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had an excellent understanding of military principles. In temper he was signally cool and composed. He was succeeded in command of the Third Division by Brigadier-General Gershom Mott, of New Jersey, a man perfectly brave, with much of the natural instinct of leadership, though lacking a little in that stirring ambition which brings to their highest activity the qualities of a commander.

On the 25th of July General Grant addressed the following letter to President Lincoln:

"City Point, Va., July 23, 1864.

"president A. Lincoln: After the late raid into Maryland had expended itself, seeing the necessity of having the four departments of the Susquehanna, the Middle, West Virginia, and Washington under one head, I recommended that they be merged into one. ... It would suit me equally well to call the four departments referred to a 'military division,' and to have placed in command of it General Meade. In this case I would suggest General Hancock for the command of the Army of the Potomac, and General Gibbon for the command of the Second Corps.

"Hoping that you will see this matter in the light I do, I have the honor to subscribe myself, etc., "U. S. Grant, Lieutenant General."

CHAPTER XVII.

DEEP BOTTOM.

The terrible experiences of May and June in assaults upon intrenched positions naturally brought about a reaction even in Grant's resolute mind, so that the months of July and August were largely occupied in rapid movements, now to the right and now to the left of a line thirty miles in length, in the hope of somewhere, at some time, getting upon the flank of the unprepared enemy—the sentiment of headquarters and perhaps the orders* being adverse to assaults. Unfortunately, this change of purpose did not take place until the numbers, and even more the morale, of the troops had been so far reduced that the flanking movements became, in the main, ineffectual from the want of vigor in attack at critical moments when a little of the fire which had been exhibited in the great assaults of May would have crowned a well-conceived enterprise with victory. That fire for the time had burned itself out; and on more than one occasion during the months of July and August the troops of the Army of the Potomac, after an all-day or all-night march which placed them in a position of advantage, failed to show a trace of that enthusiasm and dan which had characterized the earlier days of the campaign.

* Thus Grant, in his dispatch to Meade, July 27th, says: "I do not want Hancock to attack intrenched lines."

In two of these expeditions—one in July and one in August—the Second Corps, which had always maintained the highest reputation for its quick and clean marches, took the leading part. The July expedition to Deep Bottom, as it was called, on the north bank of the James River, had in view two possible results: First, that the enemy's lines might be found so slimly held as to allow our powerful corps of cavalry, after the Confederate infantry should have been pushed back on Chapin's Farm, to capture Richmond by a rush, or, at least, cut up the railroads on the north of the city. Second, that whether Hancock should succeed or should fail in the first object, the movement might serve as a feint to draw a large part of Lee's army away from Petersburg, which the other corps were preparing to enter through the ghastly avenue to be laid open by the explosion of Burnside's mine.

In execution of his instructions, Hancock led his corps out of camp on the 26th of July; and, crossing Bermuda Hundred behind Butler's line, reached the James with the head of his column on the morning of the 27th. Hancock at once threw his infantry

across the river by the only bridge that was availabte. Sheridan * followed with his numerous cavalry. It was found that the enemy had since Grant's last advices advanced their troops to occupy the strong defensive line of Bailey's Creek, which was thus necessarily to be carried before the Confederates could be forced back on Chapin's Farm, as contemplated in Hancock's instructions. One division— Kershaw's—had been thrown forward from this line to hold the edge of the woods which skirted on the west the great plain of Deep Bottom. This force was intrenched, with artillery. As soon as Kershaw was discovered, the First Division was formed in line of battle, and its skirmishers, under command of Colonel James C. Lynch, of Pennsylvania, but with General Miles superintending the movement, were pushed toward the enemy. Hereupon ensued one of the most dashing operations of the war. So skillful and adroit were the dispositions made, so rapid and impetuous was th"e advance of the skirmish line, that, without a regiment of the reserves showing itself, Kershaw's works were carried at the first rush and his line of battle was driven back through the woods. The fruits of this brilliant dash were four twenty-pounder Parrotts—great splendid fellows— which, it may well be believed, were brought in with much jubilation. Following up this initial success, the enemy were driven back behind Bailey's Creek. On the right the skirmishers of the Third Division, under command of Colonel Edwin R. Byles, became severely engaged with the enemy. The four twentypounder Parrotts were unanimously accepted as a full compensation for McKnight's four Napoleons, lost on the 22d of June.

* It will be remembered that General Hancock was the ranking officer.

Inasmuch as the further developments of the morning showed that the enemy were in well-constructed works along Bailey's Creek, in full force, Hancock was instructed not to attack in front, but to seek to turn the enemy's left flank. This was at last found to rest near Fussell's Mill, and Mott's and Barlow's divisions were moved over to this point. About three o'clock in the afternoon General Grant visited the field in person. The lieutenant general satisfied himself that, while the heavy concentration of the enemy would prevent our troops from giving battle, the second object of the expedition was being even more completely accomplished than he had dared to hope. In fact, Lee had become thoroughly alarmed by the appearance of our troops in this quarter and nothing doubted that Grant was making a desperate effort to force his way directly into Richmond. An unceasing stream was pouring across the James from Petersburg to resist Hancock's advance. By the 29th of July five out of Lee's eight*

* This is the way General Meade stated it at the time. There were nine divisions in the Army of Northern Virginia. I suppose the division in front of Butler was excluded.

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