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All that man has to do is to live and die; the sum of humanity is comprehended by Donne in the following lines:
Think in how poor a prison thou didst lie;
They were sometimes indelicate and disgusting. Cowley thus apostrophises beauty :
--Thou tyrant, which lear'st no man free!
Thus he addresses his Mistress :
Thou who, in many a propriety,
Thus he represents the meditations of a Lover:
Though in thy thoughts scarce any tracts have been
Thou with strange adultery
Awake, all men do lust for thee,
This is yet more indelicate :
As the sweet sweat of roses in a still,
Their expressions sometimes raise horrour, when they intend perhaps to be pathetic.
As men in Hell are from diseases free,
So from all other ills am I,
Free from their known formality :
They were not always strictly curious, whether the opinions from which they drew their illustrations were true; it was enough that they were popular. Bacon remarks, that some falsehoods are continued by tradition, because they supply commodious allusions.
It gave a piteous groan, and so it broke:
In forming descriptions, they looked out, not for images, but for conccits. Night has been a common subject, which poets have contended to adorn. Dryden's Night is well known; Donne's is as follows:
Thou seest me here at midnight, now all rest:
Thou at this midnight seest me. It must be however confessed of these writers, that if they are upon common subjects often unnecessarily and unpoetically subtle; yet, where scholastic speculation can be properly ailmitted, their copiousness and acuteness may justly be ad. mired. What Cowley has written upon Hope shows an unequalled fertility of invention :
Hope, whose weak being ruin'd is,
Alike if it succeed and if it miss;
Vain shadow! which dost vanish quite,
Hope, thou bold taster of delight,
The joys which we entire should wed,
Come deflower'd virgins to our bed ;
Such mighty custom's paid to thee:
If it take air before its spirits waste.
Our two souls, therefore, which are one,
Though I must go, endure not yet
Like gold to airy thinness beat.
As stiff'twin compasses are two;
To move, but doth if the other do.
Yet, when the other far doth roam,
And grows erect as that comes home.
Like th' other foot obliquely run.
. And makes me end where I begun. DONNE. In all these examples it is apparent, that whatever is improper or vitious is produced by a voluntary deviation from oature in pursuit of something new and stranges and that the writers fail to give delight by their desire of exciting admiration.
HAVING thus endeavoured to exhibit a general representation of the style and, sentiments of the metaphysical poets, it is now proper to examine particularly the works of Cowley, who was almost the last of that race, and undoubtedly the best.
His Miscellanies contain a collection of short compositions, written some as they were dictated by a mind at leisure, and some as they were called forth by different occasions; with great variety of style and sentiment, from burlesque levity to awful grandeur. Such an assemblage of diversified excellence no other poet has hitherto afforded. To choose the best, among many good, is one of the most hazardous attempts of criticism. I know not whether Scaliger himself has persuaded many readers to join with him in his preference of the two favourite odes, which he esti. mates in his raptures at the value of a kingdom. I will, however, venture to recom. mend Cowley's first piece, which ought to be inscribed To my Muse, for want of which the second couplet is without reference. When the title is added, there will still remain a defect; for every piece ought to contain in itself whatever is necessary to make it intelligible. Pope has some epitaphs without name; which are therefore epitaphs to be let, occupied indeed, for the present, but hardly appropriated.
The ode on Wit is almost without a rival. It was about the time of Cowley that wit, which had been till then used for intellection, in contradistinction to will, took the meaning, whatever it be, which it now bears.
Of all the passages iņ which poets have exemplified their own precepts, none will easily be found of greater excellence than that in which Cowley condemns exuberance of wit :
Yet 'tis not to adorn and gild each part,
That shows more cost than art.
Rather than all things wit, let none be there.
If there be nothing else between.
In his verses to lord Falkland, whom every man of his time was proud to praise, · there are, as there must be in all Cowley's compositions, some striking thoughts, but
they are not well wrought. His elegy on sir Henry Wotton is vigorous and happy i the series of thoughts is easy and natural; and the conclusion, though a little weakened by the intrusion of Alexander, is elegant and forcible.
It may be remarked, that in this elegy, and in most of his encomiastic poems, he has forgotten or neglected to name his heroes.
In his poem on the Death of Hervey, there is much praise, but little passion; a very just and ample delineation of such virtues as a studious privacy admits, and such intellectual excellence as a mind not yet called forth to action can display. He knew how to distinguish, and how to commend, the qualities of his companion; but, when he wishes to make us weep, he forgets to weep himself, and diverts his sorrow, by imagining how his crown of bays, if he had it, would crackle in the fire. It is the 'odd fate of this thought to be the worse for being true. The bay-leaf crackles remarkably as it burns; as therefore this property was not assigned it by chance, the mind must be thought suficiently at ease that could attend to such minuteness of physiology. But the power of Cowley is not so much to move the affections, as to exercise the understanding.
The Chronicle is a composition unrivalled and alone : such gaiety of fancy, such facility of expression, such varicd similitude, such a succession of images, and such a dance of words, it is in vain to expect except from Cowley. His strength always appears in his agility ; his volatility is not the flutter of a light, but the bound of an elastic mind. His levity never leaves his learning behind it; the moralist; the po. litician, and the critic, mingle their influence even in this airy frolic of genius. To such a performance Suckling could have brought the gaiety, but not the knowledge: Dryden could have supplied the knowledge, but not the gaiety.
The verses to Davenant, which are vigorously begun, and happily concluded, contain some hints of criticism very justly conceived and happily expressed. Cow. · ley's critical abilities have not been sufficiently observed : the few decisions and re
marks, which his prefaces and his notes on the Davideis supply, were at that time accessions to English literature, and show such skill, as raises our wish for more examples.
The lines from Jersey are a very curious and pleasing specimen of the familiar descending to the burlesque.
His two metrical disquisitions for and against Reason are no mean specimens of metaphysical poetry. The stanzas against knowledge produce little conviction. In those which are intended to exalt the human faculties, Reason has its proper task assigned it; that of judging, not of things revealed, but of the reality of revelation. In the verses for Reason is a passage which Bentley, in the only English verses which he is known to have written, seems to have copied, though with the inferiority of an imitator.
The Holy Book like the eighth sphere doth shine
With thousand lights of truth divine,
It makes all but one galaxy.
So vast and dangerous as these,
Without the compass too below.
After this says Bentley :
Who travels in religious jars,
Truth mix'd with errour, shade with rays,
In ocean wide or sinks or strays.
Cowley seems to have had what Milton is believed to have wanted, the skill to rate his own performances by their just value, and has therefore closed his Miscella. nies with the verses upon Crashaw, which apparently excel all that have gone before them, and in which there are beauties which common authors may justly think not only above their attainment, but above their ambition.
To the Miscellanies succeed the Anacreontiques, or paraphrastical translations of some little poems, which pass, however justly, under the name of Anacreon. Of these songs dedicated to festivity and gaiety, in which even the morality is voluptuous, and which teach nothing but the enjoyment of the present day, he has given rather a pleasing than a faithful representation, having retained their spriteliness, but lost their simplicity. The Anacreon of Cowley, like the Homer of Pope, has admitted the decoration of some modern graces, by which he is undoubtedly more amiable to common readers, and perhaps, if they would honestly declare their own perceptions, to far the greater part of those whom courtesy and ignorance are content to style the learned.
These little pieces will be found more finished in their kind than any other of Cowley's works. The diction shows nothing of the mould of time, and the sentiments are at no great distance from our present habitudes of thought. Real mirth must always be natural, and nature is uniform. Men have been wise in very different modes; but they have always laughed the same way.
Levity of thought naturally produced familiarity of language, and the familiar part of language continues long the same; the dialogue of comedy, when it is transcribed from popular manners and real life, is read from age to age with equal pleasure. The artifices of inversion, by which the established order of words is changed, or of