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“ comme autant de pinceaux donnent à la nature ce coloris et cette “ fraicheur qui la rendent fi aimable. Il faut donc que malgré les “ reproches faits à Dédale, Homère ait trouvé dans son ouvrage ce gout " et ce sentiment, qui seuls font capables d'echauffer l'imagination, “ parcequ'ils touchent le cour, peuvent inspirer des idées riantes à “ l'esprit par le souvenir des choses agréables qu'ils lui rappellent, et “ fournir à tous deux les images charmantes dont il a fait usage." .
Antiquités Etrusques, Grecques, et Romaines, tom. iii. p. 96. I have transcribed these copious remarks, because they seem to place in a very fair and judicious point of view the merits of the early sculptor, whose obscure history I have wished to illustrate. With such a desire, I have particularly to regret one of the lost comedies ascribed to Aristophanes, which bore the name of Dædalus : yet it is possible that such a composition might not have afforded that clear light concerning the life and character of the artist, which we might eagerly expect from its title. As it was the favourite amusement of Aristophanes to ridicule the tragic poets of his country, perhaps his Dædalus contained little more than a ludicrous parody on the Prometheus of Æschylus. However this might be, the name of Dædalus appears to have been generally honoured by the poets of Greece; and I haften to conclude this attempt to elucidate and confirm his reputation with the words of a Greek epigram, that represent him as a paragon of excellence :
There were two subsequent artists, of considerable eminence, who bore the name of Dædalus. The first, a native of Sicyon, acquired celebrity by many statues that are mentioned by Pliny and Pausanias. The latter was probably a Bithynian, as he is supposed to have executed, at Nicomedia, a wonderful image of Jupiter, the patron of armies *
The learned Abbé Barthelemy fays, in a note to his elaborate and lively travels of Anacharsis, “ Je ne nie pas l'existence d'un Dédale “ très ancien. Je dis seulement que les premiers progrés de la sculp“ ture doivent être attribués à celui de Sicyone.”—Tom. iii. p. 558.
I am sorry to differ from so accomplished a judge of antiquity ; but I consider the sculptural merit of the elder Dædalus as completely proved by the testimony of Homer. The works of Endæus, the Athenian disciple of this early artist, are mentioned by Athenagoras and Paufanias. The latter seems to have examined the works of Endæus with peculiar attention.
NOTE XII. Ver. 290.
And from oblivion sav'd the artist and the bard.
Although the Lacedæmonians were so little attached to the pacific and elegant pursuits of life, that, according to a bold expression of Isocrates concerning them, they were hardly acquainted with their letters, yet they seem to have paid particular regard to the art of sculpture. Pausanias, with his usual accuracy, has recorded that this early and accomplished artist, Gitiadas, whom he celebrates for the variety of his talents, was a native of Sparta t. The minute and intelligent describer of his sculptural works speaks highly of the figures that he executed in brass, particularly those of Neptune and Amphitrite. That the Lacedemonians had a strong passion for sculpture seems evident, from the magnificence of their Amyclæan Apollo, whose throne was decorated by Bathycles, an artist of Magnesia, and comprised, as M. de Caylus has justly observed, an epitome of ancient mythology. Winkelman fupposes Bathycles to have lived in the age of Solon. One singular advantage which the Spartans expected to derive from the possession of fine statues was to improve the beauty of their offspring; a source of their partiality both to sculpture and to painting which Junius has explained in the following passage : “ Lacedæmonii quondam in re“ liquis horridiores, pulcherrimas quasque pi&turas in summo semper “ habuerunt pretio ; dicuntur enim de liberorum suorum pulchritudine “ tantopere folliciti fuiffe, ut formofiffimorum adolescentium Nirei, Nar“ cisli, Hiacinthi, Caftoris et Pollucis, deorumque speciosissimorum “ Apollinis nempe ac Bacchi effigies gravidis uxoribus repræsentarent."
* Bavpasoy aya djece Espatid A.05. Eustathius apud Junium.
+ Λακεδαιμονίοι ... τον τε ναον ομοίως και αγαλμα εποιησαντο Αθηνας χαλκουν: Γιτιαδας δε ειργάσατο ανηρ επιxwpros' ETOINTE de xas aquata Ampa o Totsadas, anda te nas vjeroy is thy Otor. PAUSANIAS, P, 250.
Junius, de Pietura Veterum, p. 71. On the works of Gitiadas, which confifted of brazen bas-reliefs, in the temple of the Spartan Minerva, D'Hancarville has made the following judicious remark:
“ La sculpture dans les ouvrages de Gitiadas étoit aussi avancée, que “ l'étoit la peinture dans ceux d'Helotas, faits peu avant lui, suivant le “ rapport de Pline : cet art étoit par consequent arrivé en Grèce au “ point où il parvint en Italie, quand Laurent Ghiberti fit en bronze “ les admirables bas-reliefs des portes du baptistaire de Florence, et par “ une singularité remarquable les arts firent dans ces deux pays les “ mêmes progrés en des tems à-peu-près egaux.”
Gitiadas, according to probable conjecture, lived in the age of Romulus.
Dipænus and Scyllis are usually mentioned together as brothers and associates in their art, which they learnt from Dædalus. Some authors (according to Pausanias) supposed them to be his sons. The most striking part of their history is contained in the following passage of Pliny:
“ Marmore scalpendo primi omnium inclaruerunt Dipænus et Scyllis, “ geniti in Creta insula, etiamnum Medis imperantibus, priusque quam « Cyrus in Persis regnare inciperet : hoc est Olympiade circiter L. li “ Sicyonem fe contulere, quæ diu fuit officinarum omnium metallorum “ patria. Deorum quorundam fimulacra publice locaverant Sicyonii : “ quæ priusquam abfolverentur, artifices injuriam questi abierunt in “ Ætolos. Protinus Sicyonios infanda invasit sterilitas, mærorque di“ rus. Remedium petentibus, Apollo Pythius affuturum respondit, si “ Dipænus et Scyllus deorum simulacra perfeciffent : quod magnis mer“ cedibus obsequiisque impetratum est. Fuere autem fimulacra ea Apol“ linis, Dianæ, Herculis, Minervæ, quod e cælo poftea tactum eft."
Plin. lib. 36. c. 5. Cedrenus has described a very curious Minerva, supposed to be the work of these fraternal artists, as preserved at Constantinople :
Ισατο δε και το αγαλμα της Λινδιας Αθηνας τετραπηχυ εκ λιθε σμαραγδε, εργον Σκυλλιδος και Διποινα των αγαλματεργων οπερ ποτε δωρον επεμψε Σεow5pes AsyOTT8 Tuparvos Kneo Cx1w tw Audimo tupavw.--CEDRENUS, P. 254. edit. Venet.
NOTE XIV. Ver. 316.
Anthermus, a sculptor in the island of Chios, had two sons of his own profession, Bupalus and Athenis. The brothers became famous by works of considerable merit in their art; and still more so by their degrading it into an instrument of malevolence against the poet Hipponax. This animated but ill-favoured bard, distinguished by mental talents and personal deformity, is supposed to have been in love with the daughter of Bupalus, who, to prevent a connexion that he disliked, is said to have exhibited a caricatura of the formidable lover. The exalperated poet retaliated by a satire of such severity against the offending sculptors, that, according to tradition, it inade them frantic, and impelled them to suicide-a ftory which, as Pliny juftly observes upon it, was sufficiently refuted by their subsequent productions.
Their caricature of Hipponax (perhaps the first caricature upon record) is supposed by D'Hancarville to have suggested to Thespis, their contemporary, the idea of furnishing his actors with a mask, instead of colouring their faces with vermilion. The satire of the vindictive poet, though we may hope it did not produce the horrible effect ascribed to it, appears to have given celebrity to its indignant author. The Greek Anthologia contains no less than four inscriptions on this powerful satirist. I have selected the two best of them, for the amusement of my reader :