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It fell to the lot of General Lewis ous and unchivalrous terms which you Wallace first to take possession of the propose." town on the surrender. On the morning Thus on Sunday, the 16th of February, of Sunday, the 16th, “about daybreak," Fort Donelson was surrendered. Agreesays he, in his report, continuing the ably with the prudent resolution of the narrative which we have already given senior Generals, some five thousand of from his pen, “Lieutenant Ware, my the garrison had been withdrawn by aid-de-camp, conducted Colonel Thayer's steamers on the river, leaving about brigade to the foot of the hill. Lieu-twice that number in the works pristenant Wood's battery was ordered to oners of war, with vast quantities of the same point, my intention being to military material. The prisoners were storm the entrenchments about break- transported to the military camps at Illifast time. While making disposition for nois and Indiana, and elsewhere, and that purpose, a white flag made its ap- held for exchange. A St. Louis journal pearance. The result was, that I rode chronicled the arrival of ten thousand in to General Buckner's quarters, sending ten steamers, on their way to their destiLieutenant Ross with Major Rogers, of nation. By a table published in the the 3d Mississippi (rebel regiment, to Nashville Patriot, the month following inform General Grant that the place was the battle, it would appear that the Consurrendered, and my troops in posses- federate loss at Donelson, was 237 killed, sion of the town, and all the works on and 1007 wounded. The Union loss was the right.”

estimated, 446 killed, 1,745 wounded, The communication on the morning of and 150 prisoners.* the 16th, of General Buckner, to General General McClernand, in an order isGrant, read as follows :-" Sir : In con sued the day after the victory, paid a sideration of all the circumstances gov- glowing tribute to the merit of his divierning the present situation of affairs at sion, which had so faithfully endured the this station, I propose to the commanding labors and encountered the hazards of officers of the federal forces, the appoint- the week. ment of commissioners to agree upon “Officers and men of the 1st division terms of capitulation of the forces and of the advance forces.--You have conpost under my command, and in this tinually led the way in the Valley of the view, suggest an armistice until twelve Lower Mississippi, the Tennessee and the o'clock to-day.” To this General Grant Cumberland. You have carried the flag replied :—“Yours of this date, proposing of the Union further South than any an armistice and appointment of commis- other land forces marching from the insioners to settle terms of capitulation, is terior towards the seaboard. Being the just received. No terms, other than an first division to enter Fort Henry, you unconditional and immediate surrender also pursued the enemy for miles, capcan be accepted. I propose to move turing from him, in his flight, six field immediately upon your works." This pieces, many of his standards and flags, decided denial called forth the following a number of prisoners, and a great quanletter of surrender from General Buck-tity of military stores. Following the ner :“Sir: The distribution of the enemy to this place, you were the first forces under my command, incident to to encounter him outside of his intrenchan unexpected change of commanders, ments, and to drive him within them. and the overwhelming force under your Pursuing your advantage, the next day, command, compel me, notwithstanding in the night, you advanced upon bis lines the brilliant success of the confederate in the face of his works and batteries, arms yesterday, to accept the ungener-* New York Herald, Record of the Rebellion, for 1862.

ded denialcal) your works." moveturing from him

CONGRATULATORY ORDERS.

237

and for the time silenced them. The quartermaster's and commissary stores. next day, skirmishing all along his The death knell of the rebellion is left, you daringly charged upon his re- sounded. An army has been annihildoubts, under a deadly fire of grape and ated, and the way to Nashville and canister, and were only prevented from Memphis is opened. This momentous taking them by natural obstacles and the fact should, as it will, encourage you to accumulated masses which hurried for- persevere in the path of duty and of ward to defend them. The next day, glory. It must alleviate your distress you extended your right in the face of for your brave comrades who have fallen newly erected batteries quite to the Cum- or been wounded. It will mitigate the berland, thus investing his works for grief of bereaved wives and mourning nearly two miles. The next day, after parents and kindred. It will be your standing under arms for two days and claim to a place in the affection of your nights, amid driving storms of snow and countrymen, and upon a blazoned page rain, and pinched by hunger, the enemy of history." advanced in force to open his way to General Lewis Wallace, in a conescape. By his own confession, formed gratulatory order to the troops of his diin a column of ten successive regiments, vision, warmly commemorated their serhe concentrated his attack upon a single vices. “You were last to arrive before point. You repulsed him repeatedly, the fort ; but it will be long before your from seven o'clock, to eleven, A. M., deeds are forgotten. When your gallant often driving back his formidable odds. comrades of the 1st division, having fired Thus, after three days' fighting, when their last cartridge, fell back upon your your ammunition was exhausted, you fell support, you did not fail them ; you reback until it came up, and re-formed a ceived them as their heroism deserved ; second line in his face. Supported by you encircled them with your ranks, and fresh troops, under the lead of a brave drove back the foe that presumed to foland able officer, the enemy was again low them. And to you, and two gallant driven back, and by a combined advance regiments from the 2d division, is due from all sides was finally defeated. His the honor of the last fight-the evening unconditional surrender the next day battle of Saturday—the reconquest by consummated the victory. Undiverted storm of the bloody hill on the rightby any attack for near four hours from the finishing blow to a victory, which has any other part of our lines, the enemy already purged Kentucky of treason, and was left to concentrate his attack with restored Tennessee to the confederacy of superior numbers upon yours. Thus, our fathers. All honor to you." while you were engaged for a longer time In a general order on the 17th, Genthan any other of our forces, you were eral Grant congratulated the troops of subject to much greater loss. The battle- his command, “for the triumph over field testifies to your valor and constancy. rebellion gained by their valor. For Even the magnanimity of the enemy ac four successive nights (he added) withcords to you an unsurpassed heroism, out shelter, during the most inclement and an enviable and brilliant share in weather known in this latitude, they the hardest-fought battle, and the most faced an enemy in large force in a posidecisive victory ever fought and won on tion chosen by himself. * * The victhe American continent. Your trophies tory achieved is not only great in the speak for themselves. They consist of effect it will have in breaking down remany thousands of prisoners of war, bellion, but has secured the greatest forty pieces of cannon, and extensive number of prisoners of war ever taken in magazines of all kinds of ordnance, any battle on this continent."

A portion of the troops forwarded to ments. Wherever it is possible, the General Grant, by General Halleck, remains of every Illinoisan, who fell in from Missouri, were from the forces as- that terrible conflict, should be brought signed to Major-General David Hunter, home to the State, and ever-enduring then engaged in mustering an army for monuments erected to their memory. the department of Kansas, to which he Every one of them was a true hero. By had recently been assigned. General their dauntless valor the State of Illinois Hunter cheerfully relinquished the men at occupies the proud eminence of having the call of his brother officer, and when done more to suppress the rebellion, and they had proved their value in the field, to preserve the Union, than any other the service was handsomely acknow- State; and by every consideration of ledged. “To you," wrote General Hal- gratitude and patriotism, the State leck, “more than any other man out of should neglect no means of testifying its this department, are we indebted for our grateful remembrance."* success at Fort Donelson. In my strait The surrender of Fort Donelson was for troops to reinforce General Grant, I severely commented upon by President applied to you. You responded nobly, Jefferson Davis. In his message, a few placing your forces at my disposition. days after the event, to the Confederate This enabled me to win the victory. Congress at Richmond, he said of this Receive my most heartfelt thanks."* In affair : “The hope is still entertained such a spirit of mutual good will, without that our reported losses at Fort Donel- . rivalry beyond the effort to serve the son have been greatly exaggerated, incountry best, these honorable gentlemen asmuch as I am not only unwilling, but administered the affairs with which they unable to believe, that a large army of were entrusted by the nation. For his our people have surrendered without a "gallant and meritorious conduct in the desperate effort to cut its way through capture of Fort Donelson,” Brigadier-Gen- the investing forces, whatever may have eral Grant was appointed Major-General been their numbers, and to endeavor to of Volunteers.

make a junction with other divisions of Nor were the merits of the soldiers, the army." Subsequently, in transmit“the unknown demigods,” who win the ting the reports of Generals Floyd and battles which give reputation to their Pillow to the Confederate House of commanders, likely to be forgotten. Representatives, in the following month, Governor Yates, of Illinois, visited the he pronounced them “incomplete and camps in Tennessee, after the battle, to unsatisfactory. It is not stated that relook after his brave regiments. “It is inforcements were at any time asked sincerely to be hoped,” he wrote in his for ; nor is it demonstrated to have been subsequent report to the people of the impossible to have saved the army by State," that not a single name of those evacuating the position ; nor is it known gallant men, whose prowess has reflected by what means it was found practicable such imperishable lustre upon the state to withdraw a part of the garrison, leavand country, shall remain unrecorded. ing the remainder to surrender ; nor No battle had been, or can be fought upon what authority or principles of acwhich shall more signally tell upon the tion the senior generals abandoned rerebellion than this ; and no historic page sponsibility by transferring the comcan record, or will ever record, more mand to a junior officer.” As a practical patriotic daring, or brighter achieve- conclusion, from these circumstances, he

Major-General Halleck, Headquarters Department of added, “I have directed, upon the exhiMissouri, St. Louis, to Major-General D. Hunter, Commanding Department of Kansas, at Fort Leavenworth. Feb. * Report of Governor Yates, Executive Department, 19th, 1862.

| Springfield, March 7th, 1862.

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bition of the case, as presented by the reached the town in the forenoon of the senior generals, that they should be re- Sunday on which the surrender took lieved of command, to await further or- place, while many of the people were ders whenever a reliable judgment can on their way to church. The effect of be rendered on the merits of the case.” * the ill tidings was enhanced by the pre

The fleet of Commodore Foote imme- vious bulletins which had been sent by diately followed up on the Cumberland General Pillow, with assurances of victhe advantage gained by the surrender tory. "Instantly every consideration of Donelson. On the evening of the gave place to the thought of personal 16th, the gunboat St. Louis ascended the safety. Every means of transportation river to the Tennessee Iron Works, six at hand was employed to remove furnimiles above Dover. There was no force ture and valuables ; the depots were to defend the works, and there being thronged with men, women, and chilabundant evidence of their employment dren, anxious to leave the city; train by the Confederate government, the after train was put in motion ; governestablishment was set fire to and des- ment stores were thrown open to all who troyed. Mr. John Bell, the recent can-chose to carry them away, and negroes, didate for the Presideney of the United Irish laborers, and even genteel looking States, was one of the owners of this persons, could be seen 'toting off their property. On the 19th, Commodore pile of hog, clothing, or other property Foote, with the gunboats Cairo and belonging to the army, though, by order Conestoga, reached Clarksville, where of the military authorities, much of this the forts commanding the town were was recovered on the ensuing day. In a found to be abandoned. The Union flag single word, the city was crazy with a was hoisted on the works, and numbers panic. Governor Harris is said to have of citizens having fled in alarm, at the ridden through the streets at the top of suggestion of the Hon. Cave Johnson, his speed, on horsehack, crying out that Judge Wisdom, and the Mayor of the the papers in the capitol must be recity, Commodore Foote issued a pro- moved; and, subsequently, with the legclamation, announcing “ to all peaceably- islature, which had at once assembled, disposed persons, that neither in their left the city in a special train for Mempersons nor property shall they suffer | phis." * molestation by me, or by the naval force The flight of the broken armies of under my command, and that they may the Confederacy was well calculated to safely resume their business avocations strengthen these disastrous impressions. with assurances of my protection.” At On this very terror-stricken Sunday, bethe same time, he required that all mili- sides the arrival of the fugitives with tary stores and army equipments should Floyd and Pillow, the rebel army of be surendered, and forbade the exhi- General A. S. Johnston from Bowling bition of any “secession flag or man- Green, in full retreat before the advance ifestation of secession feeling.” Brigadier of General Buell's forces, worn and harGeneral C. F. Smith was placed in com- rassed by their forced march of eighty mand of the city.

miles, passed through the city. General The important city of Nashville, the Johnston had abandoned Bowling Green capital of Tennessee, next fell into the —a post which he had adroitly mainhands of the Union army. The fall of tained by ingeniously “magnifying his Donelson, on which it had relied for its forces"-with 14,000 effective men ; the defence, threw the citizens into a fearful fatigues of the march had reduced this panic. The news of the loss of the fort

* Nashville Correspondent of the Richmond Despatch, * Message of Jefferson Davis, March 11, 1862. Squier's Pictorial History, vol. i. p. 319.

A portion of the troops forwarded to ments. Wherever it is possible, the General Grant, by General Halleck, remains of every Illinoisan, who fell in from Missouri, were from the forces as that terrible conflict, should be brought signed to Major-General David Hunter, home to the State, and ever-enduring then engaged in mustering an army for monuments erected to their memory. the department of Kansas, to which he Every one of them was a true hero. By had recently been assigned. General their dauntless valor the State of Illinois Hunter cheerfully relinquished the men at occupies the proud eminence of having the call of his brother officer, and when done more to suppress the rebellion, and they had proved their value in the field, to preserve the Union, than any other the service was handsomely acknow- State; and by every consideration of ledged. “To you,” wrote General Hal- gratitude and patriotism, the State leck, “more than any other man out of should neglect no means of testifying its this department, are we indebted for our grateful remembrance."* success at Fort Donelson. In my strait The surrender of Fort Donelson was for troops to reinforce General Grant, I severely commented upon by President applied to you. You responded nobly, Jefferson Davis. In his message, a few placing your forces at my disposition. days after the event, to the Confederate This enabled me to win the victory. Congress at Richmond, he said of this Receive my most heartfelt thanks."* In affair : “ The hope is still entertained such a spirit of mutual good will, without that our reported losses at Fort Donelrivalry beyond the effort to serve the son have been greatly exaggerated, incountry best, these honorable gentlemen asmuch as I am not only unwilling, but administered the affairs with which they unable to believe, that a large army of were entrusted by the nation. For his our people have surrendered without a "gallant and meritorious conduct in the desperate effort to cut its way through capture of Fort Donelson,” Brigadier-Gen- the investing forces, whatever may have eral Grant was appointed Major-General been their numbers, and to endeavor to of Volunteers.

make a junction with other divisions of Nor were the merits of the soldiers, the army.” Subsequently, in transmit“the unknown demigods," who win the ting the reports of Generals Floyd and battles which give reputation to their Pillow to the Confederate House of commanders, likely to be forgotten. Representatives, in the following month, Governor Yates, of Illinois, visited the he pronounced them “incomplete and camps in Tennessee, after the battle, to unsatisfactory. It is not stated that relook after his brave regiments. “It is inforcements were at any time asked sincerely to be hoped," he wrote in his for ; nor is it demonstrated to have been subsequent report to the people of the impossible to have saved the army by State," that not a single name of those evacuating the position ; nor is it known gallant men, whose prowess has reflected by what means it was found practicable such imperishable lustre upon the state to withdraw a part of the garrison, learand country, shall remain unrecorded. ing the remainder to surrender ; nor No battle had been, or can be fought upon what authority or principles of acwhich shall more signally tell upon the tion the senior generals abandoned rerebellion than this ; and no historic page sponsibility by transferring the comcan record, or will ever record, more mand to a junior officer.” As a practical patriotic daring, or brighter achieve- conclusion, from these circumstances, he

* Major-General Halleck, Headquarters Department of added, "I have directed, upon the exhiMissouri, St. Louis, to Major-General D. Hunter, Commanding Department of Kansas, at Fort Leavenworth. Feb. * Report of Governor Yates, Executive Department, 19th, 1862.

| Springfield, March 7th, 1862.

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