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The celebrated Dutch Minister De Witt explained the secret of dispatch: By always doing one thing at a time. [The skill of doing more is the seed of perplexity.]

If there are fewer revolutions in Christendom than heretofore, it is because the principles of sound morality and government are better and more universally known; men are less savage and fierce, their understandings better cultivated. It is their interest to be humane and virtuous.-Sp. of Laws, B. 21, C. 16.

Alphabetical writing, among its many benefits of spreading Religion and the Arts, set the axe to the root of Idolatry, which had been greatly assisted by symbolical characters.

The avenues to Learning of all kinds were planned and opened by Lord

mate recesses of the human mind were unfolded and explained by Locke ;— and the frame and constitution of the universe by Sir Isaac Newton, in a more perfect manner than ever was done or attempted by human skilsince the foundation of the world. Bp. Law, 230, n.

The lives of the pupils of Fenelon and Machiavel are the best comment on the works of the respective authors. Fenelon produced Telemaque, and the Duke of Burgundy; Machial vel produced "Il Principe," and Cesar Borgia!-More.


It was a fact well known in the Court of Versailles, that Madame de Montespan, during the long period in which she continued the favourite mistress of the King (by whom she had seven children), was so strict in religious observances, that, lest she' should violate the austerity of fast ing, her bread, during Lent, was constantly weighed.-Ibid.

Farinelli used to complain heavily that the pension of 20007. a year from the King of Spain was compensation little enough for his being sometimes obliged to hear his Majesty play. Ibid.

Could Louis XIV. have read, probably the Edict of Nantz had not been revoked; be was uninstructed upon system; Cardinal Mazarine, with a view to secure his own dominion, having withheld from him all the necessary means of education; - the terms wit and scholar were in his

mind terms of reproach. The apathy which marked his latter years strongly illustrated the infelicity of an unfurnished mind.—Ibid.

The people will always be liberal to a prince who spares them, and a good prince will always spare a libe ral people.-Selden.

Henry IV. of France fought for his prerogatives bravely, and defended them vigorously; yet, it is said, he ever carefully avoided the use of the term.-H. More.

It is difficult to say whether Julius Cæsar planned his battles with more skill, fought them with more valour, or described them with more ability. -Ibid. A. H.

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PPROVING the remarks of H. H. A (vol. LXXXIX. ii. 494,) I fully agree with him in the necessity of every one giving his assistance against the daring attacks of unprincipled and irreligious men.

The late alarming circumstances that have taken place, must fully convince every reasonable thinking man, that the dreadful state of frenzy into which the lowest classes have been brought must proceed from some very unusual causes, that ought to be searched for from the very bottom of their root; for we must all be aware that in such cases even the terrible vengeance of the Law, and the executions thereof, avail but little, unless you do away the evil which has been the occasion of it.

If the Legislature would turn its attention to the diminishing of the large Farms, which are occupied by one family, and reduce them so as to be partitioned into smaller ones, it would no doubt tend to the employment of a number of poor families, and to improving the morals of their children, whom, for want, they are now obliged to send into the manufac turing districts, at a distance from any of their friends, to observe their manners, and where their habits are too often soon changed into a certain depraved state. This would be avoided, if they could be brought up in the usual industrious occupations of labour, husbandry, and the retirement of a country life. Many other reasons might be assigned to convince you of the necessity of some altera

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ROM London to

Pew in a parish church goes with the Fount Hermon; rocks of sand.

person and their heirs to whom it is granted (consequently devisable, as the donor pleases)? or does the same go with the dwelling house wherein the person resided at the time such Faculty was granted? and is such Faculty registered in the Diocese where probate of wills are usually granted? An elderly maiden lady, with only her niece, occupy the largest pew (capable of bolding eight or ten persons) in the parish church in the village, although they reside in a very small house there; her father, at the time when such Faculty was granted, being then a proprietor of one of the largest mansions there, the present Occupiers of which are now placed in a back pew in the church. Although the rector, highly to his honour, has used his utmost endeavours to lessen those old large pews, and make them more commodious for

his parishioners, by increasing the number of the pews; yet this lady frustrates his good designs; and some other parts of the church are from the same cause prevented from being improved by this praiseworthy Divine *. I most highly approve of the Act of Parliament for building Churches; but this I am certain, that nine-tenths of the present sacred buildings, were the interiors to be properly regulated agreeable to the wish of this eminent divine, and pewing entirely afresh in the churches, with additional (or in many where there are not any) galleries, there would be sufficient accommodation for the inhabitants without the expence of building new churches. I hope, there

* In those large pews the farmers and

their families sit facing each other, and one half of the congregation are seated with their backs to the Clergyman and Communion Table; this is surely highly improper.

Birchdon; forge of iron, two miles from it, worked from ferruginous geodæ. An iron forge at Hamsel, in Sussex; five miles from it the ore is found in beds of ochre.

From Tunbridge to Portsmouth, in Hampshire. This route must be made along the further parts of Surrey, as Reigate, Guildford, Farnham, &c. to Alton, in Hampshire; thence to Portsmouth.

At Reigate, fullers' earth pits and freestone. Quarries thereabouts. The rest of Surrey is all great chalk-hills. Farnham, a chief place for hops, and generally fixes the price, or is the staple mart of hops throughout the kingdom. Two miles near this place, the counties divide. Portsmouth, Gosport, Spithead, &c. places of rendezvous for the Navy of Eogland, the Dock, &c.

The Isle of Wight. At the end facing the Needles, the cliffs and the amazing quantities of sea birds are worthy remark.

The Needles are remarkable rocks. On this isle copperas stones are gathered, and a fine argilla alba, called Hayters' Clay, is dug in it.

To Southampton: thence along the New Forest. Hordell Cliffs, between Christ Church and Lymington; a vast variety of elegant curious fossil shells, &c. are found beat out by the sea; an account of them is given in the Conchylia Hantonensia, in 4to. by Mr. Brander.

Then enter Dorsetshire to Pool. Fine argilla alba, or pipe clay, worked through all England, found at Hungerhill or Wareham. Dorchester. Weymouth; the cliffs there abound with fine fossils, chiefly figured. Portland Island, famous for its excellent quarries of freestone.

Purbeck Island;

stone quarries and pipe clay. Bridport cliffs, remarkable for fossils. Long Burton; shell marble. Shaftes


bury; its quarries and fossils, and its manufactures of lace, stuffs, and stockings. Lyme; the pier is built of Coraua ammonis. Sherborne; its quarries abound with nautili, anomiæ, and other curious petrifactions.

Devonshire. Exeter; its cathedral and woollen manufactories. Plymouth, built on rocks of four kinds of marble; its dock for the Navy; and Eddystone Light-house, off Plymouth. Slate quarry at Buckland and Fleet, nine miles from Dartmouth and Totness. Torbay marble. Lead mines at Bear Alston, Combmartin, Liras Newton, Bearferris. Copper mine at North Moulton. Coal pits at Bovey, and bituminified wood. Manganese at Uptontine near Exeter.

Cross Crimble Ferry to Mount Edgecumbe, the seat of Lord Edgecumbe, near which you enter Cornwall.

Cornwall. This county is one continued scene of the mineral kingdom, worthy the greatest attention of a traveller. Every spot is replete with mines, so that a particular specification is as impossible as unnecesary. The mines themselves of tin, copper, and lead; the tin stream works and lodes; the sheads, smelting-houses, and coinage of it; the copper mines and works; the antimony of Endellion; cobalt, marcasites, mispickel, crystals, granites, and various other fossils; the soap rocks, &c.; are all sources of curiosity worthy inspection. The fossils to be collected are tin grains and ores; grey, red, blue, green, and turcois ore, and marchasitical copper ores, or fire ores; as also native copper; the marcasites and various minerals called indif. ferently mundics, cornei, called cockles, samples of veins called gossens, mineræ zinci, called black Jack, wolfram and other minerals called mock-iron, call, &c. the stones and countries of the lodes, called moorstone, killas, growan, elvean, &c. The Rev. Dr. Borlase has lately published the Natural History of this county, in folio. No petrifactions are to be found in all this county.

Some chief copper mines are, Huel Virgin in Gwennep; Northdown, at Redruth; Oldpool, at Illughan; Roskear, at Cambron, and Huel Kitty; Hueland, at Gwynnear, &c. Tin mines: Godolphin ball; Bellarnoon, at St. Just; Mines at St. Agnes, espe

cially that of Mr. Dunnythorne, and Pyrau Mines, &c.

You return from Cornwall, coasting the other part of Devonshire, in which route lie the mines of Combmartin and Northmoulton above mentioned; then enter into

Somersetshire. The Mendip Hills full of mines of lead, manganese, calamin, ochres, and many other minerals, fossils and petrifactions, and the cavern called Wooky Hole, near Wells. Bristol; its trade and manufactories, spelter work of Mr. Champion, and its Hot Wells; and St. Vincent's Rocks, iron ore and crystals; coal-pits at Kingswood; and Cottam stone.Bath; its waters; Allen's Quarries; Walcot Quarries, full of curious petrifactions; ammonitæ at Keinsham, between Bath and Bristol. This county abounds with stone quarries and petrifactions; as also with coal pits, as Clutton, Finsbury, &c. in which impressions of vegetables are found in the strata over the coal. Brass works at Wormley, near Bristol.

From Bristol to Aust Passage over the Severn, for the route through the Principality of Wales.

From Aust Passage cross the Severn into Monmouthshire. The iron works of Mahon, Tredegar, Tinton, Monmouth, and Pontypool.

Glamorganshire. The culm coalpits at Neath. Iron works at Forrest, Abberavan, Velin Gryffys, and New Forge.

Carmarthenshire. Iron forges at Kidwelly, Whitland, Cymdwy fram, Cambrayne and Fannovaine.

Pembrokeshire. Iron works at Blackpool and Coiducore.

Cardiganshire. Full of mines. Rich lead and copper mines, called Cwmystwith, ten miles from the seaport of Aberystwith; mine of Esgair y Mwyn. Iron work at Fanfrede..

Merionethshire. Lead mines of

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Flintshire. Full of mines and coalpits as also very curious calamins, especially about Holywell. Bulkeley Mountain; its clay for lutings, furnace-bricks, &c.

Denbighshire. Collieries at Wrexham. Barsham and Pentablue iron forges.

Montgomeryshire. Lead and copper mines in the manor of Keferliog, and iron works at Iltattravail and Dołobran.

Iron works at

Radnorshire, and Brecknockshire. Tanners Forge and Fanelly. Return to Bristol through Monmouthshire again.

Though I have only particularised some few parts of Wales, yet all that Principality is properly a mineral country, and well worthy the search of a mineralist.

From Bristol take your route through Gloucestershire.

This county is chiefly stony, abounding with free-stone quarries, full of petrifactions. Gloucester. The Forest of Dean; full of iron mines, coalpits, and other mineral works. It is governed by its own mining laws and jurisdiction. The mines are large, rich, and furnish curious ore of the stalactites kind, called Brush Iron


A cavern at Charford Bottom, two miles from Stroud. Coal-pits at Seridge, Broad Moor Green, Actop, and Redbrook. Copper works also at Redbrook, near Colford, five miles from Monmouth. Cheltenham mineral waters. Lead mine near Sodbury. Iron forges at Lidbrook, Lidney, Upleadon, Fartworth, and Flaxley.

Herefordshire. I do not find any particular in this county remarkable enough to be specified, except the iron works at New Weare, Bringwood, and Lanidloe.

Shropshire. The iron works at Coalbrookdale, with the curious petrifactions and impressions of vegetables in the iron stone balls. There are many other iron works, at Prescot, Sutton, Upton, &c. The pitchstone at Pitchford, Bental, Broseley, and other places. Pipe-clay at Wenlock, and limestone used to fuse the iron-stone of Coalbrookdale. The limestone mountains of the Wrekin, and Cym y Bwch, and the petrifactions in them. Many coalpits in Shropshire. The fossils to be collect

ed in this county are the iron-stones, limestones, and petrifactions.

Cheshire. The salt rocks and works at Nantwich, Middlewich, &c. Silk mills at Stockport. The peat mosses. Copper mines at Alderley Edge. Other mineral works in this county ;-iron forges at Cranage, Warmington, and Lea.

Lancashire. Liverpool, famous for trade. The Candle or Kennel coalpits at Haigh, Wigan, &c. This coal turns and polishes; and toys, utensils, &c. are made of it. Coal-pits at Wigan, Warrington, Burnley, Townly, Hindley, and many other places. Manchester, and its manufactures. Copper mines at High Furness, Conyston Fells; copper works and furnaces at Warrington, but the ore smelted there is brought from Wales. Lead mines at Andlesack. Fine hæmatites ore found in the fells, and much of it is sent to Carron in Scotland, and Sheffield and Rotherham in Yorkshire, and iron forges at Cunsey, Bachbarrow, Sparkbridge, Conyston, Caton, and Burgh. The navigable canals run through this county.

[To be continued.]

SECRETARIES OF STATE. FROM A MS. OF DR. DUCAREL, 1768. THE old Kings of England had but one Secretary

This officer was anciently called Clericus Regis, or Secretarius; a title given to him that is ab epistolis, et scriptis


The name of Secretary was at first applied to such as, being always near the King's person, received his commands. These were called Clerks of the Secret, whence was afterwards formed the word Secretary, regi a secretis.

There was but one Secretary of State in this kingdom till about the end of the reign of King Henry VIII.; but then, business increasing, that Prince appointed a second Secretary; both of equal power, and both stiled “ Principal Secretaries of State."

These Secretaries did not sit at the Council Board till the time of Queen Elizabeth, who first admitted them to the place of Privy Counsellors.

On the Union, Queen Anne added a third Secretary, who is frequently stiled "Secretary of State for North Britain."

I believe the most antient Collection of Letters, &c. of a Secretary of State now extant is contained in a fair Manuscript (No. 211 in the Manuscript Library at Lambeth) entitled "Opusculum ex missivis litteris serenissimi principis Henrici sexti Anglie et Francie Regis, tempore venerabilis viri Thome de Bekyntona Legum Doctoris, jusdem Regis Secretarii, per eundem Regem missis: unà cum quibusdam aliis litteris ejusdem Secretarii, ac alive, nt infra suis locis patebit: ad utilitatem simplicium in unum collectum et compilatum."

[I have not at present the date of the first and last of these Letters; but will send it; however I know they are before 1443.]

This Dr. Bekynton became Bishop of Bath and Wells, Oct. 3, 1443, and died possessed of that See, Jan. 4, 1404.

In the interview of Henry VIII. and Francis 1. between Guines and Ardres, on the 7th of June 1520, the King's Secretary (the first of the four Counsellors Spiritual) ranked immediately after the Knights of the Garter, thus: The Secretary,

The Master of the Rolls,
The Dean of the Chapel,
The Almoner.

Among the Harleian MSS. in the British Museum, No. 305, 44, is one entitled "The State of a Secretaries Place, and the Perill thereof, written

Hen. VII. Oliver King, made Bishop of Bath and Wells, 1495.

Richard Fox, made Bishop of Winchester, 1502, and a Privy Coam sellor.

Fees of Principal Secretaries of State.

In a Manuscript in the MS Library at Lambeth (No. 286) containing a List of his Majesty's Officers, with their fees, sans date (seems to be written temp. Jac. I.), I find

Principall Secretaries




100 super Diett in Court." Those who attended the King were called, by way of distinction, Secretaries of the Commands, Regi à mandalis. This continued till 1559, whep, al a treaty of peace between the French and Spaniards, the former observed that the Spanish ministers who treated for Philip II. called themselves "Secretaries of State;" upon which the French Secretaires des Commandements, out of emulation, assumed the same title, which thence passed into England*.

Some farther particulars relative tu the Secretaries of State may be secu in Chamberlayne's "Present State of A. C. DUCAREL, England."


Cecill Salis- T

bury. Fol. 369.❞

In the same Library, No. 6095, is a "MS. in quarto, containing daily Memorandums in relation to the business of the Secretary's Office, from 25 'March to 3 December 1585."

Thaæled, Feb. 1. HE Letter of J. W. (p. 8.), commenting on the matters which form some of the reasons given by Dissenters for differing from the established Church of England, I hope, will meet the eye of every reasonable Dissenter denominated" Independent," especially those who have been brought up in that persuasion without being acquainted with the prin disciples wherein such dissension lies; for I think it will be allowed by them, that the Form of Prayer is the greatest principle of such dissension.

The following is a list of as many of the Secretaries of the antient Kings of England as I have been able to cover in Bishop Godwin's Catalogue of the Bishops of England: Hen. 11. Silvester Giraldus Cambrensis. (Prince's Worthies of Devon, p. 12.) Ric. I. William de Santa Maria, Canon of St. Paul, made Bishop of London, A. D. 1199.

Edw. Ill. Thomas Hatfield, made Bishop of Durham, 1345.

William of Wickham, made Bishop of Winton, 1367. Hen. IV. Roger Walden, made Bishop

of London, 1404.

Hen. VI. Thomas Bekynton, made Bishop of Bath and Wells, 1443.

Ed. IV. James Goldwell, made Bishop of Norwich, 1472. GINT. MAG. March, 1820.

No sects or persuasions of the Christian Religion are so inveterate against the Roman Catholic Church as the Dissenters from the Established Church of England, not only on account, say they, of the worshipping of images and paintings (which they conceive the Roman Catholicks do by this bending the knee before the cross, or any painting of our Saviour, of the Apostles, and of their numerous

*Chambers's Dictionary.


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