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870. Unless such were the principles and character of the Federal Constitution, it would not have delivered the People of the United States from the evils they experienced under the Confederation; nor have accomplished, as it has hitherto, most effectually and happily, the great ends for which it was ordained,by“ FORMING A MORE PERFECT UNION, ESTABLISHING JUSTICE, INSURING DOMESTIC TRANQUILLITY, PROVIDING FOR THE COMMON DEFENCE AND GENERAL WELSARE, AND SECURING THE BLESSINGS OF LIBERTY TO THEM, AND THEIR POSTERITY."
CONSTITUTION OF THE UNITED STATES.
The Constitution framed for the United States of America, by
a Convention of deputies from the States of New Hampshire, Massachusetts, Connecticut, New York, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, Delaware, Maryland, Virginia, North Carolina, South Carolina, and Georgia, at a Session begun May 25, and ended September 17, 1787.
WE, the people of the United States, in order to form a more perfect union, establish justice, ensure domestic tranquillity, provide for the common defence, promote the general welfare, and secure the blessings of liberty to ourselves and our posterity, do ordain and establish this Constitution for the United States of America.
SECTION 1. All legislative powers herein granted shall be vested in a congress of the United States, which shall consist of a senate and house of representatives.
SECTION ÍK . I. The house of representatives shall consist of members o chosen every second year, by the people of the several states : and the electors in each state shall have the qualifications requisite for electors of the most numerous branch of the state legis lature.
II. No person shall be a representative, who shall not bave attained to the age of twenty-five years, and been seven years a citizen of the United States; and who shall not, when elected, be an inhabitant of that state in which he shall be chosen.
III. Representatives and direct taxes, shall be apportioned among the several states, which may be included within tbis union, according to their respective numbers, which shall be determined by adding to the whole number of free persons, including those bound to service for a term of years, and excludding Indians not taxed, three-fifths of all other persons. The actual enumeration shall be made within three years after the
first meeting of the congress of the United States ; and within every subsequent term of ten years, in such manner as they shall by law direct. The number of representatives shall not exceed one for every thirty thousand : but each state shall have at least one representative : and, until such enumeration shall be made, the state of New Hampshire shall be entitled to choose three; Massachusetts eight; Rhode Island and Providence plantatioós ope; Connecticut five; New York six; New Jersey four ; Pennsylvania eight; Delaware one : Maryland six ; Virginia ten; North Carolina five; South Carolina five; and Georgia three.
IV. When vacancies happen in the representation from any state, the executive authority thereof shall issue writs of election to fill such vacancies.
V. The house of representatives shall choose their speaker and other officers ; and shall have the sole power of impeachment.
SECTION IJ. I. The senate of the United States shall be composed of two senators from each state, chosen by the legislature thereof, for six years ; and each senator shall have one vote.
II. Immediately after they shall be assembled, in consequence of the first election, they shall be divided, as equally as may be, into three classes. The seats of the senators of the first class shall be vacated at the expiration of the second year; of the second class, at the expiration of the fourth year; and of the third class, at the expiration of the sixth year: so that one third may be chosen every second year. And if vacancies happen, by resignation or otherwise, during the recess of the legislature of any state, the executive thereof may make temporary appointments until the next meeting of the legislature, which shall then fill such vacancies.
III. No person shall be a senator, who shall not have attained to the age of thirty years, and been nine years a citizen of the United States ; and who shall not, when elected, be an inhabitant of that state for which he shall be chosen.
IV. The vice-president of the United States shall be president of the senate, but shall bave no vote unless they be equally divided.
V. The senate shall choose their other officers, and also a president pro tempore in the absence of the vice-president, or when he shall exercise the office of president of the United States.
VI. The senate shall have the sole power to try all impeachments. When sitting for that purpose, they shall be on oath or affirmation. When the president of the United States is tried,
the chief Justice shall preside : and no person shall be convicted, without the concurrence of two thirds of the members present.
VII. Judgment, in cases of impeachment, shall not extend further than to removal from office, and disqualification to hold and enjoy any office of honour, trust, or profit, under the United States. But the party convicted shall, nevertheless, be liable and subject to indictment, trial, judgment, and punishment according to law.
SECTION IV. 1. The times, places, and manner of holding elections for senators and representatives, shall be prescribed in each state by the legislature thereof : but the congress may, at any time, by law, make or alter such regulations, except as to the places of choosing senators.
II. The congress shall assemble at least once in every year; and such meeting shall be on the first Monday in December, unless they shall by law appoint a different day.
SECTION. I. Each house shall be the judge of the elections, returns and qualifications of its own members; and a majority of each shall constitute a quorum to do business; but a smaller number may adjourn from day to day, and may be authorized to compel the attendance of absent members, in such manner, and under such penalties as each house may provide. - II. Each house may determine the rules of its proceedings; punish its members for disorderly behaviour; and with the concurrence of two thirds, expel a member.
III. Each house, shall keep a journal of its proceedings, and, from time to time, publish the same, excepting such parts as may in their judgment require secrecy: and the yeas and nays, of the members of either house, on any question, shall, at the desire of one-fifth of those présent, be entered on the journal.
IV. Neither house, during the session of congress, shall, without the consent of the other, adjourn for more than three days, aor to any other place than that in which the two houses shall be sitting.
SECTION Vi. I. The senators and representatives shall receive a compensation for their services, to be ascertained by law, and paid out of the treasury of the United States. They shall, in all cases, except treason, felony, and breach of the peace, be privileged from arrest, during their attendance at the session of their respective houses, and in going to, and returning from the sa me :