows: visited Europe, and in March, 1841, Presi- “Resolved, that the committee on pubdent Harrison appointed him Secretary of lic lands be instructed to inquire and reState, which office he held until May, port the quantity of the public lands re1843, when he retired from President maining unsold within each State and Tyler's cabinet. Again in the United Territory, and whether it be expedient to States Senate, in 1845, he strongly opposed limit, for a certain period, the sales of the annexation of Texas and the war with the public lands to such lands only as Mexico, and in 1850 he supported the Com- have heretofore been offered for sale and promise measure (see OMNIBUS Bill, are now subject to entry at the minimum The). By his concessions to the demands price. And, also, whether the office of of the slave-holders, in a speech, March 7, surveyor-general, and some of the land 1850, he greatly weakened his influence in offices, may not be abolished without det. the free-labor States. He was called to the riment to the public interest; or whether