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taric acids in oranges, lemons, cherries, currants, raspberries, gooseberries, strawberries, whortleberries, etc., and in several tubers and bulbs, as in the potato and onion. It also exists in combination with potash or lime in potatoes, onions, and artichokes.

This acid, which is almost always prepared from lemon or lime juice, is thus obtained The juice, after undergoing incipient fermentation, is filtered, and neutralized with chalk; and the insoluble citrate of lime thus formed is decomposed with very dilute sulphuric acid. On the removal of the sulphate of lime that is thus formed by filtration, the solution of C. A. must be concentrated till a film begins to form, when the crystals readily separate on cooling. Citric acid has also been prepared from unripo gooseberries, whose juice is allowed to ferment; and after the removal of the alcohol by distillation, the acid is separated in the way already described: 100 lbs. of goose berries yield 10 lbs. of spirit of spec. grav, 0.928, and 1 lb. of crystallized acid.

Citric acid has been prepared synthetically thus: Glycerin, CH,(OH)CH(OH)•CH (OH), is treated with hydrochloric acid gas, thus producing dichlorhydrin, CHCICHOH.CH,CI, which is afterwards oxidized to dichloracetone, CH,CI.CO.CH,Cl; this, treated with hydrocyanic acid (HCN), gives dichloroxyisobutyronitril, CH,Cl·C(OH)(CN).CH,Cl ; on heating the latter with aqueous hydrochloric acid it is converted into dichloroxyisobutyric acid, CH,CI.C(OHYCOOH). CH,CI. The potassium salt of this acid, on being treated with potassium cyanide (KCN), gives the potassium salt of dicyanoxyisobutyric acid, CH(CN)C(OHXCOOH).CH,CN), which, on being heated with aqueous hydrochloric acid, yields C. A., CH (COOH). C(OH)(COOH).CH (COOH).

Citric acid is used largely in manufactures; calico-printers employ it for discharging the mordant from the cloth in patterns; and it is used in dyeing silk with safflower, and for heightening the tint of cochineal. The raw material from which the acid for these purposes is obtained “is a black fluid-like thin treacle, which comes from Sicily, and is obtained by inspissating the expressed juice of the lemon after the rind has been removed for the sake of the essential oil.”- Watts's Dictionary of Chemistry, vol. i. p. 995.

The most important of the numerous salts of C. A. are the citrates of lime, potash, ammonia, and iron. Citrate of lime, (C,H,O,)aCag + 4H20, is formed in the preparation of C. A., and is a fine white crystalline powder, more soluble in cold than in hot water. Citrate of potash (C6H50,K, + H2O) is formed by neutralizing the acid with carbonate of potash, and crystallizes in clear deliquescent needles, insoluble in alcohol. Citrate of ammonia (C.H30,(NH4)s) can only be obtained in solution. Citrate of iron is prepared by dissolving freshly precipitated peroxide of iron in a warm solution of C. A.; a reddish-brown solution is formed, which, on evaporation, yields brilliant scales of a light-brown color. Excepting the first, all these salts are employed in medicinethe citrates of potash and ammonia as diaphoretics and febrifuges (see AËRATED WATERS), and the citrate of iron as a tonic. Lemon juice, in which C. A. is the most active ingredient, is a most valuable medicine in scurvy, active hemorrhage, rheumatism, etc.; and when it cannot be obtained, C. A. is the best substitute. The magnesia citrica effervescens of the drug stores consists of Citrate of magnesia, (C.H50,)Mg, + 7H,0, mixed with sodium bicarbonate, C. A. and sugar.

CITRON (citrus medica; see CITRUS), a tree cultivated in the s. of Europe, and other warm, temperate, or sub-tropical countries for its fruit; a native of the forests of the n. of India. By many botanists, it is regarded as a mere variety (or perhaps the origipal type) of the species which produces also the lemon, sweet lemon, lime, and sweet lime; by others, these, or some of them, are regarded as distinct species. The C. has oblong toothed leaves; the flowers are externally of a violet color; the fruit is large, warted, and furrowed; the rind very thick and tender; the pulp sub-acid. The pulp is refrigerant; but the part chiefly valued is the rind, which has a delicious odor and flavor, and is made into a very agreeable preserve. The juice is sometimes employed to make a syrup, or, with sugar and water, for a beverage, and for flavoring liquors. The rind and juice may be said generally to be applicable to the same purposes as those of the lemon, but the juice is less acid. The CEDRATE is a variety of the C., from which chiefly the fragrant oil of C., or Oil OF CEDRATE, used by perfumers, is procured. In Germany, the name cedrate is extended to all kinds of C., and the name C. is usually given to the lemon. The varieties of C. are numerous. The fruit of the largest kinds is sometimes 9 in. long, and 20 lbs. in weight. The C. is frequently cultivated in Britain, and by the aid of artificial heat and the protection of glass is produced in great perfection.

It is probable that the C. is meant in some passages of the Old Testament where the word apple is used in the English version.

CITRONELLA, the name of an oil imported from Ceylon and used by perfumers, and also the name of a perfume prepared from common balm; and again, of a liquid brought from the West Indies, and used in France to flavor brandy.

CITROSMA, a genus of trees of the natural order monimiacev, of which the leaves abound in an oil resembling, if not identical with, oil of citron. They are natives of the tropical parts of South America.

CI'TRUS, a genus of plants of the natural order aurantiacer, consisting of trees and shrubs, natives of India and other warm parts of Asia, but many of which are now commonly cultivated in all warm climates on account of their fruit. To this genus belong the ORANGE, CITRON, LEMON, LIME, BERGAMOT, SHADDOCK, POMPELMOOSE, FORBIDDEN FRUIT, etc. See these heads. It is distinguished by numerous stamens, irregularly united in bundles by their filaments, a pulpy fruit with a spongy rind, and smooth seeds. The leaves and the rind of the fruit abound in volatile oil. The flowers also contain volatile oil, and exhiale a peculiar fragance. See illus., TEA, ETC., vol. XIV., p. 240.

CITTADEL'LA, a t, of northern Italy, in the province of Padua, 14 m. n.e. of Vicenza. It is situated on the Brentella, an affluent of the Brenta, is walled, and has woolen and paper manufactures. Pop. 4,000.

CITTA' DI CASTELLO, a t. of central Italy, 25 m. n.w. of Perugia. C. has a very pleasant situation on the left bank of the Tiber. Though a place of only some 5,580 inhabitants, it is exceedingly rich in ecclesiastical structures of Gothic architecture, palatial residences, and works of art. Raphael painted many of his early works in C. di C.; and they were to be found in churches and private galleries here until the French invasion, when they were dispersed. Silk-twist is the chief manufacture of the town.

CITTA VECCHIA. See MALTA. *CITY (Fr, cité, Lat. civitas). In the sense in which it was first used in the Romanic languages of modern Europe, the word C., like its Latin original, was probably equivalent to state (q.v.) (respublica) rather than to town or borough (urbs, municipium); and whilst the latter signified a collection of hearths and households, governed by municipal laws internally, but subject externally to the laws of the country of which they formed a part, the former was applied only to such towns as, with their surrounding district, were independent of any external authority whatever. Nearly the only cities in this sense now are the free towns of Germany, and such of the cantons of Switzerland as consist chiefly of a town and its surroundings, for example, Geneva. But as the ancient Gauls, though composing one nation, were divided into tribes, living in different cantons, each with its town, to which the term civitas was applied, and as they also acknowledged a species of central authority, several cities sending delegates to a central one of greater extent and importance to discuss their common affairs, there is reason to believe that the term C. was applied par excellence to these central places of meeting, and that it thus, from a very early period, signified a capital or metropolis, though not independent. In England, the term is said to be confined to towns or boroughs which are or have been the seats of bishops' sees, but this restriction rests on no sufficient ground. “The cities of this kingdom are certain towns of principal note and importance, all of which either are or have been sees of bishops; yet there seems to be no necessary connection between a city and a see.”—Stephen's Com., i. p. 124. In America, the term is applied to all towns which are incorporated and governed by a mayor and aldermen. See BOROUGH. See Supp., page 881.

In the case of towns which have grown greatly beyond their original dimensions, it is not unusual to give the name of C. to the space which they originally occupied-thus, we speak of the C. of London, the C. of Paris, or Vienna, etc.

CITY POINT, a village and fort on James river, in Prince George co., Va., 10 m. n.e. of Petersburg, occupied during the war of the rebellion by the union army as the principal landing-place and depot for army supplies.

CITY OF REFUGE. The Jewish law (Numb. xxxv., Deut. iv., Josh. xx.) set apart six cities, three on each side of Jordan, as cities of refuge for the manslayer, in which he might find an asylum, and be safe from the avenger of blood. See BLOOD, AVENGER OF. These cities were Hebron, Shechem, and Kadesh-Naphtali on the w. of Jordan; Bezer, Ramoth-Gilead, and Galan, on the east. The Jews were careful to keep the roads to the cities of refuge clear, and signs were set up to show the way. The manslayer was received and protected in the C. of R. until the death of the high-priest, after which the avenger of blood had no longer any claim against him. Thus this peculiar institution was connected with the typical institutions of the Jewish religion, and partook somewhat of their character, whilst it modified and restrained the avenging of blood. The C. of R. afforded no permanent protection to the murderer, who, if his crime could be proved against him, was to be taken from it that he might be put to death.

CIUDAD' (from the Lat. civitas) is the Spanish word for “a city;" and is used as a prefix corresponding to the English affix town, as in

CIUDAD BOLIVAR. See ANGOSTURA.

CIUDADE'LA, a seaport t. of the island of Minorca, situated on a plain on the w. coast, in lat. 39° 58' n., long. 3° 52' east. It is walled, and has a cathedral, also several convents. The inhabitants, numbering between 7,000 and 8,000, are engaged in agriculture and the manufacture of woolen fabrics. A considerable trade is carried on at the port.

CIUDAD REAL', a province in s. Spain; 7,543 sq.m.; pop. '83, 277,738. The country consists chiefly of barren plains skirted by lofty hills and mountains, clad with forests, and inclosing deep valleys. The productions are wheat, rye, barley, corn, cattle, horses, asses, sheep, goats, etc. Iron, silver, copper, lead, cinnabar, coal, and marble are found in the mountains. The most famous of the mines is that of quicksilver at Almaden, Hot and cold mineral springs are also found. Considerable manufacturing

is done in wool, linen, cotton, silk, soap, wine, and oil. The chief towns are Manza nares, Almodovar, Valdepeñas, and Calatrava.

CIUDAD REAL', a t. of Spain, capital of the province of the same name, situated on & plain between the rivers Guadiana and Jabalon, about 100 m. 8. of Madrid. It is surrounded with walls in parts ruinous, and has some handsome houses; but, on the whole, it is a poor dull place. It has two or three fine churches-the nave of the parish church being one of the finest Gothic specimens of the kind in Spain-and several monasteries. There are manufactures to a small extent of coarse woolens, linen, and table-cloths, and a trade in the agricultural produce of the district. Pop. '77, 13,589.

CIUDAD RODRIGO (Roderic's Town), a fortified t. of Spain in the province of Salamanca, about 50 m. 8.w, of the city of that name. It is situated on an elevation above the river Agneda, which washes the walls, and is here crossed by a fine bridge. It has a cathedral, the earliest portion of which dates from the 12th century. The town generally has a mean appearance, and is not over-cleanly. During the peninsular war, C. R., though of little strength itself, was considered a place of the utmost importance, as a key of Spain on the w., and was consequently an object of ambition both to the French and the allies. In June, 1810, the French under Massena invested the town, and after a gallant defense by the Spaniards, it was forced to surrender on the 10th July. The fact that Wellington was in the immediate vicinity with an army of 30,000 men, and afforded no relief whatever, was a subject for outcry against the hero; but subsequent events at Torres Vedras showed that his policy was the right one. In Jan., 1812, after a siege of 11 days, the place was assaulted, and after a bloody struggle, the British succeeded in capturing the town. The storming is one of the most brilliant achievements recorded in British military annals, and important as it was brilliant; 150 guns fell into the hands of the captors, besides vast stores of every kind, and the moral effect was even more than proportionately great. Pop. 77, 6856.

CIVET, Viverra, a genus of carnivorous quadrupeds, of the family viverridæ (q.v.), having the body elongated, in some of the species as much as in the weasel tribe; the head is also long, and the muzzle sharp. The ears are short, broad, and rounded. The feet have five toes, and the claws are only semi-retractile. There is a more or less conspicuous erectile mane along the back, as in hyenas. Between the anus and the sexual organs, in both male and female, there is a large double pouch, in which is secreted a peculiar odoriferous fatty substance, called civet, much used as a perfume. The use of this pouch and its secretion to the animal is not very well known. There are several species of C., of which the best known is the common or African C. (V. civetta), a native of the n, of Africa. The common C. is from 2 to 3 ft. long. The height is from 10 in. to a foot; the hair long, brownish gray, with numerous black bands and spots. The C. preys on birds, small quadrupeds, and reptiles, and generally takes its prey by surprise. It is very commonly kept in confinement for the sake of its perfume, which is removed from the bag about twice a week by means of a small spatula, and is obtained most abundantly from the male, and especially after he has been irritated. A dram is a large quantity to obtain at a time. The civets kept for this purpose are fed on raw tlesh ; the young partly on farinaceous food. See illus., DEER, ETC., vol. IV., p. 686, fig. 4.

CIVIALE, JEAN, 1792–1867; a surgeon b. in Auvergne, and a pupil of Dupuytren at the hospital of the hotel Dieu in Paris. He was the discoverer of that process of lithotrity, by which the stone in the bladder is crushed and the fragments removed through the natural channel. He was a member of the leading societies, and an officer of the legion of honor. He published a number of works, all relating to his discoveries and practice in lithotrity.

CIVIC CROWN, considered among the Romans more honorable than any other reward. It was given for saving the life of a citizen in battle or assault. It was given to Cicero for his discovery of Catiline's conspiracy, and to the emperor Augustus. The C. C. was merely a wreath, at first of twigs of elm, then of beech, and lastly of oak. The one to whom it was given had the right to wear it always. When he appeared in public, if senators were present, they rose to do him honor, and he was excused from all troublesome duties and services, with the same immunities for his father and his father's father.

CIVIDA'LÉ, a walled t. of Venetia, Northern Italy, about 10 m. e.n.e. of Udine, situated on the Natisone, which is here crossed by a bridge. C. is the ancient Forum Julii, and its collegiate church, a fine Gothic edifice, dates from the 8th century. In its archives are contained some valuable manuscripts. It has silk and cotton factories, and a population of some 4,500.

CIVIL DEATH. Death, in a legal point of view, is either natural or civil: the former being the cessation both of physical life and of the legal rights which attach to it; the latter, the cessation of the legal rights whilst the physical life remains. “Civil death occurs where a man, by act of parliament or judgment of law, is attainted of treason or felony; for immediately upon such attainder he loses (subject indeed to some exceptions) his civil rights and capacities, and becomes, as it were, dead in law. It also took place formerly where any man abjured the realm by the process of the common law; or entered into religion, that is, went into a monastery, and became there a monk professed; in which cases he was absolutely dead in law, and his next heir should have the estate. Even in the times of popery, the law of England took no cognizance of profession in any foreign country, because the fact could not be tried in our courts; and therefore, since the reformation, this disability is held to be abolished; as also the disability of banishment, consequent upon abjuration, by stat. 21 Jac. I. c. 28.” Stephen's Com., vol. i., pp. 142, 143.

CIVIL ESTABLISHMENTS, of the army, comprise certain departments which, though provided for out of the army estimates, are non-military in their organization; such as those connected with the manufacture of munitions of war.

CIVILIAN. This term has three meanings, which are distinct, though intimately related. 1. In a popular sense, it signifies a person whose pursuits are civil; i.e., neither military nor clerical. 2. As a law-term, it means, either a person who is versed in the principles and rules in accordance with which civil rights may be freely, blamelessly, and successfully vindicated in society generally, or in the particular state in which he belongs; or 3. One who has made a special study of these rules and principles as exhibited in the laws and government of Rome (the Roman civil law). The civil law of Rome exercised such influence upon the formation of the municipal systems of almost all the states of modern Europe, that those who devoted themselves to its study were regarded as “civil” or municipal lawyers par excellence. From the more learned training which this study demanded, C. came often to be used as synonymous with professor or doctor, as opposed to practitioner of law; the former being generally more deeply versed in the Roman law than the latter; and this in its turn led to its being loosely applied to the international lawyers of the 17th c. (Grotius, Puffendorf, etc.), who generally belonged to the class of civilians in the sense of Romanists, and who, though their subject was altogether different, quoted largely and derived many analogies from the Roman jurisprudence. At present, from our having in Great Britain no class of persons who prosecute law as a science as opposed to an art, the term C. has reverted to its narrower mediæval sense of student or teacher of the Roman civil law, and thus we speak of Savigny as a C., but not of Story. The special sense in which C. is understood in England will be explained under ECCLESIASTICAL COURTS. See also ADMIRALTY COURTS.

CIVILIZATION. This is a general term to designate the condition of the more advanced pations, as contrasted with those that are looked upon as barbarians or sav. ages. We term the leading nations of Europe civilized; the Chinese and Tartars less so; the Red Indians, Australians, Esquimaux, least of all. “Whatever be the characteristics of what we call savage life, the contrary of these, or the qualities which society puts on as it throws off these, constitute civilization. Thus, a savage tribe consists of a handful of individuals, wandering or thinly scattered over a vast tract of country; a dense population, therefore, dwelling in fixed habitations, and largely collected together in towns and villages, we term civilized. In savage communities, each person shifts for himself: except in war-and even then very imperfectly-we seldom see any joint operations carried on by the union of many; nor do savages in general, find much pleasure in each other's society. Whenever, therefore, we find human beings acting together for common purposes in large bodies, and enjoying the pleasures of social intercourse, we term them civilized." And so of other characteristics. Dissertations by J. S. Mill, art. “Civilization.”

When we come to seek for an exact definition of the term C., we meet with a variety of views, implying that there is a certain complication in the subject. The original derivation of the word points to that polish of manners that distinguishes the inhabitants of cities (Lat. cives) from the rustic population; but the use of the word has greatly outgrown this limitation. Guizot has given a definition, which has become generally known, to the effect that we are to include in C. the improvement of man both socially and in his individual capacity. But the chief difficulty lies in settling what is improvement. That people are far from agreed on this point is evident from the use of the phrase, “vices of civilization." How are we to distinguish its vices from its virtues?

The question is very much simplified by making a distinction between aiming at the improvement of mankind and really effecting that object. All our inventions and discoveries, and all our new arrangements introduced into every department of life, are intended to raise us further and further above the savage condition; nobody denies this; but there may be the widest difference of opinion as to whether any one new device is a real improvement. If we were to restrict the term C. to the changes introduced into human life with a view to improvement, the definition of it would present no difficulty, whereas the relation of this to progress, or actual improvement, must ever remain open to difference of opinion.

Leaving out of view for the present the disputable matter, C. may be explained as follows: In the first place, there are certain things bearing decidedly on human preser. vation and human happiness that are to be excluded from the definition. C. is not natural advantages-such as those of soil and climate; or the goodness of the mental or bodily constitution of the race; or accidents of fortune favoring our exertions; or individual dexterity or skill that cannot be imparted. It is not necessarily happiness, which

is sometimes present in a low C. and absent in a high. The permanent changes in the condition and arrangements of man's life effected by his oron intelligence and exertions make up human civilization. It is the artificiał half of the good we enjoy. Nature has given us so much; our own powers of contrivance give the rest. Genius (in the sense of intel. lectual originality) is the cause, and C. the effect.

Such being the general definition, the enumeration of the separate departments is the enumeration of the institutions of civilized life. These may be briefly summed up under the following heads:

1. The industrial arts, or the devices fallen upon for turning to advantage the material resources and agencies of the globe. Perhaps no one will be found to dispute that these constitute real improvements.

2. The government, or system of political organization. It is here that we are most forcibly convinced of the propriety of distinguishing C. from absolute progress, or the devices intended for improvement from actual improvement. Scarcely anything in the whole political system of Great Britain, for instance, has commanded unanimous approbation first and last; nearly all the changes have been carried against reluctant minorities, and every now and then voices are raised against institutions accounted by the mass of the nation the very bulwark of our national greatness; as, for example, the parliamentary control of the sovereign authority.

One aim of social reformers has been to make the necessary functions of government compatible with a larger and larger range of individual liberty. The majority of men call this state of things not merely an intended but a real improvement; not merely C., but progress. Still, there is never wanting a class of minds that see only the disadvantageous side of this and all other social innovations.

Connected with liberty, we may also notice the growth of human sentiment in all classes, the governing power included. When we revert to the horrible punishments to which men were subjected in this country not many generations since, not only for real crimes, but out of mere superstitious antipathies, as in the burning of witches, we are apt to feel ashamed of our own ancestors, and to congratulate ourselves on having our lot cast in a milder age.

3. The arts of social intercourse, embracing the material machinery of conveyance and communication; and also what may be called the moral machinery, such as forms of procedure for regulating assemblies, and the minor courtesies of life.

4. The scheme of morality established in a community appertains to their civilization. But in this, also, difference of opinion prevails, when we compare different countries and times. Morality, in fact, has always been more or less a part of religion, which must also be viewed as an institution pertaining to civilized men, whether of their own invention or the result of supernatural communication. In any case, there is mixed up with every religion much that is purely human, and which may be judged of by its tendencies to promote human welfare, like any other arrangement of society. This being the subject of all others that men have most differed upon, no criterion of progress can be laid down, because none would be universally received. The unconverted pagans alive at the final establishment of Christianity, naturally believed that the human mind was thrown backward by that event.

5. Science is the least disputed of all the ingredients of civilization.

6. Literature and the fine arts make part of the C. of mankind. They are a new class of pleasures, superadded to the gratifications of mere sense, and of a kind that can be partaken equally by a large number of people. Instead of rivalry and contention, which are inseparable from the struggle for food, money, or power, the arts tend to sociability and good-fellowship. Every contribution to architecture, painting, music, etc., is a result of human genius, and intended for human pleasure; but there is not the same unanimity in this case as in the former; for many kinds of art are objected to as corrupting the mind; and too great a devotion to art, on the whole, is said to endanger the just balance of men's regards to the serious interests of life.

The above enumeration will amply show how to define the term C., and of what parts the total is made up. It has also been made apparent that the point as to whether any invention be an item of genuine progress, is, and ought always to be, an open question. The inventions of original minds intended for placing us further and further from the savage condition, and having that effect, may often be accused of producing new evils, which other arrangements are called for to neutralize. See works on the history of C. by Guizot, Draper, Buckle; on the anthropological side, Lubbock's Origin of C.

CIVIL LAW. See Law.

CIVIL LIST. Down to the period of the restoration in 1660, notwithstanding an attempt at negotiation between James I. and the parliament for the commutation of the hereditary revenues of the crown, the whole expenses of the government of England, civil and military, were included in one list, or rather they were defrayed out of what was called the royal revenue. This revenue arose partly from crown-lands, and partly from other sources, and for a long period after the conquest, it was really at the disposal of the crown, Even after the supplies were provided by parliament, the specific mode of their expenditure continued to be free from parliamentary control. But at the restoration a distinction was made by statute 12 Charles II.) between the extraordinary

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