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Documents accompanying the President's Message.
[22d CoNg. 2d SEss
Being a greater increase for the year ending June 30, 1832, by $113,530 19, than accrued during any preceding year. This may be attributed, principally, to the improve. ments in mail facilities; and the increase for the current year may be safely estimated at a still greater amount. The contracts for the eastern section of the United States, comprising New York and the New England States, all expire on the 31st of December next, and have just been renewed, together with new contracts for transporting the mails on the routes established by law of the last session of Congress. The annual amount paid for transporting the mail in that section, under the old contracts, is — - - - The annual amount which will be required under the new contracts in that section, including all the old routes, with many important improvements, also for 142 new mail routes established in that section by the law of last session,
is — — — — — — —
At a reasonable estimate of the progressive increase of revenue from postage, there will be more than a suffi. ciency to meet this sum.
The increase of postages for the year ending the 30th of June, 1832, was, as above stated, $260,758 63 above those of the preceding year; but, in an increase of postages, there is a corresponding increase of commissions for compensation to postmasters.
After deducting these commissions, the remainder, constituting the nett proceeds of postages, is applicable to the payments for transportation of the mails, and for the incidental expenses of the department. The nett proceeds of postages for the year ending June 30, 1832, exceeded those of the preceding year $180,305 43. If the ratio of increase in the nett proceeds of postages for the year which will end on the 30th June, 1833, shall only equal that of the year ending June 30, 1832, it will amount to the sum of $196,823 06 above that of the last year, which will exceed the additional amount required for transportation by more than a hundred thousand dollars, provided no further improvements shall be made, without estimating any thing for postages that may arise on the new routes. But a greater ratio of increase of the nest amount of revenue may be fairly calculated upon from the very extensive improvements which have been made; and the accounts of postmasters for the quarter ending on the 1st of October last, so far as they have been examined, exhibit an increase of nett proceeds of postages at the rate of $260,000 a year above those of the year ending on the 30th of June, 1832.
There were in the United States on the 1st of July, 1831, 8,686 post offices. The number on the 30th of June, 1832, was increased to 9,205. The constant su. pervision of that number of postmasters, correcting abuses, enforcing the strict observance of the laws and instructions, and, above all, requiring of each to account faithfully and promptly for all the postages received, are essentially necessary to all the other operations of the department; and while the present system is strictly adhered to in the order of the transactions of the department, it is confidently believed that its operations will be attended with harmony and success.
I have the honor to be, with high regard, your obedient servant,
-- WILLIAM T. BARRY,
REPORT FROM THE MAJOR GENERAL OF THE Air MY.
HEAD QUARTERs of THE ARMY, Washington, November, 1832. SIR: I present, here with, in conformity with your instructions of the 2d of August, the following returns of the army, and statements connected with the military service for the present year. 1st. A statement showing the organization of the army, marked A. 2d. A return of the actual state of the army, mark. ed IB. - 3d. A return exhibiting the strength of the Eastern Department, designating the posts and garrisons, marked C. 4th. A return exhibiting the strength of the Western Department, designating the posts and garrisons, marked D. 5th. A statement showing the number of recruits enlisted in the army from the 1st of January to the 30th of September, 1832, marked E. 6th. An estimate of the funds required for the recruiting service for the year 1833, marked F. 7th. An estimate of the contingent expenses of the Head Quarters of the army, including those of the
office of the Adjutant General, for the year 1833, mark. cd G. In the month of March last, intelligence was received that the Menomonies, exasperated by a wanton and unprovoked attack and murder committed by the Sacs and Foxes on an unarmed party of their tribe, near the Prairie du Chien, in the month of August previous, meditated a descent on those tribes, with the intention of taking revenge for that outrage. Apprehending that this move. ment wotikl lead to a general war among the Indians on the Northwestern frontiers, General Atkinson was directed to proceed to Rock island, with the effectual force at Jefferson barracks, and demand of the Sacs and Foxes the surrender of the persons concerned in the murder of the Menomonies; at the same time to station troops to be drawn from the posts on the Upper Mississippi, and from Fort Winnebago, at points on the Mississippi from which they might intercept the Menomonies in their contemplated descent, turn them back, and inform them that the Government had determined to see that justice should be done. While these measures were in progress, a large party of Sacs and Foxes under Black Hawk, among whom were those concerned in the attack and murder of the Menomonies, crossed the Mississippi at the Yellow Banks, and, uniting with the Prophet’s band of Winne. bagoes, in all about 800 or 1000 strong, took a position on Rock river, and assumed an attitude of defiance. Under these circumstances, it was not in the power of the friendly Sac and Fox Indians to surrender the murderers as demanded, although they had expressed a willingness so to do. Thus situated, General Atkinson did not conceive that the force under his command was sufficient to justify him in attacking the hostile party, lest an unsuccessful attempt should add to their numbers the waiver ing and disaffected, and especially as they had not, as yet, committed any act of hostility, although they evinced a desire to make war upon the whites. The people settled on the frontiers of Illinois, alarmed at the appearance of so large a band of Indians in their immediate vicinity, with indications of no friendly feelings, fled from their farms into the interior of the State. The Governor of the State ordered out, in haste, and for no definite period, a brigade of militia, to assemble on Rock river. , These troops, aster a march across the country to Ottowa, in quest of the Indians, became anxious for their dis. charge; which the Governor granted, retaining of those who were discharged, and volunteered for a further term of twenty days, enough to form six companies. In the mean time, however, instructions were sent to General Atkinson, authorizing him to call on the Governor of Illinois for such a militia force as would, with the regular troops under his command, enable him to act efficiently. Accordingly, three thousand mounted volunteers were ordered into the field by the Governor, on the requisition of General Atkinson, and assembled at Fort Deposit, near Ottawa, about the 18th of June, where they were organiz. ed. Towards the latter part of that month, the campaign was opened with these troops, and about four hundred regulars, then at Dixon's ferry, on Rock river. Black Hawk, finding himself unable to cope with so large a force, retired into the swamps and fastnesses, sending out, at the same time, parties of active warriors to pick up stragglers, and to attack defenceless settlements. In this manner, he annoyed the people residing in that part of Michigan called the Mining District, and murdered a number of our citizens, men, women, and children. The people, in different directions in the exposed country, fortified themselves, and, by occasional sallies, inflicted punishment on these ruthless savages. With a view to cover the exposed settlements in the counties of Joe Da. viess, in Illinois, and Ioway, in Michigan, and to intercept the lndians should they attempt to cross in that di
rection, General Atkinson detached one brigade into that country; and, with the remaining force under his command, consisting of four hundred and fisty regulars, and about two thousand mounted volunteers, moved in the direction of the Four Lakes, in pursuit of the main body of the lndians, which was then understood to be encamped in a strong position in the swamps, about ten miles above Lake Goosh-we-hawn. General Atkinson halted his army on White Water creek for the purpose of ascertaining the exact position of the Indians. After being frustrated in his attempts to discover them, he was obliged to disperse his mounted volunteers, on account of the low state of the supplies intended for their subsistence. One portion, under General Henry, was sent to Hamilton's, a distance of forty-five miles; and another, under General Dodge, to Fort Winnebago, a distance of thirty-five miles—two points where provisions were expected to be in deposit. Having received the supply of provisions, Generals Henry and Dodge returned to the swamp on the west side of Rock river, with a view of obtaining some information concerning the enemy. At the same time, General Atkinson, with the regular troops, and General Alexander's brigade of mounted volunteers, moved up on the east side of the swamp, with the same intention. Black IIawk, finding himself likely to be pressed on all sides, and being no longer able to supply himself with the means of subsistence, broke up his camp, and marched towards the Mississippi. The volunteers under Generals Dodge and Henry, discovering the enemy’s trail, pursued it, and came up with him on the 21st of July, on the left bank of the Ouisconsin, about twenty miles below Fort Winnebago, where an engagement ensued, which lasted until 7 o’clock in the atternoon, during which the Indians found means to convey, across the Ouisconsin, their noncombatants and baggage. The volunteers having marched forty miles on the day of the action, exposed to the rain for more than six hours, and their arms being wet and out of order, were not in a condition to continue the pursuit that night. The next morning they found that the Indians had crossed the river in bark canoes, which they had, on the emergency of the occasion, prepared. The loss on the part of the volunteers was one killed and seven wounded; that of the Indians, it was found afterwards, amounted to sixty-eight killed, together with a large number wounded. The moment General Atkinson was informed that the volunteers were on the trail of the enemy, he marched in pursuit, and arrived at the Blue Mounds, near the Ouisconsin, where he was joined, on the evening of the 23d of July, by the volunteers under Generals Dodge and Henry, who had retired to that place for a supply of provisions. The army being refreshed and provisioned, a select body, consisting of four hundred regulars, under Colonel Taylor, of the first regiment of infantry, and detachments of Generals Henry, Dodge, Posey, and Alexander's mounted volunteers, amounting in all to thirteen hundred men, crossed the Ouisconsin on the 27th and 28th of July, under General Atkinson, took up the trail of the enemy, and pursued it by forced marches, through a broken and difficult country, until the morning of the 2d of August, when they came up with the main body, on the left bank of the Mississippi, opposite the mouth of the Ioway; which they attacked, defeated, and dispersed, with a loss, on the part of the lndians, of upwards of one hundred and fifty men killed. Many were slain in attempting to cross the river; others escaped in that direction, while the remainder, among whom was Black Hawk, fled into the interior of the Winnebago country. Our loss in this engagement was comparatively small, being only five regulars killed and four wounded: of the volunteers, two officers and thirteen privates wounded. On information being received by General Atkinson
Documents accompanying the President's Mossage.
that the Indians had quitted the swamp in the neighborhood of the Four Lakes, and marched towards the Mississippi, he despatched instructions to the commanding officer of Prairie du Chien, to take measures to intercept them, should they attempt to descend the Ouisconsin, or cress the Mississippi. In consequence of these instructions, a guard and an armed flat were stationed on the Ouisconsin, about twenty-five miles from its junction with the Mississippi; by which means a number of those who escaped from the engagement on the Ouisconsin were killed or captured. A steamboat in the employ of the Quartermaster's Department, armed with a field piece, and manned with about twenty men, was despatched up the Mississippi, to watch the motions of the Indians, and, on the 1st of August, discovered a large body of them on the left bank, making preparations to cross that river. The Indians at first attempted to deceive our party by declaring themselves to be Winnebagoes, and displaying white flags, at the same time inviting them to land. But the officer in command being aware of their intentions, fired upon them, and killed twentyfive of their number. The fire was smartly returned by the Indians, but without effect. This circumstance for
tunately checked the Indians in their attempt to cross |
the river, and led to the action of the 2d of August. The enemy being thus cut up and dispersed, General Atkinson conceived it unnecessary to pursue him further. He therefore fell down with his force to Prairie du Chien; from which place were despatched, on both sides of the Mississippi, parties of friendly Indians, to follow the fugitives, and bring them in; and it is believed that not an individual composing the band of Black Hawk has escaped being either killed or captured. From the information which had been received at the seat of Government of the state of things on the frontier, and with the desire of putting a speedy termination to the war, without calling for any additional militia force, orders were given, on the 16th of June, for all the force that could be spared from the seaboard, the lakes, and the Lower Mississippi, to repair at once to the scene of action; and Major General Scott was directed to assume the general conduct of the war. Under this order, nine companies of artillery, equipped as infantry, drawn from Forts Monroe and Michenry, and from the harbor of New York, with a detachment of two hundred and eight recruits from the last mentioned place, and nine companies of infantry from the posts on the lakes, amounting, in all, to upwards of one thousand men, took up their march for Chicago, near the head of Lake Michigan, the point of rendezvous. Besides this force, two companies of infantry from Baton Rouge, Louisiana, proceeded, by the way of the Missssippi, to the head quarters of Gen. Atkinson. From the promptness with which this movement was begun, and the rapidity with which it was conducted, reasonable hopes were entertained that the campaign would be but of short duration, and the hostile Indians completely subdued. Unfortunately, however, the cholera was just at this time making its way into the United States from Canada, and infected our troops while on board the steamboats, in their passage up the lakes; and such was the rapidity with which this disease spread among them, that in a few days the whole of the force sent by the lakes was rendered incapable of taking the field. Some were landed at Fort Gratiot, others were stopped at Detroit, while the principal part reached Chicago in a most deplorable condition. Of the six companies of artillery which left Fort Monroe, five companies arrived at Chicago, a distance of eighteen hundred miles, in the short space of eighteen days—a rapidity which is believed to be unprecedented in military movements. The loss by cholera in that detachment alone, was equal to one out of every three men. General Scott reached Chicago with the first detachment on the 10th of July,
where he learned that General Atkinson, with his army, was at Lake Goosh-we-hawn, about eighty miles distant. , Here the General found himself in a most perplexing predicament: only a part of his troops had arrived, and they dreadfully afflicted with the cholera. The remainder, which he daily expected, without knowing the cause of their delay, did not appear. He made General Atkinson acquainted with his arrival and orders, but dared not approach him with troops infected with a disorder that might, by being communicated to the army in the field, render the force of General Atkinson, like his own, unfit to prosecute the war, and thereby defeat the very object for the accomplishment of which he had come. Under this painful anxiety, General Scott directed General Atkinson to continue his operations without reference to him, professing, at the same time, the greatest confidence in his ability to bring the war to a successful issue, if the ‘means at his disposal would enable him to do so. Gen. Scott, however, after awaiting a reasonable time, and not finding it possible to bring his troops into the field, left Col. Eustis in command of them, with orders to march in the direction of the enemy as soon as it would be prudent to move, and proceeded himself to join Gen. Atkinson. At Galena, he received intelligence of the decisive action of the 2d August. He thence proceeded to Prairie du Chien, and, having made all the necessary arrangements for bringing the Indians who had commenced the war, within his power, he retired to Rock island, to enter into negotiations with those of the Sac and Fox Indians who took no part in the war, and the other tribes interested in the settlement of a peace. The troops under Colonel Eustis, in the mean time, marched across the country to Rock river, and were useful in making the necessary ar-, rangements to give effect to the meeting of the Indians. Impressed with the folly of opposing the Government, and convinced of the impropriety of the conduct of those who were the aggressors, the several tribes yielded to an accommodation at once beneficial to themselves, and satisfactory, it is to be hoped, to the United States. Black Hawk and a number of chiefs are held as hostages under the treaty; the rest of the prisoners were returned to their respective tribes. The war being concluded, the volunteers were discharged, and the several detachments of regular troops were ordered to their respective quarters, except two companies of the 4th regiment of artillery, which remain to garrison Fort Gratiot, on Lake Huron. The corps of mounted rangers, authorized by the act of Congress of the 15th June, 1832, has been raised, but not in time to partake of the campaign against the Indians. Three of the companies have been ordered to Fort Gibson, to range the southwestern frontier, where the Indians of the interior have been restless for some time, and disposed to quarrel with those who have migrated thither. One company has accompanied the caravan to Santa Fe, as an escort, and two companies, after ranging the frontiers of Michigan and Illinois, have orders to retire into quarters for the winter, where they will be in a position to act on those frontiers, if circumstances should require their being called out before the spring. On the requisition of the Governor of North Carolina, two companies of the 2d regiment of artillery were ordered from the harbor of Charleston, South Carolina, into the district or country occupied by the Cherokees, in the northwestern corner of that State, where the Indian title is not yet extinguished, to drive out intruders on those lands, who had been attracted thither by the prospect of obtaining gold, and other unlawful purposes. These troops were replaced by others from Fort Monroe... . The army, according to its numerical force, is efficient, and capable of performing, on correct military principles, any duty required of it. The officers are respectable in ūčir habits and acquirements. While, however, I pre
sent the army in this favorable light, I am compelled, by a sense of duty, to make it known to you, that the requi. sitions for officers, for the performance of various duties not connected with regimental affairs, are so numerous, that it is seldom as many as two officers are present for duty with each company. It may therefore be conceived how difficult it is to afford the necessary instruction to our soldiers, or to maintain that discipline in the army which is requisite, in order to render it efficient for active operations. The line of the army can supply officers for the general and regimental staff, and for the Military Academy and Ordnance Department; but it cannot bear the drafts made for assistants in the Engineer, Topographical, and Indian Departments, without impairing the efficiency of the several battalions of artillery and infantry. If the corps of engineers and topographical engi. neers were so augmented, by the authority of law, as to enable them to furnish officers for their appropriate duties, without assistance from the line, it is believed the public would be better served, and the interest of all parties promoted. The several departments of the staff have had, in the late campaign, an opportunity of exercising their functions, under circumstances that were calculated to test their capabilities; and it is highly gratifying to be able to state that the most satisfactory evidences have been af. forded of their efficiency. I have the honor to be, sir, your most obedient servant, ALEXAN1) ER MACOMB, Major General commanding the Army.
Leaving a balance in the hands of the various officers of the department, on the 30th of September, to be accounted for, of $87,230 14 The accounts of eleven officers remain to be received, which will probably reduce this balance $10,000. Of the balance unexpended, the sum of $50,000 was in the hands of the quartermaster at Detroit. The large remittances made to that officer, were to enable him to provide promptly for any unforeseen events or calls connected with the campaign against the northwestern Indians. Ten thousand dollars have since been drawn out of his hands for disbursement, by the quartermaster at New York, and the balance is applicable to the current service, and to the payment of accounts for services rendered and supplies furnished during the campaign. The remaining twenty-seven thousand dollars is composed of small sums in the hands of more than fifty officers at the several posts in the Union, and of one on duty in Europe, and applicable to the service of the present quarter. The whole amount of the balances in the hands of all the officers of the department, it is confidently believed, will be faithfully applied to the public service, and accounted for at the close of the present quarter. The large armount of public property under the administration of the department, as well as in the hands of quartermasters, as company officers, is promptly and faithfully accounted for. The balances remaining in the Treasury, of the several appropriations for the Quartermaster’s Department proper, with the amounts due to those appropriations, for expenditures made on account of other departments, will probably be sufficient for the wants of the service to the end of the year. Of the works under the direction of the department, the road from Washington to Jackson, in the Territory of Arkansas, was reported by Lieut. Collins, who superintended its construction, as entirely completed on the 1st of August. The repairs on the road from St. Augustine to Pensacola, in Florida, are in progress, and will probably be completed, as far as the appropriation will permit, during the present year. The military road in the State of Maine is not entirely completed. It is, however, in its present state, of great public utility. The appropriation already made will be sufficient, and I confidently believe it will be finished by the last of September, 1833. In April last, instructions were given to survey and open a road from Fort Howard to Fort Winnebago, but the reduction of the force at Green Bay prevented the execution of the instructions. An additional appropriation having been made by Congress, late in the last session, for this road, and to extend it to Fort Crawford, subsequent instructions became necessary; they were given by the quartermaster at Detroit, by order of the Secretary of War. The civil commissioner appointed, jointly with Lieutenant Center, to explore and survey the route, not having arrived at Fort Howard on the 21st of October, Lieutenant Center commenced the duty alone on that day. The difficulties experienced in the recent operations against the ludians, in the movement of troops, and the [22d Cong. 2d Sess.
Documents accompanying the President's Message.
transportation of supplies, prove the necessity of several good roads to intersect the extensive territory lying between the srontier settlements of Indiana and Illinois, Lake Michigan, and the Fox and Ouisconsin rivers; and I respectfully recommend, as a most important measure for the protection and defence of the Northwestern frontier, that roads be authorized from Chicago to Galena, from Chicago to Fort Winnebago, and from the latter to Galena, as well as from some suitable points on the Illinois river to Chicago, and to intersect the road thence to Galena. The barracks and quarters at Fort Crawford and Fort Howard are not yet completed, and, in consequence of the troops at those posts being so employed as not to furnish the mechanics required, a further appropriation will be necessary for each post. I have estimated eight thousand dollars for Fort Crawford, and ten thousand dollars for Fort Howard. Baton R ruge, in Louisiana, being an insportant position, and being the principal ordnance depot for the Southwestern States, a thorough repair of the barracks and quarters are considered necessary; as well as the building of a suitable hospital. For both objects, I have estimated that twenty-five thousand dollars will be required. Pittsburg being an important entrepot between the principal depot at Philadelphia and the western posts, I would recommend that a storehouse, and quarters for the storekeeper, with a stable for public horses, be erected on the public lot in that city. Five thousand dollars will be sufficient to complete the work, and for that sum I have estimated. The season had so far advanced before the appropria tion for quarters, barracks, and storehouses, at New Orleans, was made, that measures could not then be taken to carry into effect that object; and in consequence of the situation of New Orleans, from yellow fever and other fatal diseases, nothing has yet been done. So soon as favorable accounts be received of the health of the city, an officer of the department will be detached, to select a suitable site, and make arrangements to commence the work in the course of the winter. The appropriation for the Delaware breakwater not having been made until the 3d of July, operations were not resumed there until the 11th of that month. The work has, however, been prosecuted with so much ener. gy, that we have succeeded in depositing about ninety thousand perches of stone, from that time to the close of the operations on the 10th instant. The whole length of the foundation of the breakwater proper, on which deposits of stone have been made, is 1893 feet, of which 1419 feet is raised to the height of 33 feet above the plane of low water, and 474 feet to its destined height. The icebreaker has been considerably enlarged during the sea. son, to an extent of 575 feet in length by 60 feet in breadth. This work has been raised from three to four feet above the plane of low water, 151 feet of which has been brought up nearly to its destined height. Of the appropriation for the present season, it is esti. mated that from fifty to sixty thousand dollars will be applicable to the service of the ensuing year. This sum, with 270,000 dollars, which I have estimated for the next year, will enable us so to extend the harbor, as to furnish protection to forty or fifty vessels at a time. The storms of the last winter were, perhaps, more sewere than those of winters generally, and the fact of the work having resisted their power, and afforded protection to all vessels that took shelter under it, gives assu. rance that the anticipations of the public will be entirely realized when the whole shall have been completed. I have the honor to be, sir, your obedient servant, - TH. S. JESUP, Quartermaster General. The Hon. Lewis CAss, Secretary of War.
REPORT OF THE CHIEF ENGINEER. ENGINEER DEPARTMENT, Washington, November 13, 1832.
sin: In compliance with your instructions of the 29th of August last, I have the lonor to submit the following report of the operations of this department during the year ending on the 30th of September last, accompanied by statements marked A, B, and C ; the first two relating to its fiscal concerns for the same period, and the last exhibiting the works projected by the Board of Engineers, which have not been commenced, and an estimate of
their cost. 1st. FORTIFICATIONS,
Fort Independence, Boston Harbor, Mass.--It has been found impossible to execute the intentions of the law making appropriations for the repairs of this work, and preservation of Castle island, as the services of an engineer could not be commanded for that object. It is proposed, however, to make some arrangement this winter, by which the whole of the repairs, necessary to be made to this work, may be completed in the course of the next year; and, with this view, an estimate of the funds which will be required, in addition to those already appropriated to make up the estimated cost of these re. pairs, has been submitted. - George's Island, Boston Harbor, Mass.-(The site of a fort of the first importance, projected for the defence of the harbor.) The sea wall for the preservation of this island is completed, leaving a small amount of the funds appropriated for that purpose unexpended. This unexpended balance is retained to remedy, in the spring, any defect in that structure which the action of the coming winter may develop. Fort Adams, Newport, Rhode Island.—The most satisfactory progress has been made in this work during the past season. The operations on it have been directed, principally,to the turning and roofing the casemate arches of the main work; to the completion of the scarp wall on the east front; to the construction of permanent galleries under the southwest bastion, the counterscarp walls of the southeast and southwest exterior fronts; and the permanent drains of the work generally. Fort Hamilton, Narrows, New York.-The additions which were deemed necessary to complete this work, and which consist, mainly, of the means for draining the water from the roofs of the casemates, and in the construction of gun traverses, are in such a state of forwardness, as to induce the expectation that the whole will be finished by the end of the present month. Fort Columbus and Castle Williams, New York Harbor.—The repairs of Fort Columbus have been prosecuted in the most efficient manner. The repairs of the scarp walls were commenced last fall, and, before the operations were suspended by the approach of cold wea. ther, upwards of 458 cubic yards of heavy masonry were constructed: materials having been received and prepar. ed during the winter, operations were resumed early in the spring, and continued, without interruption, till the month of August last, when the work was abandoned in consequence of the alarm created by the malignant cholera, which was, at that time, raging with considerable violence among the workmen. The necessary measures having been taken to ensure the health of the laborers, this interruption was of short duration, and, on the 4th September last, the works were progressing with their usual vigor. The stone masonry laid within the year ending 30th September, amounting to 2470 cubic yards, extends about three-fourths around the work, twothirds of which are finished and capped. The present barrack and quarters for the officers are in so bad a state
of decay, independent of their want of comfort and room,