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In the first and second person plural of the future perfect indicative and perfect subjunctive, the i in rimus and ritis is common in poetry: amaverĭmus, monueritis.
19. O in the increment of verbs is long: amatōte. 20. U in the increment of verbs is short: sumus.
Exception. U is long in the penult of futures ending in rus, ra, and rum: amatūrus, amatūra, amatūrum.
21. Dissyllabic perfects have the first syllable long: vidi.
Exceptions. The following shorten the first syllable: bibi, dědi, fidi, scădi, stěti, tŭli.
22. Reduplicative perfects shorten the first two syllables: cecini, tětīgi.
Exceptions. Cecīdi from caedo and pepēdi from pedo lengthen the second syllable.
23. Dissyllabic supines and their participles lengthen the first syllable: visus, vīsu, visum.
Exceptions. The following shorten the first syllable: dǎtum from do; citum from cieo; Itum from eo; litum from lino; quitum from queo; rătum from reor; sătum from sero; situm from sino; stătum from sto.
24. Supines in utum, especially of more than two syllables, and their participles have a long penult: tribūtum, tribūtus.
Exceptions. Rétum and rétus from ruo, together with their compounds, have a short penult: obrutum, dirătum, etc.
25. The penult of supines in itum, together with the participles, is long when the perfect ends in ivi,
and is short when it does not end thus: auditum, auditus; monĭtum, monitus.
Exception. The compounds of eo shorten the penult of the supine and participle: abitus.
26. Final a is short: regiă.
Exceptions. Final a is long in the ablative singular of the first declension.
Final a is long in numerals ending in gintā: trigintā. Final a is also long in the imperative, in adverbs (except eiă, ită), and in prepositions.
27. Final e is short: incipě.
Exceptions. Final e is long in nouns of the first and fifth declensions: Penelopē, diē.
It is long in the imperative of the second conjugation: monē.
It is long in adverbs formed from adjectives of the second declension, except beně, malě, superně, inferně. It is also long in fermē, ohē, and ferē.
28. Final i is long: virtuti.
Exceptions. The following have final i common: mihĬ, tibi, sibi, quasiă, ubĬ, and ută; nisĩ is always short.
Final i is short in the dative and vocative of nouns in the third declension derived from the Greek: Paridi, Pari.
29. Final o is common: volo.
Exceptions. It is always long in the dative and ablative, and in the case of adverbs formed from adjectives of the second declension: hortō, subitō.
It is long in ergō.
It is long in prose but short in verse in cită, immò, illico, cedo (for dic), modò, quomodŏ, and generally short in ego.
Final o is long in the case of proper nouns taken from the Greek where o stands for omega: Cliō, Didō.
30. Final u is long luctu.
31. Final y is short: Tiphy.
32. Final syllables ending in b, d, and t are short by nature sub, quid, capăt.
33. Final syllables ending in c are long by nature: sic, duc.
Exceptions. Nec and donec are short and făc is common.
34. Final syllables in 1 are short except in the case of Hebrew proper names: procùl, Daniēl.
35. Final syllables in m are either long or elided. 36. Final syllables in n are long: quin, nōn.
Exceptions. Final en is short in nouns of the third declension whose genitives end in inis: flumĕn-inis.
The final syllables of the following are short by nature: ăn, în, taměn, forsăn, dein, proin, attaměn, viděn, nostin, egon.
Greek nouns have the final syllables short where o represents the Greek letter omicron.
The final syllables in Thetin and Maiăn are short.
37. Final syllables in r are short by nature: labŏr.
Exceptions. The following monosyllables and their compounds are long: cūr, fūr, fār, nār, lār, pār.
Nouns derived from the Greek and ending in er, where the e represents the letter eta, are long: aēr.
38. Final as is long by nature: aetās.
Exceptions. Nouns derived from the Greek and whose genitives end in adis have short a in the nominative: lampǎs.
Nouns of the third declension derived from the Greek have the final syllable short by nature if their accusative plural ends in as: Troadăs.
39. Final syllables ending in es are long by nature:
Exceptions. Final es increasing in the genitive with short e ori is short: miles, militis. It is long, however, in the following words: Cerēs, abiēs, ariēs, pariēs, pēs and its compounds.
Final es is short in penĕs, ĕs (from sum) and its compounds (potes, adĕs, etc.).
Nouns derived from the Greek have final es short in the nominative and vocative plural: Troĕs, Arcades.
40. Final syllables ending in is and ys are short by nature: hostis, Capys.
Exceptions. Final is is long in the dative and ablative plurals of the first and second declensions: rosīs.
It is long in the second person singular, present tense of verbs of the fourth conjugation: audīs.
It is also long in the following: līs, dīs, sīs (and its compounds) and vīs (both the noun and verb).
41. Final os is long by nature: hortōs.
Exceptions. It is short in compos, impos, Ŏs (ossis), and exŎs.
It is also short where o of the final syllable stands for the Greek omicron in derived words: melŏs.
42. Final us is short: bonus.
Exceptions. It is long in the genitive singular, nominative, vocative, and accusative plural of nouns of the fourth declension: gradūs.
It is long in the nominative singular of nouns which keep the u in the increment of the genitive: virtūs, virtūtis.
It is also long in tripūs and in the holy name of Jesūs.