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entered upon mercantile business. He ed autobiography, completed by his son, was with Colonel Monckton in Nova Sco- Winslow Cossoul Watson, was publishtia in 1755, and was at the siege of Louis- ed in 1855 under the title of Men and burg in 1758, having in charge Wolfe's Times of the Revolution. Among his pubdivision, as commissary. In 1759 he set. lished writings were a History of the tled as a merchant in London, and after- Western Canals of New York; a History wards in Montreal. Just before the Rev- of the Modern Agricultural Societies; olutionary War he visited several of the Agricultural Societies the Modern colonies, with false professions of politi. Berkshire System, etc. cal friendship for them, as a Whig. A Watson, Fort, CAPTURE OF. Upon an friend of Sir Guy Carleton, he was made ancient tumulus, almost 50 feet high, on his commissary - general in America in the borders of Scott's Lake (an expansion 1782, and from 1784 to 1793 he was mem- of the Santee River), a few miles below ber of Parliament for London. He was the junction of the Congaree and Wateree, sheriff of London and Middlesex, and in the British built Fort Watson, named in 1796 was lord mayor. For his services compliment to Colonel Watson, who proin America, Parliament voted his wife jected it. In April, 1781, it was garan annuity of $2,000 for life. From 1798 risoned by eighty regulars and forty to 1806 he was commissary.general of Eng- loyalists, under the command of Lieuland. He died Oct. 2, 1807.

tenant McKay, when Marion and Lee apWatson, David KEMPER, lawyer; born peared before it and demanded its surin Madison county, O., June 18, 1849; render. Colonel Watson was on his way graduated at Dickinson College in 1871; from Georgetown with a large force to appointed assistant United States attor- assist Mckay, and the latter promptly ney for the southern district of Ohio; at. defied Marion and Lee. The latter had no torney-general of Ohio in 1887-89; mem- cannon, and the stockade was too high to ber of Congress in 1895–97; appointed by be seriously affected by small-arms. Lieu: President McKinley on the commission to tenant Maham, of Marion's brigade, revise and codify the civil penal laws of planned and built a tower of logs sufthe United States. He is the author officiently high to overlook the stockade, History of American Coinage; Early Judi- with a parapet at the top for the defence ciary; Early Laws and Bar of Ohio, etc. of sharp - shooters placed therein. This

Watson, EBENEZER, editor; born in work was accomplished during a dark Bethlehem, Conn., in 1744. He was for night, and at dawn the garrison was several years editor and publisher of The awakened by a shower of bullets from a Courant; and after his death in Hartford, company of riflemen on the top of the Conn., Sept. 16, 1777, his second wife, tower. Another party ascended the mound HANNAH BUNCE, conducted the paper, and attacked the abatis with vigor. Reprobabl the first woman who edited a sistance was vain. The fort, untenable, newspaper in this country.

was surrendered (April 23), and, with the Watson, ELKANARI, agriculturist; born garrison as prisoners, Marion pushed in Plymouth, Mass., Jan. 22, 1758; was northward to the High Hills of Santee. apprenticed in 1773 to John Brown, a mer- Watson, HENRY CLAY, author; born in chant in Providence, R. I., who in 1775 Baltimore, Md., in 1831; removed to sent him with a large quantity of powder Philadelphia, Pa., and engaged in jourto Washington for use in the siege of nalism; was connected with the North Boston. At the age of twenty-one (1779) American, and the Evening Journal; later he was made bearer of despatches by Con- removed to Sacramento, where he edited gress to Dr. Franklin, in Paris. He visit- the Times. He wrote Camp-fires of the ed Michigan and explored the lake region, Rerolution ; Nights in a Block-house; Old and also a route to Montreal, with a view Bell of Independence; The Yankee Teapot ; to opening some improved way for its Lives of the Presidents of the United commercial connection with New York and States ; Heroic Women of History, etc. He Boston. In 1828 he settled at Port Kent, died in Sacramento, Cal., July 10, 1869. on the west side of Lake Champlain, Watson, Јону CRITTENDEN,

naval where he died, Dec. 5, 1842. His unfinish- officer; born in Frankfort, Ky., Aug. 24, 1842; graduated at the United States Tales of the Olden Times in New York Military Academy in 1860; served in the (1832), and Historic Tales of the Olden Civil War, being present at the passage Times in Philadelphia (1833). He also of Forts Jackson and St. Philip and the left manuscript annals in the Philadelphia Vicksburg batteries; took part in the bat- Library. He died in Germantown, Pa., tle of Mobile Bay, etc.; promoted lieuten- Dec. 23, 1860. ant-commander, July 25, 1866; captain, Watson, John TADWELL, military offiMarch 6, 1887; and commodore, Nov. 7, cer; born in London, England, in 1748; en1897. On June 27, 1898, he was appointed tered the 3d Foot Guards in 1767; became chief of the Eastern Squadron, which was lieutenant and captain in 1778. He unoriginally organized for the purpose of dertook the destruction of Gen. Francis intercepting the Spanish fleet under Ad- Marion's brigade in 1781, and after sevmiral Camara, which it was supposed had eral skirmishes fled to Georgetown. He sailed for the United States under orders became colonel in 1783, and general in to devastate the coast cities and to co- 1808. He died in Calais, France, June 11, operate with

Admiral Cervera. This 1826. Spanish fleet for several weeks was vari- Watson, PAUL BARRON, author; born ously reported as being at the Cape Verde in Morristown, N. J., March 25, 1861; Islands and at other points near the graduated at Harvard College in 1881; American seaboard, and at one time it admitted to the bar in 1885, and pracstarted to go through the Suez Canal and tised in Boston. He published a Bibliogto Manila Bay for the purpose of attack- raphy of the Pre - Columbian Discoveries ing Dewey's fleet. After the destruction of America. of Cervera's fleet it was reported in the

Watson, THOMAS E., lawyer; born in United States that Commodore Watson Columbia county, Ga., Sept. 5, 1856; adhad received orders to proceed with all mitted to the bar in 1875 and practised haste to the Spanish coast and to begin in Thomson, Ga.; member of the Georgia offensive operations there. This avowed legislature in 1882–83; and of Congress purpose on the part of the United States (as a Populist) in 1891-93. During the government, taken in connection with the latter period he had a bill passed granting destruction of Cervera's fleet and the sur- the first appropriation for the free delivery render of the Spanish army at Santiago, of mail in rural districts. In 1896 he was led the Spanish government to authorize nominated for Vice-President of the Unitthe French ambassador in Washington to ed States by the Populist convention in make overtures for


He was St. Louis. He is the author of The Story promoted rear-admiral, March 3, 1899; of France, and the Life of Thomas Jefwas commander-in-chief of the Asiatic ferson. Station from June 15, 1899, to April 19, Watson, WINSLOW CosSOUL, author ; 1900; and was appointed president of the born in Albany, N. Y., Dec. 22, 1803. He naval examining board, Oct. 15, 1900. published Pioneer History of the Cham

Watson, Join FANNING, historian; plain Valley, Giving an Account of the born in Burlington county, N. J., June Settlement of the Town of Willsboro, 13, 1779; was a clerk in the War Depart- by William Gilliland, together with his ment in 1798, and afterwards went to Journal and Other Papers, and a Memoir; New Orleans, where, in 1804, he was pur- The History of Esser County, N. Y., and veyor of subsistence for the United States Military Annals of Ticonderoga and Crown troops stationed there. Returning to Phil- Point, etc. adelphia, he was a bookseller there for Watterson, HENRY, journalist; born in many years. From 1814 until 1847 he was Washington, D. C., Feb. 16, 1840; recashier of a bank in Germantown, and ceived a private education; was a staff afterwards was treasurer of a railroad officer in the Confederate army during the company. He was an industrious delver Civil War. After the war he engaged in antiquarian lore, and in 1830 he pub- in journalism; became editor of the Loulished Innals of Philadelphia. In 1846 isville Courier - Journal. He is the auhe published innals of Verr York City and thor of History of the Spanish-American Stato. He had already published Historic War; Abraham Lincoln, etc.


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Watts, FREDERICK, military officer; Wauhatchie, BATTLE OF. When Genborn in Wales, June 1, 1719; emigrated to eral Grant arrived at Chattanooga and the United States and settled in Cumber- took chief command, Oct. 23, 1863, he land county, Pa., in 1760. He served in saw the necessity of opening a more direct the Revolutionary War as lieutenant-colo- way to that post for its supplies. General nel, and had command of the battalion Hooker, who had been sent with a large that was assigned to Cumberland county. force under Howard and Slocum from At the surrender of Fort Washington this Virginia, was then at Bridgeport, on the division was captured. After his exchange Tennessee, and Grant ordered him to cross he was made a justice of the peace; a that stream and advance to the Lookrepresentative in the Assembly in 1779; out Valley and menace Bragg's left. He sub-lieutenant of Cumberland county in did so, and reached Wauhatchie, in that 1780; commissioned brigadier-general of valley, on the 28th, after some sharp skirvolunteers in 1782; and was a member of mishing. Being anxious to hold the road the supreme executive council in 1787-- leading from Lookout Valley to Kelly's

He died on his farm on Juniata Ferry, Hooker sent General Geary to en. River, Oct. 3, 1795.

camp at Wauhatchie.

Hooker's moveWatts, John, legislator; born in New ments had been keenly watched by McYork City, April 16, 1715; married a Laws's division of Longstreet's corps, then daughter of Stephen De Lancey in July, holding Lookout Mountain. McLaws 1742; represented New York City in the swept down the rugged hills and struck Provincial Assembly for many years, and Geary's small force at 1 A.M., on Oct. 29,

a member of the council eighteen hoping to crush it and capture Hooker's years (1757-75), when, taking sides with whole army. The attack was made with the crown, he went to England. His prop- great fury on three sides of the camp, while erty was confiscated; but the most valu- batteries on the mountain-sides sent down able part of it was afterwards reconveyed screaming shells. to his sons, Robert and John, in July, Geary was not surprised. He met the 1784. He died in Wales in August, 1789. assailants with a steady, deadly fire.

Watts, STEPHEN, lawyer; born about Hearing the noise of battle, Hooker sent 1743; graduated at the University of General Schurz's division of Howard's Pennsylvania in 1762; admitted to the corps to Geary's assistance. The Confedbar in Philadelphia in 1769; removed to erates were repulsed after a sharp battle Louisiana in 1774; later became recorder of three hours. They fled, leaving 150 of deeds of the English settlements on the of their number dead on Geary's front; Mississippi. He wrote an essay on Re- also 100 prisoners and several hundred ciprocal Advantage of a Perpetual Union small-arms. The National loss was 416 between Great Britain and Her American killed and wounded. This result secured Colonies, which was published in 1766. a safe communication for supplies for the He died in Louisiana in 1788.

Nationals between Bridgeport and ChatWatts, Thomas Hill, legislator ; born tanooga. An amusing incident occurreri in Butler county, Ala., Jan. 3, 1820; grad- during the battle. When it began, about uated at the University of Virginia in 200 mules, frightened by the noise, dash1810; admitted to the bar and began prac. ed into the ranks of Wade Hampton's tice in his native city; elected to the State legion and produced a great panic. The legislature in 1842 and to the State Senate Confederates supposed it to be a charge in 1853; and represented Montgomery of Hooker's cavalry, and fell back at first county in the State convention of 1861. in some confusion. The incident inspired He entered the Confederate service as a mock-heroic poem, in six stanzas, in colonel at the beginning of the Civil War; imitation of Tennyson's Charge of the resigned his post in 1862 after the battle Light Brigade at Balaklava, one verse of of Shiloh, in which he greatly distinguished which was as follows: himself, on being appointed Attorney-General in President Davis's cabinet; and was “Mules to the right of them

Mules to the left of themelected governor of Alabama in 1863. He

Mules all behind themdied in Montgomery, Ala., Sept. 16, 1892.

Pawed, neighed, and thundered ;

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Breaking their own confines

Andover Theological Seminary in 1816; Breaking through Longstreet's lines, Testing chivalric spines,

was instructor there for four years; orInto the Georgia lines

dained in the Baptist Church, and beStormed the two hundred."

came pastor of the First Baptist church Wayland, FRANCIS, educator; born in in Boston, Mass., in 1821 ; was professor New York City, March 11, 1796; gradu- in Union College in 1826; president of ated at Union College in 1813; studied Brown University in 1827–55; pastor of medicine for three years; entered the the First Baptist church in Providence, R. I., in 1855; and author of Thoughts on Hudson, in July, 1779, was one of the the Present Collegiate System of the most brilliant achievements of the war. United States; Domestic Slavery Con- In that attack he was wounded in the sidered as a Spiritual Institution, etc. head, and Congress gave him a vote of He died in Providence, R. I., Sept. 30, thanks and a gold medal. In June, 1781, 1865.

Wayne joined Lafayette in Virginia, where Wayne, ANTHONY, military officer; he performed excellent service until the born in Easttown, Chester co., Pa., Jan. surrender of Cornwallis at Yorktown. 1, 1745. His grandfather, who came to After the surrender, the Pennsylvania America in 1722, was commander of a line, under Wayne, marched to South squadron of dragoons under William II. Carolina, and their commander, with a at the battle of the Boyne, in Ireland. part of them, was sent by General Greene Anthony, after receiving a good English to Georgia. On May 21, 1782, Colonel education in Philadelphia, was appointed Brown marched out of Savannah in a land agent in Nova Scotia, where he re- strong force to confront rapidly advancing mained a year. Returning, he married, Wayne. The latter got between Brown and until 1774 was a farmer and sur. and Savannah, attacked him at midnight, veyor in Pennsylvania. He was a mem- and routed the whole party. This event ber of the Pennsylvania legislature in occurred on the Ogeechee road, about 4

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1774–75; and in September of the latter miles southwest of Savannah. The vanyear he raised the 4th Regiment, of the guard of the Americans was composed of Pennsylvania line, and was appointed sixty horsemen and twenty infantry, led colonel in January, 1776. He went with by Col. Anthony Walton White. These his regiment to Canada; was wounded in made a spirited charge, killing or woundthe battle of Three Rivers; and in Febru. ing forty of the British and making ary, 1777, was made brigadier-general. In twenty of them prisoners. The sword and the battle of Brandywine, in September, bayonet did the work. The Americans lost he was distinguished; and nine days after five killed and two wounded. On June wards he was surprised in the night near 24 a part of Wayne's army, lying about the Paoli Tavern, on the Lancaster road, 5 miles from Savannah, was fiercely atin Pennsylvania, when his command was tacked by a body of Creek Indians, who much cut up, but the remainder retreat- first drove the troops and took two pieces ed in safety. He led the right wing of of artillery; but they were soon utterly the army in the attack at Germantown, routed by a spirited charge. The brief and was slightly wounded. In the battle battle fought hand-to-hand with of Monmouth he was very distinguished; swords, bayonets, and tomahawks, and and his capture of Stony Point, on the fourteen Indians and two white men were


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