« 上一頁繼續 »
stated in the memorials, are made of inferior materials, and as we possess a boundless capacity of supply, every principal of sound policy, regard for the vital interests of our country, as well as the paramount claim on them from so useful a body of citizens, for protection, ought to have insured compliance with the request. To all these considerations no attention was paid. Policy of Federick II. of Prussia. From the view which we have given of the policy of Russia, we invite attention to that of Frederick Ii. Of his integrity and his regard for the rights of his neighbors, there may be more than doubis entertained. But on his profound wisdom and sagacity as a statesman the world is agreed. A dissenting voice is no where heard, on these points he would stand comparison with any monarch of ancient or modern times, and would rise paramount over ninety-nine out of a hundred. His system of political economy is therefore worthy of the most serious consideration, and cannot fail to shed strong light on the important subject we are discussing. To the promotion of the industry of his subjects, inc bestowed the most unremitting attention, well knowing that it was the most certain means of in. creasing the population of his dominions, and of course the wealth and happiness of his subjects, as well as his own power. From this grand and parawnount object he was never a moment diverted by his ambitious wars; and notwithstanding the desolazoon they caused, he doubled the population of his paternal estates during his reign. To foster and protect arts and manufactures, he spared neither rains nor expense;" and was so completely successful that he not only doubled and trebled the number of artists and manufacturers in those branches already established, but introduced a great variety sormerly not practised by his subjects;f and thus, instead of being tributary to other nations, as she had formerly been, Prussia was enabled to exporther ranufactures to an immense extent to distant countries.4 - The measures he adopted for attaining these great ends, were worthy of the high character he onjoys as a statesman. He made large loans to
• ‘The king protects and encourages manufacturers $n every possible nanner, especially by advancing large soms of money to assist them in carrying on their maoftietores, animating them by rewards, and establishing magazines of wool in all the little towns, for the benofit of the small woolen manufacturers.”—-Hertzberg's discourses delivered at Berlin, 1786, p. 25.
* f * Refore the commencement of this reign, Prussia had out few silk manufacturers, and those of little importance. But the present king has established and riven liberal encouragement to so great a number, that they employ more than five thousand workmen; and the annual value of the goods manufactured by them: is two millions of crowns. In the course of the last year 1,200,250 ells of silk stuffs have been manufactured at Berlin, and 400,000 of gauze.” Idem 26. “The cotton manufacture alone employs nearly five thousand workmen.”—idem 25. + “We are in possession of almost every possible kind of manufacture; and we can, not only exclusiveBy supply the Prussian dominions, but also furnish the emote countries of Spain and Italy with finen and -woo'en cloths; and our manufactures go even to China, where.some of our Silesian cloths are conveyed by the way of Russia. We export every year linen cloth to the amount of six MILLIox's of cutow Ns, and woolen cloths and wool to the amount of Foun MILLions.”; —iden 23. * * *
needy artists and manufacturers, to enable them to establish their various branches of business." He purchased large quantities of raw materials and filled o them to be sold at reasonable rates. He offered and gave liberal rewards to artists and manufacturers for excellence in their various branches. He moreover exempted them in various places from military service.f. in a word, he devoted all the powers of his great mind, and made most liberal drafts on his treasury for the accomplishment of this mighty object, which has attracted so small a share of attention in this country from those whose peculiar duty it was to promote its success. Here the calm and candid observer, who casts his eye on the system of Frederick, and contrasts it with
that of the United States, cannot fail to feel the
immunities, as we have stated, were freely and li
berally awarded. In the United States the seed was sown by individual exertion and enterprise. It required butlittle care to foster and make it strike deep root. There was no demand of loans—of bounties—of premiums—or of immunities. All that was asked—all that was necessary, was mere protection from foreign interference—a protection that would have cost the government nothing, and would have enriched the nation. It was fatally withheld, and a large portion of the seed so plentifully sown and so promising of a fertile harvest, has perished! and those who withheld, as well as those who besought, the protection, are now in common, suffering the most serious injury from that mistaken policy.
*“If the king has greatly increased population by his encouragement of agriculture, he has advanced it as much, and perhaps more, by the great number of manufactures and trades of all kinds, which he has caused to be established, or to which he has given encouragement at Berlin, at Potsdam, and in almost every city and town in his dominions.”—Hertzberg, 23.
f*It is with a view to encourage trade that the in
habitants of Berlin and Potsdam are erempted from military service, and his majesty grents nearly the same indulgence to the inhabitants of the circles of the mountains of silesia, where the poor, but industrious and sober weavers, and who are settled in a narrow and barren district, carry on those flourishing linen manufactures, which produce us an exportation of so many millions; and to the little city of Hirchberg only, a trade of two millions of crowns annually The king has in this district a canton for his foot-guards, but from his unwillingness to disturb the population of the district, he seldom draws from thence any recruits.”—Idem 25. *As national industry forms the second basis of the felicity and power of a state, I shall endeavor to prove here, in a summary manner, that the Prussian
monarchy possesses it in an eminent degree; and,
perhaps, immediately after France, England, and Holland; those powers which, for two centuries, have had the almost exclusive monopoly of manufac. tures, of commerce, and of navigation; of which the Prussians have had no part, but since the close ofthe last century, and the beginning of the present. This is not the place to make an exact and general table of the Prussian manufactures: I shall, therefore, collfine myself to giving a general idea, and some Part”
lar examples. We have almost all the trades and manufactures that can be conceived, as well for things of absolute necessity, as for the conveniencies and luxuries of life. Some of them have attained to a great degree of perfection, as those of woolen cloth, linen, porcelain, and others. The greater part are in a state of mediocrity, and may be brought by degrees to perfection, if there is continued to be given to them the same attention, assistance, and support, which the Prussian government has hitherto most liberally bestowed; and especially when to these are added the motives and inducements of emulation, which are absolutely necessary for bringing manufactures and works of art to perfection. Our manufactures exclusively supply all the Prussain dominions, anal, with a very favorable rivalship, espetially for cloths, lineus, and woolens, Poland, Russia, Germany, Italy, and especially Spain, and dm-rica. In order to afford a more strong and clear conviction, I shall here add a compendious table of the principal trades and manufactures, which exist in the Prussian monarchy, of their produce, and of the number of traders and manufacturers who are employed in them.”—Hertzberg’s Discourses, p. 101.
“The Prussian dominions had in the course of the year 1785,”
- Produce of Manu- the manufactu- factures in - rers. rix dollars. In linens - - 51,000 o 80,000 9,000,000 In cloths and woolen 18,000 Uí 58,000 8,000,000 In silk - - - 4,200 s 3 6,000 3,000,000 In cotton - - 2,600 J - 7,000 1,200,000 ln leather - - - - 4,000 2,000,000 In iron, steel, copper, &c. - - 3,000 2,000,000 In tobacco, of which 149,000 quintals are the growth of the coun- *: try - - - - - 2,000 1,000,000 Sugar - - - - - 1,000 2,000,000 Percelain and earthen-ware - 700 200,000 Paper - - - - - 800 200,000 Tallow and soap - - - 300 400,000 |. Glass, looking-glasses - - — 200,000 Manufacturers in gold, silver, lace, embroidery, &c. - - 1,000 400,000 Silesia madder - - " - - 300,000 Qil - - - - - 600 300,000 Yellow amber - - - - 600 50,000
For establishtng a manufactory of leather, and for tanning at Landsberg - For a similar manufactory at Drisen - Ditto ditto at Cottbus For erecting a fulling mill at Drambourg For increasing the magazines of wool for the manufacturers of small towns - - In Pomerania. For enlarging the manufactory of leather at Anclam - - - - - - For establishing a manufactory of leather at Treptow - - - . . . ... " For establishing a manufactory at Griffenhaen - - - v.; establishing a manufactory of fustians and cottons at Frederickshold -
Forincreasing the magazines of wool in the
- Brandenburgh. For establishing workshops for carding wool 1,360 For rewards, intended for the encouragement
of spinning in the country - - - - 2,000 For the erection of silk mills at Berlin - 24,000 For purchasing the cods of silk worms, and
causing them to be well spun - - - 10,000 For machines for carrying on the Manchester
manufacture - - - - - 10,000
ANNO 1786. In Bradenburg.
For procuring Spanish sheep - . - 22,000 For increasing the magazines of wool - 17,000
For improvements relative to the spinning of
4,021 6,000 4,000
Roads and Canals.
Sin–In compliance with a resolution of the house of representatives of the 4th of April, 1818, instructing #. secretary of war to report to that house, at their next session, “a plan for the application of such ineans as are within the power of congress for the purpose of opening and constructing such roads and canals as may deserve and require the aid of government, with a view to military operations in time of war; the transportation of munitions of war; and also a statement of the works of the nature above Imentioned which have been commenced, the progress which has been made, and the means and prospect of their completion; together with such information as, in the opinion of the secretary, shall be material in relation to the objects of the resolution,” I have the honor to make the following report:
A judicious system of roads and canals, constructed for the convenience of commerce and the transportation of the mail only, without any reference to military operations, is itself among the most efficient means for “the more complete defence of the United States.” Without adverting to the fact, that the roads and canals which such a system would require are, with few exceptions, precisely those which would be required for the operations of war, such a system, by consolidating our union, increasing our wealth and fiscal capacity, would add greatly to our resources in war. It is in a state of war when a nation is compelled to put all of its resources, in men, money, skill, and devotion to country, into requisition, that its government realizes, in its security, the beneficial effects from a people made prosperous and happy by a wise direction of its resources in peace. But I forbear to pursue this subject, though so interesting, and which, the farther it is pursued, will the more clearly establish the intimate connection between the defence and safety of the country and its improvement and prosperity, as I do not conceive that it constitutes the immediate object of this report.
There is no country to which a good system of military roads and canals is more indispensable than to the United States. As great as our military capacity is, when compared with the number of our people, yet, when considered in relation to the vast extent of our country, it is very small, and, if so great an extent of territory renders it very difficult to conquer us, as has frequently been observed, it nught not to be forgotten that it renders it no less difficult for the government to afford protection to to: of the community. In the very nature of things,the difficulty of protecting every part, so long as our population bears so small a proportion to the extent of the country, cannot be entirely overcome; but it may be very greatly diminished by a good system of military roads and canals. The necessity of such a system is still more apparent if we take into consideration the character of our political maxims and institutions. Opposed in principle to a large standing army, our main reliance for defence must be on the militia, to be called out frequently from a great distance, and under the pressure of an actual invasion. The experience of the late war amply proves, in the present state of our internal improvements, the delay, the uncertainty, the anxiety, and exhausting effects of such calls. The facts are too recent to require details, and the impression too deep to be soon forgotten. As it is
the part of wisdom to profit by experience, so it is
to the coast, or, should the invading force be of sust
magnitude as to require it, from the western states;
measure lost to him. In fact, the capacity for rapid
more immediately interested. As the government
has a deep stake in them, and as the system of defence will not be perfect without their completion, it ought at least to bear a proportional share of the expense of their construction. . I proceed next to consider the roads and canals connected with the defence of our northern frontier. That portion of it which extends to the east of Lake Champlain has not heretofore been the scene of extensive military operations; and I am not sufficiently acquainted with the nature of the country, to venture an opinion whether we may hereafter be called on to make considerable military efforts in that quarter. Without, then, designating any military improvements, as connected with this portion of our northern frontier, I would suggest the propriety, should congress approve of the plan for a military survey of the country to be hereafter proposed, to make a survey of it the duty of the engineers who may be designated for that purpose. For the defence of the other part of this line of frontier, the most important objects are, a canal of water communication between Albany and Lake George, and Lake Ontario, and between Pittsburg and Lake Erie. The two former have been commenced by the state of New York, and will, when completed, connected with the great inland navigation along the coast, enable the government, at a moderate expense, and in a short time, to transport munitions of war, and to concentrate its troops from any portion of the Atlantic states, fresh and unexhausted by the fatigue of marching on the inland frontier of the state of New York. The road cornmenced, by order of the executive, from Plattsburg to Sackett's Harbor, is essentially connected with military operations on this portion of the northern frontier. A water communication from Pittsburg to Lake Erie would greatly increase our power on the upper lakes. The Alleghany river, by its main branch, is said to be navigable within seven miles of Lake Erie, and by French creek, within sixteen miles. Pittsburg is the great military depot of the country to the west of the Alleghany, and, if it were connected by a canal with Lake Erie, would furnish military supplies with facility to the upper lakes, as well as to the country watered by the Mississippi. If to these communications we add a road from Detroit to Ohio, which has already been commenced, and a canal from the Illinoise river to Lake Michigan, which the growing population of the state of Illinois renders very imTo...sant, all the facilities which would be essential “to carry on military operations in the time of war, and the transportation of the munitions of war” for the defence of the western portion of our northern frontièr, would be afforded. It only remains to consider the system of roads and canals connected with the defence of our southern frontier, or that on the Gulf of Mexico. For the defence of this portion of our country, though at present weak of itself, nature has done much. The bay of Mobile, and the entrance into the Mississippi through all of its channels, are highly capable of defence. A military survey has been made, and the necessary fortifications have been commenced, and will be in a few years completed. But the real strength of this frontier is the Mississippi, which is no less the cause of its security, than that of its commerce and weakh. Its rapid stream, aided by the force of steam, can, in the hour of danger, concentrate at once an irresistible force. Made strong by this noble river, little remains to be done by roads and canals, for the defence of our southern frontier. The continuation of the road along the Atlantic
coast, from Milledgville to New Orleans, and the
completion of the road which has already been com. menced from Tennessee river to the same place, with the inland navigation through the canal of Ca. rondelet, Lake Ponchartrain, and the islands along the coast of Mobile, covered against the operations of a naval force, every facility required for the transportation of munitions of war, and movements and concentration of troops, to protect this distant and important frontier, would be afforded. Such are the roads and canals which military ope. rations in time of war, the transportations of the munitions of war, and the more complete defence of the U. States, require. Many of the roads and canals which have been suggested, are no doubt of the first importance to the commerce, the manufactures, the agriculture, and political prosperity of the country; but are not, for that reason, less useful or necessary for military purposes. It is, in fact, one of the great advantages of our country, enjoying so many others, that, whether we regard its internal improvements in relation to military, civil, or political purposes, very nearly the same system, in alli's parts, is required. The road or canal can scarcely be designated, which is highly useful for military operations, which is not equally required for the industry or political prosperity of the community. If those roads or canals had been pointed out, which are necessary for military purposes only, the list would have been small indeed, I have, therefore, presented all, without regarding the fact, that they might be employed for other uses, which, in the event of war, would be necessary to give economy, certainty, and success to our military operations; and which, if they had been completed before the late war, would, by their saving in that single contest, in men, money, and reputation, more than indemnified the country for the expense of their construction. I have not prepared an estimate of expenses, nor pointed out the particular routes for the roads or canals recommended, as I conceive that this can be ascertained with satisfaction only by able and skilful engineers, after a careful survey and examination. I would, therefore, respectfully suggest, as the basis of the system, and the first measure in the “plan for the application of such means as are in the power of congress,” that congress should direct such a survey and estimate to be made, and the result to be laid before them as soon as practicable. The expense would be inconsiderable; for as the army can furnish able military and topographical engineers, it would principally be confined to the employment of one or more skilful civil engineers, to be associated with them. By their combined skill, an efficient system of military roads and canals, would be presented in detail, accompanied with such estimates of expenses as may be relied on. Thus, full and satisfactory information would be had; and though some time might be lost in the commencement of the system, it would be more than compensated by its assured efficiency when completed. For the construction of the roads and canals, which congress may choose to direct, the army, too certain extent, may be brought in aid of the monied resources of the country. The propriety of employ. ing the army on works of public utility, cannot be doubted. Labor adds to its usefulness and health. A mere garrison life is equally hostile to its vigorand discipline. Both officers and men become the subjects of deleterious effects. But when the vast ex: tent of our country is compared with the extent 9 our military establishments, and taking into cons. deration the necessity of employing the soldiers on fortifications, barracks, and 'roids, connected with