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Whose wildest motion is the rippled play
complete as that work is in many respects, it is nevertheless Of rapid moments as they roll away
deficient in some essential points. The author, with a comMeanwhile, delightful studies, deep and strong, mendable feeling of charity consonant with his profession, To graduate honours waft thy soul along;
has, by his own admission, in the account of the biography They come at length! and high in listed fame of Pomarree, glossed over the failings, and dwelt upon the A college hails, a country reads thy name;
better qualities, of the subject of his memoir ; and, pursuing And in that list when first thy name appears, the same course throughout, he has impressed the reader
What triumph sparkles in those happy tears!” with a more elevated idea of their moral condition, and with And we like the elevated tone of bis self-encourage- have attained, than they deserved; or at least than the
a higher opinion of the degree of civilisation to which they ment:
facts which came under our observation authorize. There “ Yet bear thou on!-and when some breathing page seems to be no doubt that he has drawn the picture geneOf godlike poet or divinest sage;
rally as it was presented to him, but he has unconsciously When fire-like energies of soul begin
fallen into an error almost inseparable from a person of his To thrill the passion that is born within,
profession, who, when mixing with society, finds it under Then let thy spirit in her power arise,
that restraint, which respect for his sacred office and veneraAnd dare to speak the language of the skies!
tion for his character create. As in our intercourse with Her voice may fail, in deathlike muteness lust, these people, they acted more from the impulse of their naHer hopes be visions, and those visions crost;
tural feelings, and expressed their opinions with greater But, pure and noble if thy song began,
freedom, we were more likely to obtain a correct knowledge And pour'd high meaning in the heart of man, of their real disposition and habits." Not echoless perchauce a note hath been
His appreciation of the state of social life among these In soine lone heart, or unimagined scene. How many a breeze that wings a noiseless way,
islanders, is candid : How many a streamlet unbeheld by day,
“ Religious books are distributed among the huts of such How many a sunbeam lights a lonely tower,
of the natives as are converted, or who are, as they terin Yet works unseen in its creative power !
themselves, missi-narees ; but many of the inhabitants are Then highly soar, whene'er thy spirit feels
still tootit-ouris, or bad characters, an old expression, signi. The vivid light intensity reveals ;
fying, liierally, rusty iron, and now indiscriminately used Unchill’d by scorn, nndarken'd by despair,
for a dissenter from the Christian religion, and a low chaSo martyrs lived, and such the mighty were!"
racter. These persons are now of no religion, as they have
renounced their former one, and have not embraced that The amiable dispositions, and the ambition indicated which has been recently introduced. in these passages, are good omens. But Mr Montgomery “ Ignorance of the language prevented my obtaining any must learn to come out of himself—to know and love the correct information, as to the progress that had been made world—to take and give a blow good-naturedly.
generally towards a knowledge of the Scriptures by those who were converted; but my impression was, and I find by the journals of the officers it was theirs also, that it was
very limited, and but few understood the simplest parts of Narrative of a Voyage to the Pacific and Behring's it. Many circumstances induced me to believe that they
Strait, to co-operate with the Polar Expeditions per considered their religious books very much in the same light formed in His Majesty's Ship Blossom, under the com
as they did their household gods; and, in particular, their mand of Captain F. W. Becchey, R.N., in the Years conduct, on the occasion of a disturbance which arose from 1825, 26, 27, 28. Published by Authority of the Lords of the ship, when they deposited these books in the mission,
some false reports at the time of the robbery on the stores Commissioners of the Admiralty. 4to. Pp.742. and declared themselves to be indifferent about their lives London. Colburn and Bentley. 1831.
and property, so long as the sacred volume, which could be (Concluding notice.)
replaced at any time for a bamboo of oil, was in safety. In
general, those who were missi-narees had a proper respect In our first notice of this work, we restricted our atten. for the book, but associating with it the suppression of their tion to the history of the mutineers of the Bounty, and their amusements, their dances, singing and music, they read it descendants. In our second, we directed the reader's with much less good-will, thau iť a system had been introthoughts to the sublime phenomenon of the first hill tops ness, and have instilled happiness into society.
duced which would bave tempered religion with cheerfulof a new continent emerging from the deep, and showed
“ The Otaheitans, passionately fond of recreation, require him restless man bounding across the waste of waters to more relaxation than other people; and though it might occupy the land before it was rightly dry. We promised not have been possible at once to clear the dances from the in this, our third and last, to show, by extracts, the effects immoralities altending them, still it would have been good produced by the collision of men yet in the infancy of policy to sanction these diversions under certain restrictions, social existence, with those who are enjoying the benefits until laws which were more important began to sit easy on of high civilisation. Captain Beechey speaks in a modest, the shoulders of the people. Without amusements, and but manly, style of his opportunities of observation:
excessively indolent, they now seek enjoyment in idleness
and sensuality, and too much pains cannot be bestowed to “ Still, it is hoped, the remarks which I shall offer will arouse them from their apathy, and to induce them to be sufficient to present a candid and faithful picture of the emerge from their general state of indifference to those occuexisting state of society in the island ; a feature by no means pations which are most essential to their welfare. Looking unimportant in the history of the country, which is other only to the past, they at present seem to consider that they wise complete. To extend this by dwelling upon the beau-cari proceed in the same easy manner they have bitherto ties of the scenery, the engaging manners of the inhabitants, done; forgetting that their wants, formerly gratified by the their mythology, superstitions, legends, &c., would be only natural produce of the earth, have lately been supplied by to recapitulate what has been detailed in the interesting foreign commodities, which, by indulgence, have become voyages of Wallis, Cook, Vancouver, Wilson, Turnbull, essential to their comfort; and that, as their wants increase, and others, and very recently by Mr Ellis, in his valuable as in all probability they will, they will find themselves at work, entitled · Polynesian Researches,' compiled after ten a loss to meet the expenses of the purchase; and that, being years' residence in the Pacific, and from the Journals of dependent upon the casual arrival of merchant vessels, they other missionary gentlemen in those parts. In this useful will be liable to be deprived of them suddenly by the occur. work, he has traces the history of some of the islands revce of a war, or of some other contingency, at a period through all their various stages. He has explained the perhaps when, by disuse, they will not have the power of origin of many of their barbarous customs, has elucidated falling back upon those which have been discontinued. many bitherto obscure parts, and has shown the difficulties “ The country is not deficient in productions adapted to which opposed themselves to the introduction of Chris- commerce. The sugar-cane grows so luxuriantly that, tianity; the hardships, dangers, and privations which were from two small enclosures, tive tons of white sugar are endured by himself and his brethren, who, actuated by re- annually manufactured, under the superintendence of an ligious motives, were induced to sacrifice their own health Englishman; cotton bás been found to succeed very well; and comfort, and worldly advantages, in the attempt to arrow root of good quality is plentiful; they have some ameliorate the condition of their fellow-creatures. But, sandal wood, and other ornamental woods, suited for furuis
ture, and several dyes. Besides these, coffee and other grain a certain time, and for this reason many of them would might no doubt be grown, and they might salt down meat, on no account pass this spot after dark.” which, with other articles I have not mentioned, would
It is, however, pleasing to think of the advantages coustitute a trade quite sufficient to procure for the inhabitants the luxuries which are in a gradual course of intro
which some more happily constituted minds bave derived duction, and to make it desirable for merchant vessels to
from the labours of the zealous and fearless missionaries : touch at the island. It is not from the poverty of the “Some of them' have materially benefited by the residence island, therefore, from which they are likely to feel incons of the missionaries, and in particular two who resided at venience, but from their neglect to avail themselves of its Matavai, about four miles to the east ward of our anchorage. capabilities, and employ its productions to advantage. They piqued themselves on their imitation of European
" It seems as if the people never had these things revealed customs, and had neat little cottages built after the Euroto them, or had sunk into an apathy, and were discouraged pean style, with white-washed fronts, which, peeping at tinding each year burdened with new restrictions upon through some evergreen foliage, had a most agreeable effect; their liberties and enjoyinents, and nothing in return to and being the only cottages of this description upon the sweeten the cup of life. I cannot avoid repeating my island in the possession of the natives, were the pride of their conviction, that, had the advisers of Pomarree limited the
The apartments contained chests, chairs, a table, penal code at first, and extended it as it became familiar to and a knife and fork for a guest, and nothing gave these the people, --had they restricted instead of suppressed the chief's greater pleasure than the company of some of the amusemeuts of the people, and taught them such parts of officers of the ship. Each of thein could read and write the Christian religion as were intelligible to their simple their own language, and the elder Pa-why had, I believe, understandings, and were most conducive to their moral been useful to the missionaries in translating some part of improvement and domestic comfort, these zealous and the Scriptures. He was the more learned of the two broreally praise worthy men would have made greater advances thers ; but Iletotte was the more esteemed, and was an extowards the attainment of their object.
ception to almost all his countrymen, in not asking for “If, in offering these remarks, it should be thought I what was shown to him. His enquiries concerning the use have been severe upon the failings of the people, or upon of every thing which offered itself to his notice, on coming the conduct of the missionary gentlemen, I have only to on board the ship, surprised and interested us, while bis say, that I have felt myself called upou to declare the amiable disposition and engaging manners won him the truth, which I trust has been done without any invidious esteem of almost all on board. An anecdote illustrative of feeling to either. Indeed, I experienced nothing during his character will be read with interest. The missionaries my stay that could create such a feeling, but very much to had, for several years, endeavoured to produce a change of the contrary, as both my officers and myself received every religion in the island, by explaining to the natives the tallacy possible kindness from them. And it I have pourtrayed of their belief, and assuring them that the threats of their their errors more minutely than their virtues, it has been deities were absurd. Iletotle at length determined to put done with a view to show, that although the condition of their assertions to the test by a breach of one of the strictest the people is much improved, they are not yet blessed with laws of his religion, and resolved either to die under the that state of innocence and domestic comfort of which we experiment, or embrace the new faith. have read. It would have been far more agreeable to have “ A custom prevailed of offering pigs to the deity, which dwelt on the fair side of their character only, but that has were brought to the morai, and placed upon whattas or already been done, and, by following the same course, I fautas for the purpose. From that moment they were should only bave increased the general miscouception.”
considered sacred ; and if, afterwards, any human being,
the priests excepted, dared to commit so great a sacrilege as The following is illustrative of the degree to which the
to partake of the offering, it was supposed that the offended inhabitants of Otaheite have been freed from their super- god would punish the crime with instant death. Iletotte stitions :
thought a breach of this crime would be a fair criterion of “ The Otaheitans were always very superstitious people, consecrated meat, and retired with it to a solitary part of
the power of the deity, and accordingly stole some of the and, notwithstanding their change of religion, still entertain
the wood to eat it, and perhaps to die. Having partaken Trost absurd notions on several points. Though they have
of the food, he expected at each mouthful to experience the ceased to give credit to any recent prophecies, many firmly believe they have seen the fulllment of some of the pre- time in the wood in awful suspense, uutil, tinding himself
vengeance he had provoked, and he waited a considerable dictions that were made before their conversion to Christi- rather refreshed than otherwise by his meal, be quitted the anity, of which the invasion of the island by the natives of retreat, and went quietly home. For several days he kept Bora Bora was one. This event was toretold by a little his secret, but finding no bad effects from his transgression, bird called Oomamoo, which had the gift of speech, and
he disclosed it to every one, renounced his religion, and used to warn persons of any danger with which they were
embraced Christianity. Such instances of resolution and threatened. On many occasions, when persons have taken good sense, though they have been practised before, are refuge in the mountains to avoid a mandate for a victim for extremely rare in Otabeite; and in this sketch of these two the morai, or to escape from some civil commotion, this brothers a highly favourable picture is presented of the little bird has been their guardian spirit, has warned them
class to which they belong, though there are others, partiwhen danger was near, and directed them how to escape cularly Taate, the first and most powerful chief upon the pursuit. I used to laugh at Jim, our interpreter—a good- island, who are equally deserving of favourable notice.” natured intelligent fellow-for bis belief in these tales, but he was always very earnest in his relation of them, and
Some of our readers may prefer individual portraits to never allowed himself to join in our ridicule. Though he these generalities : confessed that this little monitor had been dumb since the “ On the day appointed for the visit of the royal party, iotrodnction of Christianity, yet it would evidently have the duty of the ship was suspended, and we were kept in been as difficult to make hiin believe it never had spoken, expectation of their arrival until four o'clock in the atieras that the danger of which it warned him had never existed; noon, when I had the honour of receiving a note, couched and this feeling is, I believe, common to all his countrymen. in affectionate terms, from the queen-regent, to whom, as Nothing is more difficult than the removal of early im. well as to her subjects, the loss of time appears to be immapressions, particularly when connected with superstitions. terial, stating bei inability to fulfil her engagement, but 1 was one evening returning with him round the shore of that she would come on board the following day. Scarcely the bay from Papiete, a favourite route, and was conversing twenty minutes had elapsed, however, from the receipt of on the superstitions of bis countrymen, when we came to a this note, when we were surprised by the appearance of the romantic retired spot, crowned ivith tall cocoa-nut trees, party, consisting of the queen-regent, the queen-dowager with a small glen behind it. Night was fast approaching, and her youthful husband, and Ulamme and his wife. and the long branches of the palm, agitrted by the wind. Their dresses were an incongruous mixture of European produced a mournful sound in uvison with the subject of and native costumes; the two queens had wrappers of native our conversation. As we passed, I observed Jin ended cloth wound loosely round their bodies, and on their heads vouring to get on the outside, and latterly walking on the straw-poked bonneis, manufactured on the island, in imitawash of the sea; and found that he never liked to pass this tion of some which had been carried thither by European spot after dark for fear of the spirits of his unfortunate females, illnd trimmed with black ribbons. Their feet were countrymen who were hanged there between the cocoa-nut left bare, in opposition to the showy covering of their heads, treps. The popular belief before the introduction of our as if purposely to mark the contrast between the two counLaich was, that the spirit of the deceased visited the body for tries whose costumes they united; and neatly-executed blue
lines formed an indelible net-work, over that portion of the experience, that the real offender would have been detected, frame which in England would have been covered with silk and the property restored." or cotton, Ulamme, who, without meaning any insinua In conclusion, we recommend Captain Beechey's book tions to the disadvantage of the queen, appeared to be on a very familiar footing with ber majesty, (notwithstanding
as a valuable addition to our knowledge of the globe and
its inhabitants. he was accompanied by his own wite,) was a very remarkably tall aud comely man; he wore a straw hat and a white shirt, under which he had taken the necessary precaution The Bridal Night; the First Poet ; and Other Poems. of tying on his native maro, and was provided with an umbrella to screen his complexion from the sun. This is By Dugald Moore, author of “ The African," &r. the common costume of all ihe chiefs, to whom an umbrella Post 8vo. Pp. 256. Glasgow : Blackie, Fallarton, is now become almost as indispensable as a shirt; bat by far and Co. Edinburgh: Fullarton and Co. 1831. the greater part of the rest of the population are contented with a mat and a maro."
A Lad of promise has been spoiled. There was from
the first something suspicious about Mr D. Moore's We submit the following description of a trial to our poetry. It was always mounted on stilts—there was a legal readers :
want of easy natural playfulness about his versification“ Before we sailed, a most serious theft was committed bis imagery did not spring from bis narrative or meditaon the stores of the ship, which had been placed under a tion, but was fitted to it. Still there was an elevation shed, and likewise on the wearing apparel of one of the and justness of feeling about his writings ; and his images officers who was ill, on shore. Immediately the aavas although bearing marks of being far-fetched and carefully (policemen) heard of it, they were on the alert, and arrested adapted, were always correctly, and frequently beautitwo men, on whom suspicion fell, from their having slept
There was something stately about his in the place the night of the robbery, and absconded early
fully finished. in the morning. The news of the offence spread with its lyrics, although he repeated the same tune too often. accustomed rapidity among uncivilized tribes, and various
The first poem in the present series is a close imitation were the reports in circulation as to the manner in which I of the Corsair of Byron. The rest are imitations of intended to visit the misdemeanour. The prisoners at first the earlier works of Mr D. Moore, and considerably inacknowledged their guilt, but afterwards denied it, and de- ferior. They are characterised by an inflated dictionclared they had been induced to make the confession from a want of now in the thought and versification-and a the threats of the aavas who apprehended them. Nothing constant attempt to say strong things. There is a want was found upon them, and no person could be brought forward as a direct witness of the fact, so that their guilt of genuine natural feeling pervades the whole. Mr rested on circumstantial evidence alone. I was, however, Moore, like another poet we lately reviewed, is a mocks anxious to bring the offenders to trial, as all the sails and ing-bird-only not so agreeable a one as he upon whom the stores of the ship were on shore, and at the mercy of we first bestowed the appellation. the inhabitants, and unless severe measures were pursued The description of one of his heroes is too appalling to in this instance, successive depredations would, in all pro- be read. It is a very Gorgon upon whom none can look bability, have occurred. The chiefs were, in consequence, without being turned to stone. summoned, and at an early date the prisoners were brought two pages where it occurs, before we ventured to band
We pasted together tbe to trial, opposite the anchorage. nary case, I was invited to the tribunal, and paid the com- the book to the female members of our family. pliment of being allowed to interrogate the prisoners; but “ Close curly hair of deep and raven dye, nothing conclusive was elicited, though the circumstantial Twined round a wrinkled forehead, pale and high, proof was so much against them, that five out of six of the That look'd like marble by some shadow hid, chiefs pronounced them guilty. The penalty in the event And scarcely tinted with a lifeless red ; of conviction in a case of this nature is, that the culprit shall Dark was bis eye beneath a shaggy lash, pay fourfold the value of the property stolen ; in this in His whiskers dark(!)—AND DARKER HIS MUSTACHE(!!) stance, however, as the articles could not be replaced, and Scorn in his glance her arrows seem'd to dip, the value was far beyond what the individuals could pay, I And doubt and pride sat on his ashy lip." proposed, as the chiefs referred the matter to me, that by way of an example, and to deter others from similar acts,
But this Roland meets with an Oliver in the gentlethe prisoners should suffer corporal punishment. Their man of the fancy, respecting whom the bard enquires : laws, however, did not admit of this mode of punishment, “ Of all the train, why is his swarthy brow and the matter concluded by the chiefs making themselves And eagle eye alone in blackness now ?" responsible for the stores, and directing Pa-why to acquaint the people that they had done so, promising to make fur- And whom he afterwards describes “gathering up his ther enquiry into the matter, which was never done, and dusky form,” and “ standingthe prisoners escaped; but the investigation answered our
as stands an eagle in the storm, purpose equally well, as the stores afterwards remained un
With moveless pinions floating on the sky." touched. The various reports which preceded the trial, the assembling of the chiefs, and other circumstances, had
If our readers, like the bystanders at a race, do not brought together a great concourse of people. Pa-why, at once see, by the very build of the competitors, who will raising himself above the multitude, harangued them in a carry the day, the following piece of intelligence will very energetic and apparently elegant manner, much to the convince them that we are right. The despot is of satisfaction of the inhabitants, who all dispersed and went quietly to their homes. The consideration which the chiefs
“ dark whiskers," and
course the gentleman with gave to the merits of this question, and the pains they took
“ darker mustache :" to elicit the truth, reflect much credit upon them. The “ While Zariff springs upon his savage foe, case was a difficult one, and Iletotte, not being able to make With giant arm he hew'd the despot low, up his mind to the guilt of the prisoners, very honestly dif Whose shelly eyeball, moveless as he reelid, fered from his colleagues; and his conduct, while it afforded With hue of ice bis latest wish revealid." a gratifying instance of the integrity of the man, showed a proper consideration for the prisoners, which in the darker
Mr Moore is no less felicitous in his descriptions of ages would have been sacrificed to the interested inotive of inanimate nature. To use his own words, he coinciding in opivion with the majority. If we compare “ Has seen at eve the blue and ghostlike moon the fate which would have befallen the prisoners, supposing Rise o'er the desert." them ipvocent, had they been arraigned under the early form of government with the transactions of this day, we cannot
A grotto is with him, not as it would have been with but congratulate the people on the introduction of the pre Peter Bell, “ a grotto and nothing more.” It is sent penal code, and acknowledge that it is one of the greatest
“a cave, which seem'd temporal blessings they have derived from the introduction
The shatter'd tomb of some old earthquake, dag of Christianity. At the same time it is just to observe, that had a similar depredation been committed under those cir
By the old miner Time, at Nature's dawn.” cumstances, there is every reason to believe, from former No sooner did one of his heroes sit down on a stone, tham
“ o'er him sung
means to compensate talent, we despise the miserable A tree whose skeleton branches oft had made
restrictions of a coterie, and deride the ostentatious Wild music in the midnight."
parade of a sounding catalogue of names. With assistBut all these sink into insignificance when compared ants among the most illustrious ornaments of literature, with his sublime abuse of an image, which has of late the value of contributions is left to be determined by been bandied about and travestied after a strange fashion. their absolute merit. From the unexhausted mine of Speaking of some political contingency, the Lord Advo- rising genius we shall draw liberally and often; and cate, several years ago, piously remarked, that it was “ in altogether destitute of partialities or antipathies, and rethe hand of Providence, and the womb of futurity.” Mr gardless of party or personal distinctions, as we are and Montgomery saw fit t'other day to expatiate
must ever be, it is scarcely too much to expect that our “ Throughout the wide fermenting uomb of space labours will be received in good faith, as the result of an Where time and nature multiply their race.
anxious desire to accomplish a laudable object upon But Mr D. Moore beats him hollow, when he tells us honourable grounds." Let these principles be adhered
“ Far through the womb of eve the music floats." to, and carried through with the talent evinced in the Even this, however, is outdone by the poet himself in his present number, and there can be no doubt of the result. address “to a petrified tree, dug up in a mine in Hun- We cannot go over the contents in detail, but we
would particularly recommend to the attention of our gary." « Methinks thou wert of that tall race
readers the two vigorous opening articles, entitled, “ Our
Principles,” and “ The Country and its Prospects,"—the
highly graphic and picturesque “ Journal of a SouthCreation op'd her eye."
African Emigrant,”-the interesting and instructive paThe figure is now complete, even in its minutest details. per on the “ Progress of the Indian Cholera,” the We sincerely trust that no rude hand may mutilate its powerful and original sketch, the first of a series of
“ Scenes in Poland,"_" The Incendiary, a Tale of the fair proportions.
German Peasant Wars,"_“ Recent Rambles in Spain," SEDET, ÆTERNUMQUE SEDEBIT.
-and a useful business article on the “ Reform Bill." . As was to be expected, the number also contains some
interesting pieces of poetry. “ The Three Homes,” is by The Englishman's Magazine. No. I. April. London: | a poetess who writes in a strain not unworthy of our own
Hurst, Chance, and Co. Edinburgh : Henry Con- Gertrude. In the mechanical details of typography, stable.
paper, and embellishment, the Magazine is of a very suHere is a new magazine, which takes high and inde- perior description. We wish all connected with it the pendent ground-ground which, as far as we can judge success they deserve, and request them to believe that it by the first Number now before us, it is likely to main is with much pleasure we take the earliest opportunity of tain. We have beard it said, that there is no room at introducing their work to the favourable attention of the present for a new Magazine ; but this is nonsense. There northern division of the island. is always room for fresh and vigorous talent, whether conveyed in a periodical shape or not. The Englishman's Magazine is established on manly and impartial princi- | An Outline of Sematology, or an Essay towards establishples, assumes a fearless and spirit-stirring tone; and whilst ing a new Theory of Grammar, Logic, and Rhetoric. its conductors appear prepared to go hand in hand with 8vo. Pp. 252. London. 1831. all honest periodicals in farthering the good cause of civil Were the objects of this ingenious performance mereand intellectual liberty, they are not men who will give ly to propound a new theory of grammar, a new hypoup an inch of their own dignity to the previously-esta- thesis respecting the origin and progressive formation of blished influence of any work in existence. They write language, we should scarcely have felt much inclination as Englishmen ought to write-boldly, frankly, and with- to notice it. The great uncertainty of the subject itself out trammel. They fear not to speak plain truths; they - the license of assumption and conjecture indulged in entertain a just contempt for all empty pretenders, and by those who have treated of it, with the single exception they welcome heartily and as a brother, the man of real of Grimm and his disciples—the totally erroneous and genius, and of lofty and pure ambition. Scandal they unwarrantable mode in which they have conducted their have no relish for,—vulgarity they are above. They enquiries ; beginning, not with an examination of lanrest on the strength of their own minds, - on the guage as it is, and thence ascending analytically, caususceptibilities of their own hearts. With every tiously, and, by strict induction, backwards towards its respect for the talent at present existing in the monthly source, but with a ready. made theory of language such publications, we do not see why the Englishman should as it is not, and thence descending by a purely imaginary not at once take a high place among this class of works process to its present state—these, and other causes, have If it steadily adheres to the principles upon which it tended to create in most minds attached to the pursuit sets out, it may, ere long, gain a more enviable repu- of true science and philosophy a very decided distastetation than most of them; for in the condition of the to use no stronger term—to the laborious triflings of majority there is “ something rotten.” In politics the philologists and grammarians. But the end, to which Englishman will be in every sense of the word liberal. this author proposes to render his enquiry into the origin The Editors will “ struggle for freedom of conscience, of grammar subservient, being no less than the delineafor freedom of trade, for the privileges of the Commons tion of a new system of logic and rhetoric, is such as to of England, and for the amelioration of the condition of reconcile one in his case to an attentive consideration of their fellow-creatnres, wherever they are degraded by the means by which it is to be effected. ignorance or maltreated by injustice.” They declare their The book is divided into three chapters. The first of intention, at the same time, to take an enlarged and phi- these forms the foundation on which the other two rest. Its losophical view of all subjects of a party nature. “ The leading object is to prove that words, although at first the expression of our sentiments," as they happily express signs of particular individual objects, do immediately, on themselves, “will be controlled by a power superior being combined so as to form a sentence, lose this their parto the fluctuations of Parliamentary benches, or the ticular signification, and stand now, even individually, no reckonings of mercenary speculation; we are neither longer as the signs of particular objects or perceptions, chained to a statesman's chariot, nor nailed to a tra- but as the signs of abstractions, called by the author noder's counter.” In literary matters, their declaration tions—or knowledge, obtained by reason from acts of of faith is no less satisfactory :-“ Possessing ample comparison and judgment on the mind's passively received
impressions : while collectively, or as modifying each selves as if there was something to be discovered as regards other in sentences, they may still, in their aggregate the connexion we speak of, before a system of Logic could be import, be made to signify particular objects or perrep- established on a just foundation." tions. There is thus in words, even after they have been And again, stripped of their particular signification, a double force : “ The doctrine of the whole work may receive some light their separate force, which is derived from the under from the following way of stating it :-Man, in common standing; and their united force, by which, in combina with other animals, derives immediately from nature the tion, they may be made to signify particular things or
power to express his immediate, or, as they are cominonly perceptions. In accordance with this theory, the author called, his natural wants and feelings. But he also possesses endeavours to account for the formation of the successive does not teach ; and it is solely by the exertion of this
the power of inventing or learning a language which pature parts of speech.
power, which we call reason, that he raises himself above This chapter is by far the most important of the whole the level of other animals. By media such as artificial lantreatise. It contains the developement and proof of the guage consists of, and only by such media, he acquires tbe principles whence the author's theory of rhetoric and knowledge which distinguishes him from other creatures; logic is attempted to be deduced as a corollary or parti- and each advance being but the step to another, he is a cular application. Several things there are, and these, of knowledge, it is an error to describe or consider them in
being indefinitely improvable. But if words are the means too, lying at the very foundation of his hypothesis, which any other light; and we accordingly deem them not as, we would dispute with him strenuously; that is, if he strictly speaking, the signs of thought, but as the means by adhere rigidly to the letter of his treatise as we under which we think, and set others a-thinking. This principle stand it: wbilst, on the other hand, if he should claim being admitted, renders unnecessary Locke's doctrine of for his words some latitude of interpretation, we think ideas; and SEMATOLOGY stands opposed to, and takes the that we could, without much difficulty, propose an ex
place of, what the French call IDEALOGY." planation by which the whole theory might come to be, Whatever opinion may be entertained respecting the at bottom, not very far removed, after all, from the com accuracy of the writer's views on this very intricate submon ideas on this subject. Our limits, however, would ject, we must at least allow him the praise of close thinknot admit of such discussion.
ing, and no ordinary ingenuity. So much, indeed, is the The chapter on Rhetoric does not strike us as con former a characteristic of this performance, that it requires taining any thing remarkable ; nor that on Logic, in a powerfully concentrated and perseveringly sustained which, however, the reader will meet with some views effort of attention, such as few minds are capable of exrelative to the use of language in reasoning equally simple erting, to put one's self fully in possession of the author's and ingenious. It is characterised by two peculiarities, views; and it is not until after frequent retrospects and Ist, by a great want of respect for the Aristotelian syllo- comparisons of passage with passage, and more than one gism ; with his remarks on the nature of which, how. perusal of the first twenty sections, that one begins rightly ever, we cannot coincide: and 2dly, by the notion that to understand the drift of the whole speculation. Part reasoning consists in a comparison of similar things, and of this labour might have been spared by a full and clear, the recording of the result of the comparison in a sign, yet concisely-expressed table of contents prefixed to each which is thus representative of the common points of chapter. At a time when the literature of Great Britain agreement, and may itself be now carried forward for seems to be recovering somewhat of its pristine vigour, comparison with some third thing, whence will arise a it were no insignificant symptom of returning strength, new sign expressive of what is common to them all, and if publications distinguished by intellectual power, by perso on ad infinitum.
tinacious and penetrating thought, on wbatever subject, We will allow the writer himself to state the design in support of whatever philosophical doctrines, excited and pretensions of his work as they are recapitulated to among the few who are capable of judging in such matwards the conclusion of the volume :
ters, that interest which it is scarcely less creditable to “ To conclude;-the theory which, in this treatise, we
feel than to have awakened. Men of letters are the only have endeavoured to establish' is this, that we come at all proper patrons of one another ; and, to the man of re.. our knowledge by the use of media, which media are, fined pursuits and tranquil thought, this the elevating chiefly, words; and that as the words procure the notions, sympathy and admiration of his compeers is the only the notions exist not antecedently to language:—that when, patronage, the desire of which implies no taipt of serby these means, we have gained knowledge, and try, by similar means, to communicate it to others, we do not,
vility, the reception of which subjects to no feeling of dewhile the process is going on, represent our own thoughts,
gradation, but we set their minds i-thinking in a particular train ; that our own thought is represented by nothing short of the completely formed word, whose parts, if any or all of Three Discourses. On Opinion : the Connerion between them are separately dwelt upon, are not parts of our Knowledge and Virtue: and the Press as an Engine for thought, but signs of knowledge which we and our hearers the Diffusion of Knowl dge. By Henry Sewell Stokes. possess in common, and which, by bringing their minds 8vo. Pp. 191. London. Hurst, Chance, and Co. into a particular attitude, enables them to conceive our 1831. thought, when the whole wor!), that expresses it, is formed : - that if, before this word is forined, there are parts by
The object of the first of these discourses is to analyze which something is communicated not known before, yet, the nature of opinion, to consider its innocency, and to being communicated, it is still but a part of the means to estimate its force; in other words, to prove ibat man is ward knowing something not yet communicated, and still, not responsible for his belief, and that the power of public therefore, the principle bolds good, that we are adding part opinion is resistless. The latter proposition we admit, to part of the whole word which is to express something the former we deny. Man is responsible for his belief. not yet communicated; which word, even though it extend to an oration, a treatise, a poem, &c., is as completely indi
The individual who refuses to search for an object placed visible with respect to the meaning conveyed by it as a
within bis reach, and thereupon declares that he cannot whole, as is a word which consists only of a single syllable, find it, is answerable for all the consequences of bis obstior a single sound. If this doctrine truly describes the na nacy; and, in the same manner, he who will not bend ture of the connexion between thought and language, we his faculties to the consideration of the evidence by wbich claim for it the merit of a discovery, because the cominon theory, that is, the theory which men are presumed to act
any fact is established, is responsible for his erroneous upon, and to which all preceptive works are adapted,—not opinious. The luws of evidence are unalterable. The the theory which, unawares, they really act upon,-exhi
act of attending to proof is voluntary. As we may or bits that connexion in a very different light. And, as a
may not search carefully in a particular place for a partidiscovery, we are the more disposed to urge attention to it, cular article, so we may or may not bestow due and debecause our soundest metaphysicians have expressed them liberate attention on particular facts. These facts origi