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a capsule, or little chest ; at a is a row of fine fibres, which connect the valves or pieces of the capsule, and through which the seeds are admitted. At b the capsule appears as if cut transversely, shewing three cells or apartments, each contain. ing two triangular seeds (b, b).
These 7 parts constitute what are called the organs of Fructification,* viz. Calyx,
Pericarp, containing the seed. Corolla, blossom.
Seed, rudiment of a new Stamens, organs within
plant. the corolla. Receptacle, top of the stem. Pistil, central organ.
We have now examined each part of a flower; this is one kind of analysis, or separation, but there is another kind of analysis with which you are now to be made acquainted, viz. that which we employ in finding out the Botanical name of a plant.
DIVISION OF PLANTS INTO CLASSES, &c. According to the system now most used by botanists, plants are divided into twenty-one classes. Each class is divided into Orders, the Orders into Genera,t and the Genera into Species. The name of the genus is like a family name or surname; the name of the species is like the particular or christian name ; for example; the Rose family contains many different species; as Rosa alba, the white rose, Rosa damascena, the damask rose, &c.
The specific or individual name in botany, is placed after the family name, as Rosa alba, which is Rose white, instead of white rose : this circumstance is probably owing to the names being in Latin ; as in that language the adjective is generally placed after the noun, instead of before it, as in English.
Method of analyzing plants.-Analysis of the Pink, Lily, Rose,
and Poppy. WHEN you begin to analyze plants, you will meet with * From fructus fruit, and facio to make, signifying that those parts serve to the maturing of the fruit.
+ Plural of genus, a family or tribe.
Seed -Organs of fructification Number of Classes-Genus-Species,
many new terms. It will be necessary in these cases, to reşort to the vocabulary of botanical words ;* by the observation of plants, connected with definitions, you will soon become fa. miliar with the technical terms of Botany.
We will now proceed to analyze a flower in order to ascer. tain its botanical name. We will commence with the Pink, as you are provided with a drawing which you can examine if you have no natural flower.t
Analysis of the Pink.
The first step,
is to find the b
class. We will suppose this flower to be. long to one of the first ten classes; in case, all you have to do, is to ascertain the number of stamens, by this .circumstance only all these classes
are arranged. Because there are ten stamens (Fig. 4), the Pink is in the 10th class, the name of which is Decandria. Having now ascertained its class, the second step is to find its order. In the first 12 classes, the orders depend on the number of pistils; these, you must count; because you find two (Fig. 4,b), you consider your flower as belonging to the 2nd order, the name of which is Digynia.
You must now turn to the description of the Genera of plants ; find class 10th, order 2nd. The third step is to ascertain the genus of your plant; for this purpose, you must compare it with each genus, until you find it described. You find first,
* This is placed in the latter part of this volume.
+ In analyzing a natural flower, it is necessary to separate the parts ; first, if ihere is a calyx, remove it carefully, then take off the corolla, or if it is monopetalous, cut it open with a knife. A microscope is necessary if the organs are very small.
| This follows Part IV.
“ HYDRANGEA. Calyx 5 tooth. ed, superior;" your calyx is 5 toothed, (see the notches around the top of it, at Fig. 5, a;) but it
is not superior, that is, it does d
germ. You must go to the next genus.
- SAXIFRAGA. Calix 5 parted, half superior,” but your ca. lyx is not half superior, or partly above the germ.
You must b
go to the next genus.
“SAPONARIA. Calyx inferi. or, (under the germ ;) 1 leafed, (all of one piece ;) tubular, (long and hollow like a tube ;) 5 toothed,”—$o far the description agrees with the Pink ; next, calyx without scales, (see fig. 5,b.) In this particular, your flower, the calyx of which has scales, does not correspond with the description, therefore you must go to the next genus.
DIANTHUS. Calyx inferior, cylindrical, (much the same as tubular:) I leafed, with four or eight scales at the base ; petals five, Fig. 4, a, with claws, (long and slender at the base ;) capsule cylindrical, 1 celled, (having no partings ;) dehiscent, (opening at the top.) Fig. 5, at c; represents the capsule of the pink as it appears in a mature state, the valves or pieces which compose it, opening spontaneously, as if for liberating the seed; at d, the capsule appears cut horizontally, showing but one cell, which contains many seeds. Fig. 4, at c, represents the germ, as seen when the pink is in blossom. Your flower agreeing with every particular in the description of the last mentioned genus, you may be certain that you have found the generic or family name of the Pink, which is DIANTHUS.
But there are several individuals or species in this family ; you wish to know to which species of Dianthus the Pink be. longs; and this process constitutes a fourth your anal, ysis.
Turn to the Alphabetical Arrangement of Genera,* where the species of each Genus are described, and look for Dianthus. Now compare the description of each species, with a natural flower ; “ Armeria, flowers aggregate," (in a thick cluster ;) this does not agree; you must look further.
* This follows the Description of Genera.
Fourth step in the analysis of a plant.
“ Barbatus, flowers fascicled,” (crowded together,) but your flower grows singly on each stalk.
“ Caryophyllus, flowers solitary, scales of the calyx sub, (partly,) rhomboid, (diamond shape ;) very short, petals crenate, scolloped on the edge :) beardless, (without any hair or down.)
The pink is, in all respects, answerable to this description. It is also added that the “ leaves are linear,” which signifies long, and of nearly equal width ; "subulate" signifies pointed at the end, like a shoemaker's awl; “channelled” signifies hav. ing a groove or channel running through the leaf.
You have now found the name of your plant to be DIANThus caryophyllus, belonging to
Class 10th, DECANDRIA. Order 2d, DIGYNIA.* And in this way it should be labelled for an herbarium or col. lection of dried plants.
Let it now be remembered that in this process, four distinct steps have been taken ; the first, to find the class; second, the order ; third, the genus ; and fourth, the species.
You can now proceed with the analysis of any plant which belongs to the first ten classes, in the same manner as you have done with the Pink; as all these classes depend upon the cir. cumstance of the number of stamens.
Analysis of the Lily. In analyzing the Lily you can refer to Figures 1st, 2d, and 3d; you will find this flower belonging to the 6th class, the name of which is HEXANDRIA; and to the 1st order, Monogy.
This order containing a great many genera, is divided into several sections. t
1st Section contains flowers “ with a perianth,” (that is, a kind of calyx,) and“ corolla without a spatha,” (a kind of wrapper.)
The Lily has no calyx, therefore you will not find it in this section.
2nd Section. “ With a spatha or glume, (a kind of sheath,) without a perianth.”
The Lily has no spatha or glume, therefore it is not in this section.
3d. Section. “ Flowers having no calyx.”
The Lily has no calyx, therefore you may expect to find it described under this section. You can proceed, as in the Pink,
* The student can consult the synopsis of artificial classes and orders to ascertain the etymology of their names; the whole system has not been introduced before, because it is thought better to lead the mind, by gradual induction, to generalize for itself.
+ The pupil must turn to Class VI., Order I., in the Description of Genera. Analysis of the Lily—parts of the plant referred to in describing the genus.
to compare each genus with your flower, till you find a description which corresponds with the Lily.
- HEMEROCALLIS. “ Corolla six parted.” Six parted shows that the corolla is all of one piece, having divisions around the border. The Lily is not six parted, but has six petals, therefore you need look no farther in this
genus. “ LILIUM.” Now compare each particular in this description with your flower, (looking out the terms in the vocabulary,) and you will find an agreement in every respect.
In the description of a genus, nothing is said about any part of the plant, except the different organs which compose the flower; in the species, the distinctions are chiefly drawn from different circumstances of the leaves, stems, foc.
The flowers of two plants may agree so as to belong to the same genus, while the leaves, stalks, and branches are very unlike, and the plants are therefore considered as belonging to different species.
Thus in the genus Lilium, the shape of the leaves, the man. ner in which they grow on the stem, the height of the stem, the number of flowers growing upon the stem, the manner in which they grow whether erect or nodding, and the shape of the corolla; all these, and some other circumstances, distinguish the different species. The colour, a quality of the flower usually the most striking, is, in botany, little regarded, while many other circumstances, which might at first have been scarcely noticed, are considered as important.
In the 11th class, Icosandria, and the 12th class, Polyandria, we are to remark, not only the number of stamens, which is always more than ten ; but the manner in which they are inserted, or the part of the flower on which they are situated. If in pull. ing off the corolla, the stamens remain upon the calyx, the plant belongs to the 11th class; but if the corolla and calyx may be both removed, and the stamens still remain on the receptacle, the plant is of the 12th class.
It is said that no poisonous plant has the stamens growing on the calyx; it is in the 11th class that we find many of our most delicious fruits, as the Apple, Pear, &c.
Analysis of the Rose. The rose, on account of its beauty, is one of the most con. spicuous flowers in the 11th class ; it is considered as one of the most interesting of the vegetable race, and is often dignified with the title of " queen of flowers.”
in the species.-New circumstances to be considered in the 11th and 12th classes-Analysis of the Rose,