« 上一頁繼續 »
of employment; the middle rank a constant sale for their commodities; but!--the higher ranks have spent all their money; many of the labourers have, by various means, become unable to work; the middle rank has accumulated all the wealth, and with it all the power. The population may be supposed to be very much increased; the labourers in greater plenty, and consequently worse paid; and all articles of general consumption become, year after year, dearer and dearer, in proportion to the increased circulating medium. There will be a numerous poor, and no provision for them; the ministers, the magistrates, the teachers, will all have become paupers, and their influ ence gone. Then will arise a peremptory obligation to form some new kind of government: a levy of rates and an imposition of taxes will become inevitable.
The new system must embrace the means of letting and lending, or there will be no retiring: and the toils of commerce can be solaced only by the hope of a tranquil enjoyment of leisure when life is declining.
Let us now suppose the colony established as before, the same number of persons with the same property. Two years go on in the same manner, and one hundred thousand pounds have been expended by the upper rank, forming then the circulating medium of the colony. At this period they are attacked by the natives on whose territory they have settled; and, being unable to resist, are compelled to treat. The higher ranks lend the whole of their remaining money, and the land is purchased; all the community having agreed to pay their proportion of interest for the sum borrowed; and taxes are accordingly agreed upon, The circulating medium being one hundred thousand pounds, the public debt nine hundred thousand, the taxes at five per cent. will be annually forty-five thousand pounds, which is nine shillings in the pound on the circulating medium. This sum, raised and paid by quarterly dividends, becomes the perpetual support of the higher ranks, being one hundred and eighty pounds per annum for each of the 250 families of the upper rank, which, in a colony where the circulating medium amounts to no more than one hundred thousand pounds,
will be an ample fortune; and which must be continually returned into circulation, they paying taxes equally with the rest of the community, and being neither traffickers nor labourers, must give employment to those that are; and this state of things may continue for ever.
These very 250 persons, having first preserved their country, will now pay twenty thousand two hundred and fifty pounds of the taxes raised for the interest of their own money, furnishing employment for a great proportion of their labouring compatriots, leaving only twenty-four thousand seven hundred and fifty pounds to be raised upon all the other 2250 persons, and the descendants of the whole community. The money that was sent away will make that which remains much more valuable; and commodities will, from time to time, become cheaper and cheaper.
If, instead of a gratuitous administration of the affairs of Government, salaries are appointed, it will cause a quicker circulation of the medium, which must again revert to the traffickers and labourers.
If, instead of borrowing the sum amongst themselves to emancipate their country, they had agreed to pay tribute; and supposing that tribute to be ouly the same as the interest, namely, forty-five thousand pounds each year, they would, in little more than twenty-two years, have paid away the whole of their money; would thus have been left without any circulating medium, and would have fed and strengthened their enemies, while they had ruined themselves; whereas, by the establishment of a fund and taxes, they support their friends; they keep alive a constant circulating medium; and they give employment to a great part of the population.
If the public debt becomes transferable, it will hold out a grand stimulus to industrious emulation; for property, acquired by exertion, will enable the possessor to obtain quietness and repose, while he leaves a void for one more vigorous and young to fill up, and thus it is that the circulation of money not only supports the circulation of human existence; but an imaginary stock, upheld by a nation's solemn engagement, becomes the resting-place of those who have, while
they laboured, contributed to its sup. port; and who, in turn, become partakers of the rest which it affords.
Yours, &c. A LOMBARD.
Feb. 17. AVING lately passed through Christ-Church, Hants, I visited the fine old Conventual Church there, and was extremely gratified by the great improvements made during the last year in that magnificent structure, which now resembles a Cathedral inuch more than a Parish Church.
A new vaulted roof of stucco, jointed and coloured so as to imitate stone, has been erected in the Nave, after the early pointed style, from the designs of William Garbett, esq. of Winchester; the proportions of which are extremely fine, and the outline peculiarly bold. The rib-mouldings are a continuation of the springers that remained of the old stone-roof, which the inhabitants have a tradition was carried in by the fall of the centre Tower and Spire; and the bosses of foliage at the intersection of the ribs are copied from some fine key-stones in other parts of the Church; so that the general effect is beautiful and antique.
The lengthened perspective from the western door is very fine: and, since the organ, which is placed on the stone screen at the entrance of the Choir, has been reduced several feet in height at the centre of the framework, the whole of the groined roof of the Choir is now visible from the west end of the Church; and the contrast afforded between that elaborate and enriched canopy, and the simple and beautiful groin of the Nave is very striking. The Gothic columns and the mouldings round the windows of the upper or Clerestory tier of arches, as well as the Norman pilasters and columns, &c. of the Nave, have been restored. The fine stone screen under the organ and the gallery, which, unfortunately, was placed upon it 30 years ago, have been cleaned and repaired; they were both painted of a bright blue colour. The screen has been scraped and cleaned; and the gallery painted to imitate dark oak wainscot.
In the Choir, which was (excepting the stalls) restored under the direction of the Rev. Wm. Bingley, A. M. with due care and attention, some years ago, great improvements have now
been made. The fine lace-work carving in wood running round the top of the stalls, which, on the south side, was much injured, and on the north almost entirely destroyed, together with the rich Gothic crockets, or finials, which had been sawn off from the top at some former period, have been replaced. The Sub-Prior's stall has been removed opposite the Prior's, where it originally stood; and its canopy, which was much broken and destroyed, completed in unison with what remained of the original design. At the back of some of the stalls the carving had been taken away, and the vacant places filled up with plain wood: the carvings have now been replaced. The whole of the stalls, together with the altar, rails, &c. &c. have been cleaned, oiled, and varnished. A trumpery painting in watercolours over the unrivalled stone screen behind the high altar, encompassed with a salmon-coloured frame, which was placed there some 50 years ago, has been defaced, and the groundwork of wood coloured the same as the screen.
Many minor improvements have taken place lately in this interesting building; which reflect the greatest credit on the Gentry, Clergy, and Churchwardens of this extensive Parish.
The expence of ceiling the Nave, as the Sexton informed me, amounted to 8001, which was raised by subscription; and that it was now in contemplation to ceil the western and antient tower as the Nave, and to place a flat ceiling on the south transept similar to that on the north.
In the ailes of the Choir and in the Lady Chapel are some fine Chantries, many grave-stones of the Priors, and tombs of benefactors to the Conventual Church; and some very fine modern monuments; particularly one, by Flaxman, to the memory of Lady Fitzharris, and another by Chantry.
In short, Mr. Urban, I was so much delighted with this interesting building, that I could not but regret that my time would not allow me to examine it with more attention.
REVIEW OF NEW PUBLICATIONS. ·
38. A short Account of the ancient and modern State of the City and Close of Lichfield. 12mo. pp. 226. Longmau and Co.
"T has long been a source of surprise
a city, celebrated for giving birth to several eminent characters, and possessing in itself so many attractions, should be deficient in what other places, of comparatively little interest, furnish to the enquirer, a short account of its beauties and antiquities."
This deficiency is well supplied by the little volume now before us; which, after a good abridgment of the early periods of the history of this antient City, introduce to the priacipal Videnda.
The "Eminent Characters" form an important portion of the volume. Among these are
"Robert Whitlinton, an eminent grammarian, and author of many noted works.
"He was with great ceremony created Doctor of Grammar, and crowned with laurel; he was highly esteemed for his learning, and in great favour with Cardinal Wolsey. He styled himself Proto-vates Angliæ; and pretended to cope with Wil. liam Lilly, the greatest Grammarian of his age, in comparison with whom, says Fuller," he was but a crackling thorn." Some of his works were priated in 1524 by Wynken de Worde."
Elias Ashmole was born in Breadmarket-street, May 23, 1617. Gregory King, the laborious herald and antiquary, was born in the parish of St. Chad, Dec. 15, 1648.
"He was son of Gregory King, who practised land surveying and dialling. At the grammar school in Lichfield be learned Latin, Greek, and Hebrew; and in 1662, by the recommendation of Dr. Hunter, was received as clerk to Dugdale, the celebrated antiquary, whom he accompanied in his visitations, taking with him blank shields of arms, which he filled up for such as de. sired them; be afterwards became archæological secretary to Lord Hatton. Returning to his native place in 1669, he employed himself in teaching writing and accounts, painting arms and signs, &c. Becoming Rouge Dragon, Lancaster Heraid, and Deputy Garter King at Arms, he conducted several installations of knights: he died at London, and was buried in the church of St. Bennet, Paul's wharf, where there is an inscription to his memory." GSWT. MAG. March, 1820.
Bishops Wetenhall, Smalridge, Talbot, and Newton, were natives of Lichfield; as were John Rowley, the celebrated mathematician, and inventor of the Orrery; Dr. Samuel Johnson,
loger; and (in his profession) the not less eminent David Garrick.
Sir John Floyer, Kut. F. R. S. physician to Charles II. was born at Hints, and resided at Lichfield.
"He was one of the first to notice the pulsation of the arteries, and is supposed to be the person alluded to in the fifteenth number of the Tatler*.
"Amongst other works, he published, in 1702, the ancient Psycrolusia revived, or an Essay on Cold-Bathing.
"He caused baths to be erected at Unites well, a remarkably cold spring, which rises out of a rock near the summit of a hill at the Abenhalls, to which he gave the name of St. Chad's Bath.
"He died in 1733, and bequeathed his library to Queen's College, Oxford.
"Dr. Darwin, afterwards becoming pos sessed of the baths at Abenhalls, formed a botanic garden; which, under his skilful hands, assumed a form of the greatest beauty. After leaving the baths, the stream was conducted by several falls of highly picturesque appearance to a small pool surrounded by a shrubbery, through whose thickets were wound a mazy path, having, to the stranger, all the effect of an extensive wilderness.
"The following inscription was over the entrance of a grotto:
"If the meek flower of bashful dye
"Dr. Darwin resided several years at of which Sir Brooke Boothby, Bart. well Lichfield, and formed a Botanical Society. known by his poetical publications, and Mr. Jackson, a proctor, were members. The translation of the "Linnæan System of Vegetables," and "The Families of Plants," were the productions of this society."
In the description of the Marketstreet we are told, that
"On the South side is the house of the
late Mr. Greene, well known as the collector of a museum, tich in general, as well as local curiosities. Of an ingenious and persevering disposition, indefatigable in his favourite pursuit, he rescued many fragments of antiquity from destruction; he discovered the great seal of Prince Henry, which was used in an attorney's office in Lichfield, to compress papers. He was a frequent contributor to the Gentleman's Magazine, and furnished Mr. Urban with many useful and curious articles","
"Most of the local curiosities are in the possession of Dr. Wright."
"On the North side of the street is the Bank, a little above which stood a building called the gate-house, through which was a passage to the ferry, formed for the use of the pilgrims who visited the shrine of St. Chad in the cathedral, The Guild, and afterwards the Corporation, possessed a landing place in the close and a road to the church.
"In the large white house at the corner of the street, on the Westside of the market. place, in the chamber next the milliner's shop, was born Samuel Johnson, LL. D. who, in his Dictionary, has thus noticed his native place: "Lichfield, the field of the dead, a city in Staffordshire, so called from martyred Christians.-Salve, magna parens!"
A very neat view of the house is given, from a drawing taken in 1760. The house has since that time under. gone some alterations.
Old Michael Johnson, the Doctor's Father, was buried in St. Michael's Church, where the monumental stone, inscribed by his son, is covered by the new floor.
"He was a respectable bookseller in this city, and attended, on market-days, the neighbouring towns; and had auctions of books, prints, &c. The following is the title and address to his customers, of one of his original sale catalogues: "A Catalogue of choice Books in all Faculties, Divinity, History, Travels, Law, Physick, Mathematicks, Philosophy, Poetry, &c. together with Bibles, Common Prayers, Shop Books, Pocket Books, &c. Also fine French Prints for stair-cases and large chimney pieces, Maps, large and small. To be sold by auction, or he who bids most, at the Talbot, in Sidbury, Worcester; the sale to begin on Friday, the 21st of this instant March, exactly at six o'clock in the afternoon, and to continue till all is sold. The books to be exposed to view three days before the sale begins. Catalogues are given out at the place of sale, or by Michael Johnson, of Lichfield."
See a View of Mr. Greene's Museum in our Vol. LVIII. p. 847.
In this Catalogue, dated 1717-18, is the following notice, addressed
"To all Gentlemen, Ladies, and others, in and near Worcester.
"I have had several auctions in your neighbourhood, as Gloucester, Tewkesbury, Evesham, &c. with success, and am now to address myself, and try my fortune with you. You must not wonder, that I begin every day's sale with small and common books; the reason is, a room is some time a filling, and persons of address and business seldom coming first, they are entertainment till we are full; they are never the last books of the best kind of that sort for ordinary families and young persons, &c. But in the body of the catalogue you will find Law, Mathematicks, History; and, for the learned in Divinity, there are Drs, South, Taylor, Tillotson, Beveridge, Flavel, &c. the best of that kind; and to please the ladies, I have added store of fine pictures and paper hangings; and by the way I would desire them to take notice that the pictures shall always be put up by the noon of that day they are to be sold, that they may be viewed by day-light. I have no more but to wish you pleased, and myself a good sale, who am your humble servant, "M. JOHNSON."
As a short account of the Cathedral has been recently published, little on that subject is here given; but, in describing the Close, the Author says,
"There are few places more interesting
The fair Cathedral storm'd and took,
"Looking down upon the beautiful vak ley in which stands the celebrated willow; and at the termination of which rise the houses of Mrs. Gastrell and Aston, the friends of Jobuson, whose natal house is visible from this spot; by the side of the pool he sees the church and dwelling-place ol St. Chad, a saint in the Romish calendar of
of no mean account; and in the distance, the spot consecrated by the blood of the early martyrs, which gave the city the name of "a field of dead bodies;" he stands on the spot once occupied by the splendid hall of the noble Langton, one hundred feet long by fifty in breadth, enriched with the portraits of kings and leaders; near the site of that apartment in which Richard the Second entertained his guests; within the walls of that fortress which he afterwards passed as a captive; and near to which rests the dust of monarchs and of saints."
Of Fisherwick, in St. Michael's parish, it is related that, soon after 1758,
"It became the property of the first Marquis of Donegal, who took down the ancient house, and erected a princely mansion, with a beautiful Ionic portico, along the frize of which was inscribed,
A.A.D. ANNO. MDCCLXXIV. "This noble building, to the regret of the whole country, and the irreparable loss of the neighbourhood, was taken down in 1817, and the materials sold by public auction; the beautiful and extensive park is enclosed, the pools choaked up with mud and weeds, and the whole scene such as was predicted by Pope of Cannons.
Another age shall see her glittering car Embrown the slope and nod on the parterre; Deep ruin bury all his taste had plann'd, And laughing Ceres reassume the land","
"The first Marquis of Donegal erected a spacious mausoleum adjoining the chancel of St. Michael's Church, and is there buried, as are two of his wives, two children, and one of the Sheffington family, formerly owners of Fisherwick."
39. Tour of the Grand Junction, illustrated with a Series of Engravings; with an Historical and Topographical Description of those Parts of the Counties of Middlesex, Hertfordshire, Buckinghamshire, Bedfordshire, and Northamptonshire, through which the Canal passes. By J. Hassell. 8vo. pp. 152. Sold by the Author, and by all Booksellers.
THIS elegant Volume is ornament ed with XXIV beautiful Views of the country through which the Grand Junction Navigation winds its way. Of the entertainment they afford, the Reader may judge, from Mr. Hassell's introductory description of the Canal:
"The beautiful scenery which accompanied its banks, determined us to retrace our steps as far back as the town of Tring, to observe if a continuance of interesting
scenery was likely to attend the stream, in
"Deviating from the tedious monotony of the turnpike road, the course of the stream destined for inland navigation, must necessarily be directed through a succession of the richest scenery-whether stealing through the glades and glooms of rural retirement, winding round the brows of hills, or gliding through the vallies by which they are surrounded, alternately visiting the recesses of pictorial abode, or the populous town, and the busy "hum of men."
"Such are the particulars of the Grand Junction Navigation, we have undertaken to describe; which embraces a variety far exceeding that afforded by many rivers, as combining all the beauties of landscape -the elegance and splendour of the mansion and the villa-and the venerable remains of antiquity; nor have we omitted to combine the biographical anecdote, the historical record, or the critical researches on antiquarian topography.
"In 1818, the annual gross revenue of the Canal amounted to the sum of 170,000%; it possesses 1400 proprietors; and its shares of 1007. have recently sold at from 2401 to 250%. each. Many of the first capitalists in the kingdom are its proprietors, and its usual routine of business is so conducted as to give satisfaction to all who are connected with it.
"We have exerted ourselves to combine the utile et dulce, and to embellish our descriptions with accurate delineations of the scenery which we have sketched on the spot."
40. A Literal Translation of the Saxou
Chronicle. 12mo. pp. 324, and 96 of
Without disparagement to the talents of the Saxon Professor; but, on the contrary, anticipating much entertainment and instruction from his learned and elaborate Commentary, we cannot withhold our commendation of the neat little Volume now before us, and of the meritorious in