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Two special teachers-in music and Gorman-were employed. Public schools were taught 203 days. School property was rated at $55,000.
Ithaca, whilo it expended $43,356 more for public schools than in 1883–84, fell behind 275 in school population, 246 in enrollment, 145 in average daily attendance, and 3 in teachers. There were public school buildings, affording 934 sittings for primary schools, 683 for grammar schools, and 224 for a high school, being 32 more than was needed for the enrollment. Private schools enrolled 400, holding 260 in average attendance. Notwithstanding the falling off above noted, the public schools registered 66.19 per cept. of school youth, 46.32 per cent. of whom were held in average attond.
The entire school force, public and private, enrolled as high as 83.75 per cont. of school youth, leaving only a little over 16 per cent. ont of school, but not therefore necessarily illiteratos. Public schools were taught 196 days; school property was valued at $126,000.
The erection of a new school building seating 234 pupils of the high and 280 of the grammar school, may account for an outlay of $43,356 in excess of last year.
Kingston school district, including two-fifths of the city, reported for 1884–85 pri. mary, jupior, senior, and academio schools. A return shows 5 school buildings with 1,690 sittings, bat slight chavges on all points from 1883–84, except a falling off of 87 in average daily attendance, and of $15,607 in public school expenditure. The public schools registered 61.72 per cent. of school population, all schools in the district combined 72.21 per cent., public schools holding 38.27 per cent. in average daily attendance. Special teachers in music and drawing were employed. Public schools were in session 196 days; the property connected with them was valued at $172,500. No evening school reported.
In conformity with the recent act of the legislature, physiology bas been taught orally in all the grades below the academic since January 1, 1885. The superintendent says that the results have been quite satisfactory. A large majority of the teachers made special preparation and acquitted themselves well. The use of a suitable text book on physiology and hygiene is recommended for the senior grades. The scbools were in good condition.
Lockport in 18*4283 falls bebind 1833–84 by 57 in school youth, 189 in enrollineni, 63 in averago attendance, and 2 in teachers, while the expenditure for public schools was $537 more. The 7 school buildings (same as year before) bad 1,134 seats for primary schools, 1,275 for grammar schools, and 253 fir the bigh school, showing 457 more sittings than the enrollment for the year; 56.05 per cent. of school youth were registered, or counting in the 500 in privato schools 68.73 per cent., leaving 1,233 of the children and yonth of legal school ago in the city in no school. Of the public school enrollment 130 were under 6 years of age, and 254 over 16. No evening school is reported for those wh ) cannot atteud day schools, nor kindergarten for those under 6 years. There were special teachers in penmanship, German, and French. Public schools were taught the full school year-199 days, and school property was valued at $105,000.
Long Island City, wbile losing 234 iv school population, as compared with 1883–84, gained 51 iu eurollment, 2:45 in average attendance, 13 in teachers, and expended $3,977 more for public schools. The registered attendance was 61.77 per cent. of school youth, and with 385 in other schools was 70.67 per cent., while 41.95 per cent. were retained in average daily attendance by the public schools. The public schools were taught the full school year, 202 days. Public school property was rated at $20,200. No evening schools nor special teachers reported.
Newburg shows a gain of 513 in school youth, and of 127 in enrollment. The 71 teachers employed seem to have done at least as well as previously, retaining 36 (3 per cent. of school youth, and nearly 72 per cent. of the eurolled, in average daily attendance. Counting ile 681 in private schools, 61.39 per cent. of youth of school age were registered in the schools of the city, leaving 2,501 out of school. This number probably represents the average school youth over 16 years of age, who have graduated from the common schools, and are pursuing studies in higher ones, or are engaged in the industries of the place. So long as the school age extends from 5 to 21, about one third may safely be thus accounted for. Public schools were taught 206 days. School property was rated at $184,000.
New York City en braces in its public school system, or under its supervision, 300 schools, consisting of a pormal college and a training school connected with it, 46 grammar schools for males, 47 for fequales, 13 for both sexes, 75 primary departments of grammar schools, 40 primary and 28 évening schools, í nautical school, and 48 corporate, industrial, reform, and orphan schools.
These all in 1885 enrolled 300,459 pupils, with an average attendance of 150,924, employing 3,898 teachers, including 77 in drawing, music, German, and French, with an expenditure of $4,443,890.
To meet the demand for more school room 3,300 sittings in new buildings were addou during the year, and preparations made to increasu the number to 12,000 in the near future. Action was also taken to improve the ventilation and sanitary condition of all the new school buildings.
The 28 evening schools (one of them a high school with 27 teachers) ieport exceHence in instruction and discipline. They registered 19,731 pupils, with an average attendanco of 7,065.
Foreigners studying English were 6,628, with an average attendance of 2,221. Pupils over 21, 4,301. School books and stationery are furuished by the Board, the exponse for the year 1884–85 being $146,072. The nautical school shows an increase in number of pupils over 1884. The school course during the winter of 1884-'85, and the instruction in seamanship and navigation during the summer cruise, are said to have been carried out satisfactorily. The College of the City of New York, a most important factor of the public school system, reports, for the year ending June 25, 1867, 696 students: in its department of arts, 225; in that of scievces, 334; in the 3-years special course, 1:37. At the examination for admission, of 1,048 applicants 624 were admitted, making the roll of the college 1,286, an increase of 145 over 1883–84.
Amoug changes in the course of study, for the grammar and primary schools, the most important was a required instruction in physiology and hygiene, with reference to the effects of alcoholic drinks and narcotics on the human system, as required by State law. To enforco this, the board made it the duty of the principals to deliver to their pupils at least once a inontb lectures on this subject of about 20 minutes in length, in general accordance with a prepared “syllabus of topics."
Oswego in 1884–85 made small gains over 1883--'84, employing 4 more teachers and expending $407 more. The 23 school buildings reported for last year were reduced to 20 in 1884–85, but with 465 more sittings, indicating improvement in school accommodations. These provided 1,660 seats for primary, 1,150 for gramınar, 75 fur ungraded, and 500 for high schools.
The public schools enrolled 46.26 per cent. of school youth, and with 1,140 in private schools, the entire registered attendance was 60.42 per cent., the private schools enrolling nearly one-third. Public schools were in session the full school year, 197 days, at an espenditure of $46,784, and with property valued at $179,230.
Rochester in 1884–85 continued its commendablo struggle to keep up in school accommodations with a rapidly increasing population. Thirty scbool buildings were reported, with 12,116 sittings for study, which failed by 2,036 to equal the enrollment. The public schools, classed as primary, grammar, and high, enrolled 639 more than in 1883–84, held 820 more in average daily attendance, employing 13 moro teachers, and yet the enrolled reacbed ovly 38.25 per cent. of school population; allowing 7,500 in private schools, but 58.52 per cent. were registered in all classes of schools. The public schools, taught 196 days, bad property valued at $586,930. This apparently bad showing is largely relieved by the allowance of about one-third of school youth to be over 16 years of age, which accounts for 12,333 as in employments suited their age. Then in the number onrolled we find 552 of 16 years of age, which reduces the number out of school to 2,421, inany of whom ipay be disabled from varions causes.
Saratoga Springs in 1884-'85 presents 74.69 per cent. of school youth enrolled, nnder 35 fern:lo and 5 male teachers, who held 61.69 per cent. of the enrolled in average daily attendance. With 77 in private scbools, 77.6 per cent. of school youth were enrolled, leaving 593 out of school. Pablic schools were in session 205 days of the school year, at an expenditure of $34,071. Special teachers in music and drawing were employed. School property was valned at $100,000,
Syrucilsestill embraces in its school system primary, junior, senior, and high schools, with a course of 8 years below the high. For this last see "Secondary iustruction," further on. A return shows an increase over 1883–84 of 969 in school population, of 224 in enrollment, of 383 in average daily attendance, of 7 in teachers, while school expenditure was $7,379 less. The public schools registered 47.55 per cent. of school youth, and held 79.27 per cent. of enrolled in average attendance. Adding 2,448 in privato schools, 59.86 per ceut. of school youth were under instrnction, leaving 7,966 apparently unprovided for. The 18 school buildings, with 8,984 sittings for study, féll short of the enrollment by 455. Special teachers in drawing and penmanship were employed.
A traiuiug school supplies more than one-fourth of the teachers, who aro said to be superior to those formerly employed. The superintendent expresses bis gratitication with the general improvement, especially so with the better attendance, as indicating more efficiency in work. Froin this pleasing viow ho turns with much con. cern to the large perceutage of school youth not in school. According to his estimate, after eliminating those over 16 years of age, who may be otherwise employed, there were 2,13% of proper school age out of school. He regards the only remedy for this evil to be in the recent action of the board of education, which contemplates a vigorous enforcement of the new truant law. He regards it as unfortunate that the school ago covers
so long a period, as the nnmber registered above 16 is so sinall as to ad almost nothing to the attendance roll, and yet are included in the number of school youth pot in school. He would have school age reduced to 6–16.
Troy classed its public schools as primary, intermediate, grammar, and bigb; and, according to a rotura, gainod 192 in pupils enrolled and employed 6 more teachers. These schools registered 42.45 per cent. of school youth, holding 66.69 per cent. of en rollmeut iu average daily attendance. With 2,500 in private schools, only 54.95 per cent. of the 20,000 school youth were registered in all the schools.
The superintendent says that in several schools the work of the past year has been prosecuted uvder difficulties, from replacing old buildings with new ones and procuring, in the process of building, suitable rooms elsewhere. Never in the history of the schools has so much been done, in a single year, to provide comfortable accommodations for the children of the city. Three new buildings were practically completed and ready for occupancy, all of ibem 3-story brick structures, with basements, and an aggregate of 54 well lighted rooms, the arrangement of seats being conformed to the advice of ophthalmic surgeons, while 2,262 sittings were furnished with the latest form of single seats; entire new furniture and excellent beating apparatus were provided; all had play-rooms in the basement, the yards being reduced to a mivimum, as mid-session general recesses no longer prevail. The entire cost was about $122,000.
The city report gives no indication of evening schools. Special teachers in music and drawing were employed. Public schools were taught 200 days. School property was estimated at $410,000.
Utica.-A return for 1884-'85 shows an increase over 1883–84 of 1,122 in school youth, of 248 in enrollment, of 85 in average daily attendance, and of $21,452 in expenditure for schools. The enrolled exceeded the sittings of the 18 school buildings by 1,1:37, indicating considerable change in pupils. There were 2,802 enrolled in the priniary, 2,502 in the grammar, 150 in the bigh, and 411 in evening schools. While these retained 67 per ceut. of enrolled in averayo daily attendance, only 41.94 per cent. of school youih were registered in the public schools, 2,191 being reported in private schools. Evening schools were taught by 8 teachers, with an enrollment of 354 men and 57 women. A special teacher in music was employed. The public day schools were tangbt 195 days. School property was rated at $371,766.
Yonkers for 1881–85 presents a gratifying record of advance at all points. With an increase of 820 in school youth, there were, including evening schools, 862 more enrolled, 12 more teachers, and an increased expenditure of $2,885. An additional school building makes 7 in all, with 1,300 sittings for primary schools, 621 for grammar schools, and 149 for a high school. The public scbools registered 12.16 per cent. of school youth, and tho 1,800 in private schools made the whole enrollment 61.45 per cent. The public schools held 56.71 per cent. of their enrolled in average daily atteudance. Evening scbools enrolled 353 men and 159 women under 10 teachers. Special teachers in music and drawing reported. Schools were in session 197 days, being the entire school year. School property was valued at $169,000, an increase of $31,651 over last year. PREPARATION AND QUALIFICATIONS OF TEACHERS.
GENERAL STATE REQUIREMENTS. A teacher of public schools must present evidence of competency, such as a normal. school diplonia, a certificate of qualitication from the State superintendent, school commissioner of the district, or school officer of a city or village in which he is employed.
By a law of 1882, pupils trained in teachers' classes under the snpervision of the regents of the University of New York, who pass an examination prescribed by the regents under the supervision of school commissioners, are licensed to teach.
STATE NORMAL TRAINING. The State continues to sustain 8 normal schools, viz, at Albany, Brockport, Buffalo, Cortland, Fredonia, Geneseo, Oswego, and Potsdam. These are all under the supervision of the State superintendent, the regents of the university baviug joint charge with him over the one at Albany. In these schools tuition and the use of text-books are froe. Each county is entitled to twice as many pupils as it has representatives in the Assembly; and when the quota of a county cannot be filled with qualified candi. dates, eligible ones from other counties may come in. All must be at least 16 years of age, bealthy, of good moral character, of average ability, and must pass an examination in the elements of a good English education. Appointments are made by the Stato superintendent on the recommendation of school commissioners or city superintendents. The school at Albany presents but one course of 2 years ; thở others have elementary and advanced English courses of 2 years, and classical courses of 3 years.
The aggregate attendance in 1884-85 was 2,471, an increase of 78 over 1883-'84; graduates for the year, 327, an increase of 27; whole number graduated since organ: ization, 6,160. The whole number of teachers holding normal diplomas was 51 less thay in 1883–84, and 72 less than in 1882–83 ; rather discouraging, says the superiotendent, to those who are hoping to see the public schools largely supplied with normal-school graduates.
OTHER NORMAL TRAINING.
The Normal College of the City of New York, admitting 698 students in 1885, rogistered 1,553, with an average attendance of 1,416, of whom 1,010 were studying French and 543 German, and 236 graduated from its 4-years course of study. At the examipation in June, 1885, 933 candidates were from the female grammar schools, of whom 157 were marked an average of 90 per cent. or more, some going as high as 97 per cent.
The instruction of teachers' classes in academies and union schools under the authority of the regents of the university is reported to have been conducted during the year very satisfactorily. A rigid supervision has been maintained. Students have been held to a strict account in the observance of regulations. The requirement that all candidates for admission must pass the preliminary examination of the regents exerted a wholesome influence in improving the character of the membership; and although the number under this system has been reduced, the quality of teachers sent out was greatly improved. Much of this increased efficiency in the instruction given is attributed to the earnest and intelligent efforts of the inspector of teachers' classes, Dr. A. B. Watkins, who visited 106 of the 111 classes during the year.
In pursuance of the law of 1884, instruction will be given in physiology and hygiene in the teachers' classes and schools under the control of the regents.
In 1884-'85 there were 143 academical and free union schools in which teachers' classes were taught. These classes enrolled 2,348 studente, an increase of 473 over 1883–84.
TEACHERS' INSTITUTES. The law requires each school commissioner to organize an annual teachers' institute in his district, or a combined one in concert with other commissioners in the same county, subject to the advice and direction of the State superintendent.
By a law of August, 18-5, public schools in districts and parts of districts where such institutes are held must be closed during the session, or forfeit their share of the public school fund for the time taken for the institute, the same to be deducted from the pay of teachers that violate the law. Districts closing their schools to allow their teachers to attend these institutes receive their share of public funds for payment of their teachers while attending. In the calendar year 1805, teachers' institutes were held in each of the 58 counties of the State, exclusive of New York and Hamilton, In 14 counties 2 institutes were held, making the aggregate number 72, with an attendance of 18,295.
SCHOOL JOURNALS. The leading educational journals in this State in 1884–85 have been the School Journal, a weekly, published at New York City, which reached its thirtieth volume in July, 1885; the Teachers' Institute, a monthly abstract of the provious one, published up to December, 1883; the School Bulletin, Syracuse, ir monthly, in its eleventh volume in 1885; and the Industrial News, published monthly by the Inventors’ Institute, Cooper Union, in its sixth volume in 1835. The Summary, published weekly, at the New York Reformatory, Elmira, makes its first appearance at this Bureau in its third volume, 1885.
ACADEMIES AND HIGH-SCHOOL DEPARTMENTS. The secondary schools of the State are (1) incorporated academies governed by boards of trustees and supported mainly by tuition fees; (2) academical departments of union schools controlled by boards of education and supported chiefly by local taxation.
Under a law of 1864 authorizing union schools to adopt as aondemical departments academies existing in their districts, the number of academies has annnally decreased, while the academic departments proportionally increased. In 1865–66 there were 190 academies, and but 22 academical departments; in 1883–'84 there were only 75 of the formor and 185 of the latter. In this progress of events, the weak and unendowed academies have been carried down, while the strongest bavo survived. This rapid increase in the number of academical departments of union schools is one of the most remarkable facts in the educational history of the State. Numbering nearly 200, they are found in every city and nearly every village. They form an important element in the public school system. To avoid too large an increase, and consequent inferiority, the regents two years ago raised the condition for the admission of academical departments to their visitation. As showing the grade of instruction in these schools, it is stated that, of 260 principals, 182 were graduates of colleges and 34 of normal schools. There were under the care of the regents in 1883–84, in the 260 institution, 1,309 teachers, 34,162 scholars, of whom 10,873 were academical, sustained at an expenditure of $1,385,119 for the yoar. The State appropriates annually $10,000 to their
support; the balance is from local taxation and tuition fees. Since 1851 the State has annually appropriated $3,000 to purchase books and apparatus for these schools, in. creasing it in 1884 to $6,000. The whole amount thus given, including that for 1885, is $164,812, which, as it insured an equal sum by the schools, shows $329,625 expenderi for books and apparatus. Of the students, 6,906 were pursuing classical studies, 2,400 were preparing for college, and 30,792 were in elementary studies.
OTHER SECONDARY SCHOOLS. For statistics of business colleges, privato academic schools, preparatory schools, and preparatory departments of colleges, seo Tables IV, VI, VII, and IX of the Appendix; for summaries of same, see the report of the Commissioner preceding.
UNIVERSITY OF THE STATE OF NEW YORK. The board of regents of the University of the State of New York, established May, 1784, made its 98th annual report in January, 1885. As this completed a century of its work, the celebration of it was held in connection with the annual university convocation in July, 1884, an account of which soe further on, under “Educational conventions."
This university is composed of all the recognized colleges-academios and academical departments of union schools coming in as preparatory schools. There are on the university list 52 incorporated colleges, including both literary and professional institutions. Of these, 47 report in 1883–84 a total of 752 instructors, 11,417 students, and 1,611 gradnates. Twenty are colleges of arts for both sexes, leading to the degree of A. B.; 5 are exclusively for women, though only 4 report for 1881; 16 are medical, and 4 are law colleges. They owned property valued at $22,812,836, and expended for the year, $1,724,868.
No institution of the collegiate grade was added during the year. The condition of the colleges is reported to have been one of marked prosperity, with steady progress in the acquisition of funds for endowments and enlargement of courses of instruction. In some there has been activity in providing new courses and greater facilities for instruction. Since June, 1883, Columbia College, Now York City, has offered a course of study to young women equivalent to that for young men, extending over 4 years, to bo pursued under the general direction of the faculty, the manner and place of study being left to the discretion of the student. Another recent step in the right direction is the establishment, by the same college, of a school of library economy, to meet the demand for trained librarians. Instruction is given by lectures, courses of reading, conferences, and actual observation of and experience in library work. The college library, containing 60,000 volumes, has recently been moved to a new fire-proof building.
The catalogries and returns from 23 collegiate institutions for 1884–85 show that the activities and prosperity of the previous year continued. Few report cbanges during the year. Ibo St. Lawrence University extended its theological course to 4 years, instead of its previous 3.
Cornell University reports the most successful year since its organization. A lady principal of Sage College was appointed, and all lady students who have no valid reason for living elsewhere were required to reside at the college. During the year, there was, for the first time in the history of the university, a body of fellows, in accordance with a statute adopted at the last previous meeting of the board. Tbero were 7 fellowships connected with the various departnients, each held by a gradnate elected by the faculty. There was also established during the year a system of university scholarships, founded on a fund made up by individual members of the board, which provides for 36 in all, or 9 every year for 4 years, the annual value of each to bo $200. Nothing, says the president, that this board has done, has shown its valne more immediately and conclusively, resulting in a great and sudden increase of students of a high grade of preparation. There was no change in the gen. eral course of instruction, but every course felt the benefit of the increase of facilities for study, the library having been increased by 3,926 bound volumes, making a total of 54,379, and 15,625 pamphlets. The university was perfecting a system for the in. struction of teachers, similar to that of the University of Michigan.
In Columbia College a successful effort was made to subdivide classes withont in. creasing the expense by an increaso of instructors. Wben a vacancy occnrs atuong the instructors, instead of employing another of the same grade, 2 or more fellows with tutorial duties tako bis place. In the retirement of Mr. Hopkins, professor of Latin and Zend, the college sustained a great loss.
At the beginning of the year the school of mines occnpied its now building; summer schools of surveying, mechanical engineering, and practical mining were held, the usefulnoss of which was questioned.