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when bees, retire hastily into their hives : we have seafos to dread the same, when an's conceal their eggs, when gnais bile severely, when butterflies do nor rile very high in the air, and when worms come our from their holes.
Infects purify the air from noxious vapours and exhalarions. They are like natural spunges, which, attact them, as has been remarked in dried toads. Mankind have used them as a means of defencecn certain occasions. I recollect a very fingular thing, which happened at Hohenllein, in 1525. In the time of the war, the peafinis having collected together, went to pillage the house of Eiend, a clergyman. He, having u. fed all bis eloquence to dissuade them from their design in vain, sent his fervants into the garden, with orders to bring out his hives of bees, which being thrown in the midst of the assailants, put them instantly to fight. Infects are used as bait by anglers, who not only fix earth worms on their hook, but various flies, and the larvæ of the Ephemera. Eels are observed to be remarkably tond of this last insect. The Lacedemonians ufed fmall pieces of wood, eaten by in. fects, to impress their signatures on wax.
1e we consider with attention and without prejudice what has been already faid, we shall be obliged to ac
knowledge that these minutę animals raise our ideas to the knowledge of the Creator of the universe. Had they no other use but that of enabling us to go back to the first cause, would not we have reason to conclude that those insects which we consider as nox. ious are of infinite use to the man who is willing to contemplate the works of God ?
In order to manifest his dominion over insects God ordained that the first fruits of honey shuuld be presented to him. He did not defire it as an of, fering by fire, but he required it to be placed on the altar, as an oblation of first fruits for a sweet savour. Lev. ii. 11. 12. We find also that the Hebrews acquitted themselves of this duty, and that they of. fered the first fruits of honey." The Children of Israel," (says the author of the second "Book of Chronicles, j • brought in abundance, the first fruits of corn, wine and oil, and honey, and of all the increase of the field.”
Insects are a scourge in the hand of God to chastife the wicked. “The vengeance of the wicked, says the son of Sirach; " is fire and the worm." Eccles. vii. 17. Accordingly he threatens those who refuse to obey his will, to employ insects to pu. nish them for their disobedience. Thus Moses expresses himself on the fame subject. Thou halt carry much seed out into the field, and shalt gather but little in, for the locuft shall consume it.' Thou Ihalt plant vineyards and dress them, but fhalt neither drink of the wine, nor gather the grapes ; for the worms Ihall eat them." DEUTR. xxii, 38, 39.'.
Experience has often justified the accomplishment of this threat. There is no creature how despicable foever it may be, of which God cannonform armies superior to all the force of man, and capable
of chastising the wicked in a dreadful manner, Men can oppose and refilt armies of inen; but they cannot face an army of infects. In vain would they employ against such an host their molt formidable weapons ; neither fire nor the sword could avail. The vilest insects have been known, to take possession of a country, and to banish the inhabitants.
1 CH A P. III.
OF THE USE OF INSECTS IN JURISPUDENCE,
As a good or a bad ufe may be made of infects, Magistrates have been obliged to make laws to regulate their possession. Lawyers, confidering the advantages obtained by Bees, have made certain regulations to secure the poffession of them to the proprietors. Although they fly hither and thither to procure their food, the property in them, remains to the poffeffor of the hive. When they swarm they belong to him as long as he can follow them, and prove that they are his. This is the decision of the Roman Law. That of the Saxon code is quite different. The proprietor loses the possession of them as soon as they are out of the hive. Some lawyers pretend however that the law permits the proprietor to follow the fwarm and to take it on the possession of his neighbour: but if he
neglect to pursue it, it becomes the property of him who seizes it. Whoever steals a hive is punished with death.
Lawyers have also examined this question, whether a tenant who in his contract has renounced in genė. ral terms all accidents, is obliged to support the loss caused by an army of locusts, or if the Lord of the Manor ought to sustain it? It has been decided thus. If the accident which happens, is of such a nature that it could neither be foreseen nor prevented, the Lord of the Manor must bear the loss : in every other case, the tenant must suffer it. Very rigorous laws have likewise been made against certain persons wic. ked enough to poison their fellow creatures with the hairy caterpillars called Pithyocampæ. Every body knows that when there is an unusual number of caterpillars, locusts or other insects of that kind; it is the duty of the Magistrate to order their dels irudion, and to point out the best means of accomplishing it. There have been nations that made use of insects to punish criminals. The Jews for instance, eniployed either ants or bees in the punishment of adulterers. They put them naked into an ant-hill, or exposed them to the stings of a swarm of bees,
CH A P. IV.
OF THE USE OF INSECTS IN MEDECINE,
The use of infects in medecine is not fo common as that of other animals, because Physicians have not
given themselves so much trouble in investigating the properties of the former, as they have done with regard to the latter. I flatter myself however I shall be able to fhew that they are not without their use in that science.
In vegetable physiology for example, there are in. fects that make the skeleton of a leaf in the highest degree of perfection; they gnaw and devour the substance of it, leaving nothing but the fibres and serves through which the nourishing juices are conveyed. This operation is fo well performed, that man with all possible care and pains could hardly, imitate it.
Infects are as ufeful in Osteology. If we wish to have the skeleton of any of the smaller animals, we have only to take off their skin, anoint them with honey, and bury them in an ant-hill, or expofe them to the voracity of some other infects. They will, by degrees, eat away the feh and entrails of those ani. mals, and they will remove from the bones, the most minute parts of the Aesh which adhere to them. But as they cannot penetrate the tendons, on account of their hardness, thefe will remain intire, and continue to connect the whole bones to one another. It is thus, that, by the aftitance of infects, we can, with out trouble, procure skelu!ons of all the smaller animals, made with the greatest pofible neainels..
They have likewise contributed to enrich anatomy. It is by means of an Indian insect, called Ni, ua, (Pue lex penetrans,) that anatomists have had an opportunity of discovering the error of a very generał opinia on. It was believed formerly, that the blood tco's its course from the extremities of the arteries, to enter into the veins ; but this insect has taught us the contrary It incauates itself into the skin, where it