stated in the memorials, are made of inferior materials, and as we possess a boundless capacity of supply, every principal of sound policy, regard for the vital interests of our country, as well as the paramount claim on them from so useful a body of citizens, for protection, ought to have insured compliance with the request. To all these considerations no attention was paid. Policy of Federick II. of Prussia. From the view which we have given of the policy of Russia, we invite attention to that of Frederick Ii. Of his integrity and his regard for the rights of his neighbors, there may be more than doubis entertained. But on his profound wisdom and sagacity as a statesman the world is agreed. A dissenting voice is no where heard, on these points he would stand comparison with any monarch of ancient or modern times, and would rise paramount over ninety-nine out of a hundred. His system of political economy is therefore worthy of the most serious consideration, and cannot fail to shed strong light on the important subject we are discussing. To the promotion of the industry of his subjects, inc bestowed the most unremitting attention, well knowing that it was the most certain means of in. creasing the population of his dominions, and of course the wealth and happiness of his subjects, as well as his own power. From this grand and parawnount object he was never a moment diverted by his ambitious wars; and notwithstanding the desolazoon they caused, he doubled the population of his paternal estates during his reign. To foster and protect arts and manufactures, he spared neither rains nor expense;" and was so completely successful that he not only doubled and trebled the number of artists and manufacturers in those branches already established, but introduced a great variety sormerly not practised by his subjects;f and thus, instead of being tributary to other nations, as she had formerly been, Prussia was enabled to exporther ranufactures to an immense extent to distant countries.4 - The measures he adopted for attaining these great ends, were worthy of the high character he onjoys as a statesman. He made large loans to

‘The king protects and encourages manufacturers $n every possible nanner, especially by advancing large soms of money to assist them in carrying on their maoftietores, animating them by rewards, and establishing magazines of wool in all the little towns, for the benofit of the small woolen manufacturers.”—-Hertzberg's discourses delivered at Berlin, 1786, p. 25.

* f * Refore the commencement of this reign, Prussia had out few silk manufacturers, and those of little importance. But the present king has established and riven liberal encouragement to so great a number, that they employ more than five thousand workmen; and the annual value of the goods manufactured by them: is two millions of crowns. In the course of the last year 1,200,250 ells of silk stuffs have been manufactured at Berlin, and 400,000 of gauze.” Idem 26. “The cotton manufacture alone employs nearly five thousand workmen.”—idem 25. + “We are in possession of almost every possible kind of manufacture; and we can, not only exclusiveBy supply the Prussian dominions, but also furnish the emote countries of Spain and Italy with finen and -woo'en cloths; and our manufactures go even to China, where.some of our Silesian cloths are conveyed by the way of Russia. We export every year linen cloth to the amount of six MILLIox's of cutow Ns, and woolen cloths and wool to the amount of Foun MILLions.”; —iden 23. * * *

needy artists and manufacturers, to enable them to establish their various branches of business." He purchased large quantities of raw materials and filled o them to be sold at reasonable rates. He offered and gave liberal rewards to artists and manufacturers for excellence in their various branches. He moreover exempted them in various places from military service.f. in a word, he devoted all the powers of his great mind, and made most liberal drafts on his treasury for the accomplishment of this mighty object, which has attracted so small a share of attention in this country from those whose peculiar duty it was to promote its success. Here the calm and candid observer, who casts his eye on the system of Frederick, and contrasts it with

that of the United States, cannot fail to feel the

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immunities, as we have stated, were freely and li

berally awarded. In the United States the seed was sown by individual exertion and enterprise. It required butlittle care to foster and make it strike deep root. There was no demand of loans—of bounties—of premiums—or of immunities. All that was asked—all that was necessary, was mere protection from foreign interference—a protection that would have cost the government nothing, and would have enriched the nation. It was fatally withheld, and a large portion of the seed so plentifully sown and so promising of a fertile harvest, has perished! and those who withheld, as well as those who besought, the protection, are now in common, suffering the most serious injury from that mistaken policy.

*“If the king has greatly increased population by his encouragement of agriculture, he has advanced it as much, and perhaps more, by the great number of manufactures and trades of all kinds, which he has caused to be established, or to which he has given encouragement at Berlin, at Potsdam, and in almost every city and town in his dominions.”—Hertzberg, 23.

f*It is with a view to encourage trade that the in

habitants of Berlin and Potsdam are erempted from military service, and his majesty grents nearly the same indulgence to the inhabitants of the circles of the mountains of silesia, where the poor, but industrious and sober weavers, and who are settled in a narrow and barren district, carry on those flourishing linen manufactures, which produce us an exportation of so many millions; and to the little city of Hirchberg only, a trade of two millions of crowns annually The king has in this district a canton for his foot-guards, but from his unwillingness to disturb the population of the district, he seldom draws from thence any recruits.”—Idem 25. *As national industry forms the second basis of the felicity and power of a state, I shall endeavor to prove here, in a summary manner, that the Prussian

monarchy possesses it in an eminent degree; and,

perhaps, immediately after France, England, and Holland; those powers which, for two centuries, have had the almost exclusive monopoly of manufac. tures, of commerce, and of navigation; of which the Prussians have had no part, but since the close ofthe last century, and the beginning of the present. This is not the place to make an exact and general table of the Prussian manufactures: I shall, therefore, collfine myself to giving a general idea, and some Part”

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lar examples. We have almost all the trades and manufactures that can be conceived, as well for things of absolute necessity, as for the conveniencies and luxuries of life. Some of them have attained to a great degree of perfection, as those of woolen cloth, linen, porcelain, and others. The greater part are in a state of mediocrity, and may be brought by degrees to perfection, if there is continued to be given to them the same attention, assistance, and support, which the Prussian government has hitherto most liberally bestowed; and especially when to these are added the motives and inducements of emulation, which are absolutely necessary for bringing manufactures and works of art to perfection. Our manufactures exclusively supply all the Prussain dominions, anal, with a very favorable rivalship, espetially for cloths, lineus, and woolens, Poland, Russia, Germany, Italy, and especially Spain, and dm-rica. In order to afford a more strong and clear conviction, I shall here add a compendious table of the principal trades and manufactures, which exist in the Prussian monarchy, of their produce, and of the number of traders and manufacturers who are employed in them.”—Hertzberg’s Discourses, p. 101.

“The Prussian dominions had in the course of the year 1785,”

- Produce of Manu- the manufactu- factures in - rers. rix dollars. In linens - - 51,000 o 80,000 9,000,000 In cloths and woolen 18,000 Uí 58,000 8,000,000 In silk - - - 4,200 s 3 6,000 3,000,000 In cotton - - 2,600 J - 7,000 1,200,000 ln leather - - - - 4,000 2,000,000 In iron, steel, copper, &c. - - 3,000 2,000,000 In tobacco, of which 149,000 quintals are the growth of the coun- *: try - - - - - 2,000 1,000,000 Sugar - - - - - 1,000 2,000,000 Percelain and earthen-ware - 700 200,000 Paper - - - - - 800 200,000 Tallow and soap - - - 300 400,000 |. Glass, looking-glasses - - — 200,000 Manufacturers in gold, silver, lace, embroidery, &c. - - 1,000 400,000 Silesia madder - - " - - 300,000 Qil - - - - - 600 300,000 Yellow amber - - - - 600 50,000

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For establishtng a manufactory of leather, and for tanning at Landsberg - For a similar manufactory at Drisen - Ditto ditto at Cottbus For erecting a fulling mill at Drambourg For increasing the magazines of wool for the manufacturers of small towns - - In Pomerania. For enlarging the manufactory of leather at Anclam - - - - - - For establishing a manufactory of leather at Treptow - - - . . . ... " For establishing a manufactory at Griffenhaen - - - v.; establishing a manufactory of fustians and cottons at Frederickshold -


3,000 1,500



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Forincreasing the magazines of wool in the
small towns - - - - - - 4,000
For establishing a manufactory of beaver
stockings at Lawenberg - - - 2,000
For establishing acotton manufactory at New
Stettin - - - - - - - 2,400
For a magazine ofcotton for the benefit of the
manufacturers of Pomerania - - 6,000
East and West Prussia.
For repairing the damage occasioned by the
burning of woolen cloths near Preusch Ei-
lau - - - - - - - 3,500
For establishing a manufacture of muslin at
Koningsburg - - - - - - 1,000
For a manufactory of leather at Preusch Ei-
lau - - - - - - - - 5,000
For a dye house at Gastrow - - - 2,600
For magazines of wool in the little towns of
"West Prussia - - - - - - 6,000
For a manufactory of press boards - - , 6,000
For the establishment of forty weavers at
Striegaw and in the neighborhood - - 17,368
For premiums relative to manufactures - 2,000

- Brandenburgh. For establishing workshops for carding wool 1,360 For rewards, intended for the encouragement

of spinning in the country - - - - 2,000 For the erection of silk mills at Berlin - 24,000 For purchasing the cods of silk worms, and

causing them to be well spun - - - 10,000 For machines for carrying on the Manchester

manufacture - - - - - 10,000

ANNO 1786. In Bradenburg.

For procuring Spanish sheep - . - 22,000 For increasing the magazines of wool - 17,000

For improvements relative to the spinning of
wool - - - - - - 4,000
For a manufactory of woolen cloths at Zinna 3,000
For a plantation of mulberry trees at Nowawest 2,000
For the purchase of cods of silk worms and
establishing a magazine of them - - 20,000
In the JVew JMarch.
For several small manufactures of wool and
leather, and for fulling mills in Custrin, Ne-
wedel, Falckenburg, and Sommerfeldt,
towns of the New March - - -
In Pomerania.
For increasing the magazines of wool -
For a manufactory of cotton stockings at
Gartz - " - - - - - -
For a manufactory of leather at Anclam - 3,000
For a manufactory of leather at Treptow 1,500
For a manufactory of sail cloth at Rugenwalde 5,000
For a manufactory of cables in the same city 4,000
For a manufactory of cloth for flags at Stettin 3,006
In East Prussia.
For a manufactory of morocco leather at Ko-
nigsberg - - - - - -
For a manufactory of English earthenware in
the same city - - - - -
For a manufactory of leather - - -
For a manufactory of ribands and bags -
For a cotton manufactory at Gumbinnen -
In West Prussia.
For a dye-house at Darkhenen - -
For a dye-house at Bromberg - - -
For a manufactory of fine cloth at Culm -
In Silesia.
Premiums for manufacturers and for encou-
raging and supporting weavers - - 17,000


4,021 6,000 4,000


4,000 1,000

600 1,000


2,600 7,200

Roads and Canals.
Report of the secretary of war to congress:
Dee ARTMENT of wan, JAN.7th, 1819.

Sin–In compliance with a resolution of the house of representatives of the 4th of April, 1818, instructing #. secretary of war to report to that house, at their next session, “a plan for the application of such ineans as are within the power of congress for the purpose of opening and constructing such roads and canals as may deserve and require the aid of government, with a view to military operations in time of war; the transportation of munitions of war; and also a statement of the works of the nature above Imentioned which have been commenced, the progress which has been made, and the means and prospect of their completion; together with such information as, in the opinion of the secretary, shall be material in relation to the objects of the resolution,” I have the honor to make the following report:

A judicious system of roads and canals, constructed for the convenience of commerce and the transportation of the mail only, without any reference to military operations, is itself among the most efficient means for “the more complete defence of the United States.” Without adverting to the fact, that the roads and canals which such a system would require are, with few exceptions, precisely those which would be required for the operations of war, such a system, by consolidating our union, increasing our wealth and fiscal capacity, would add greatly to our resources in war. It is in a state of war when a nation is compelled to put all of its resources, in men, money, skill, and devotion to country, into requisition, that its government realizes, in its security, the beneficial effects from a people made prosperous and happy by a wise direction of its resources in peace. But I forbear to pursue this subject, though so interesting, and which, the farther it is pursued, will the more clearly establish the intimate connection between the defence and safety of the country and its improvement and prosperity, as I do not conceive that it constitutes the immediate object of this report.

There is no country to which a good system of military roads and canals is more indispensable than to the United States. As great as our military capacity is, when compared with the number of our people, yet, when considered in relation to the vast extent of our country, it is very small, and, if so great an extent of territory renders it very difficult to conquer us, as has frequently been observed, it nught not to be forgotten that it renders it no less difficult for the government to afford protection to to: of the community. In the very nature of things,the difficulty of protecting every part, so long as our population bears so small a proportion to the extent of the country, cannot be entirely overcome; but it may be very greatly diminished by a good system of military roads and canals. The necessity of such a system is still more apparent if we take into consideration the character of our political maxims and institutions. Opposed in principle to a large standing army, our main reliance for defence must be on the militia, to be called out frequently from a great distance, and under the pressure of an actual invasion. The experience of the late war amply proves, in the present state of our internal improvements, the delay, the uncertainty, the anxiety, and exhausting effects of such calls. The facts are too recent to require details, and the impression too deep to be soon forgotten. As it is


the part of wisdom to profit by experience, so it is
of the utmost importance to prevent a recurrence
of a similar state of things, by the application of a
portion of our means to the construction of such
roads and canals as are required “with a view to ini-
litary operations in time of war, the transportation
of the munitions of war, and more complete defence
of the United States.”
In all questions of military preparations, three of
our frontiers require special attention, the eastern
or Atlantic frontier; the northern, or the Canadian
frontier; and the southern, or the frontier of the
Gulf of Mexico. On the west and north-west we
are secure, except against Indian hostilities; and
the only military preparations required in that quar-
ter, are such as are necessary to keep the Indian
tribes in awe, and to protect the frontier from their
ravages. All of our great military efforts, growing
out of a war with an European power, must, for the
present, be directed towards our eastern, northern,
or southern frontier; and the roads and canals which
will enable the government to concentrate its means
for defence, promptly and cheaply, on the vulnera-
ble points of either of those frontiers, are those
which, in a military point of view, require the aid of
government. I propose to consider each of those
frontiers separately, beginning with the Atlantic,
which, in many respects, is the weakest and most
exposed. -
From the mouth of St. Croix to that of St. Marys,
the two extremes of this frontier, is a distance,
along the line of the coast and principal bays, with-
out following their sinuosities, of about two thou-
sand one hundred miles. On this line, including
its navigable rivers and bays, are situated our most
populous cities, the great depots of the wealth and
commerce of the country. That portion of it which
extends to the south of the Chesapeake, has, with
the exceptions of the cities and their immediate
neighborhood, a sparse population, with a low
marshy country, extending back from 100 to 150
miles. To the north of the Chesapeake, inclusive.
it affords, every where, deep and bold navigable
bays and rivers, which readily admit vessels of any
size. Against a line so long, so weak, so exposed,
and presenting such strong motives for depreda-
tions, hostilities the most harassing and exhaust-
ing may be carried on by a naval power; and should
the subjugation of the country ever be attempted,
it is probable that against this frontier, facing Eu-
rope, the seat of the great powers of the world, the
principal efforts would be turned. Thus circum-
stanced, it is the duty of the government to render it
as secure as possible. For much of this security we
ought to look to a navy, and a judicious and strong
system of fortifications: but not to the neglect of
such roads and canals as will enable the government
to concentrate, premptly and cheaply, at any point
which may be menaced, the necessary force and
means for defence.
To resist ordinary hostilities, having for their ob-
ject the destruction of our towns and the exhaus-
tion of our means, the force ought to be drawn from
the country lying between the coasts and the sour-
ces of the principal rivers which discharge through
it into the ocean; but, to resist greater efforts, aim-
ing at conquest, should it ever be attempted, the
force and resources of the whole community must
be brought into resistance. To concentrate, then,
a sufficient force, on any point of this frontier which
may be invaded, troops must be marched, and mu-
nitions of war transported, either along the line of
the coast or from the interior of the Atlantic states,

to the coast, or, should the invading force be of sust


magnitude as to require it, from the western states;
and the roads and canals necessary for the defence
of this frontier are those which will render these
operations prompt, certain, and economical.
From the coast to the Alleghany mountains, and
the high land separating the streams which enter
into the St. Lawrence from those of the Atlantic,
in which the principal Atlantic rivers take their
rise, the distance may be averaged at about 250
miles; and the whole extent, from the St Mary's to
the St. Croix, is intersected, at short intervals, by
large Lavigable rivers and the principal roads of this
portion of our country, torough which its great com-
mercial operations are carried on. These, aided by
the steam boats, now introduced on almost all our
great rivers, present great facilities to collect the
militia from the interior, and to transport the ne-
cessary supplies and munitions of war.
Much undoubtedly remains to be done to perfect
the roads and improve the navigation of the rivers:
but this, for the most part, may be safely left to the
states and the commercial cities particularly inte-
rested, as the appropriate objects of their care and
exertions. The attention of both have recently
been much turned towards these objects, and a few
years will probably add much to facilitate the inter-
course between the coast and the interior of the At-
lantic states. Very different is the case with the
great and important line of communication, extend-
ing along the coast, through the Atlantic states. No
object of the kind is more important; and there is
none to which state or individual capacity is more
inadequate. It must be perfected by the general
government, or not perfected at all, at least forma-
ny years. No one or two states have a sufficient
interest. It is immediately beneficial to more than
half of the states of the union, and without the aid
ofthe general government, would require their co-
operation. It is, at all times, a most important object
to the nation; and, in a war with a naval power, is
almost indispensable to our military, commercial and
financial operations. It may, in a single view, be
considered the great artery of the country; and,
when the coasting trade is suspended by war, the
vast intercourse between the north and south, which
annually requires five hundred thousand tons of
jo. and which is necessary to the commerce,
the agriculture and manufacture of more than half
of the union, seeks this channel of communication.
If it were thoroughly opened by land and water; if
Louisiana were connected, by a durable and well
finished road, with Maine; and Boston with Savan-
nah, by a well established line of inland navigation,
for which so many facilities are presented, more
than half of the pressure of war would be removed.
A country so vast in its means, and abounding, in
its various latitudes, with almost all the products of
the globe, is a world of itself, and, with that facility
of intercourse, to perfect which the disposable.
means of the country is adequate, would flourish
and prosper under the pressure of a war with any
power. But, dropping this more elevated view,
and considering the subject only as it regards “mi-
litary operations in time of war, and the transporta-
tion of the munitions of war,” what could contri-
bute so much as this communication to the effec-
tual and cheap defence of our Atlantic frontier?
Take the line of inland navigation along the coast,
the whole of which, it is estimated, could be com-
pleted, for sea vessels, by digging one hundred
miles, and at the expense of $3,000,000, the advan-
tage which an enemy with a naval force now has,
by rapidly moving along the coast, and harassing
and exhausting the country, would be in a great

measure lost to him. In fact, the capacity for rapid
and prompt movements and concentration, would
be, to the full, as much in our power. We would
have, in most of the points of attack, a shorter line
to move over, in order to concentrate our means;
and, aided by steam boats, would have the capacity
to pass it in a shorter time, and with greater certain-
ty, that what an enemy, even with a naval superiori-
ty, would have to attack us. Suppose the fleet of
such an enemy should appear o; Capes of Dela-
ware; before it could possibly approach and attack
Philadelphia, information, by telegraphic communi-
cation, might be given to Baltimore and New York.
and the forces stationed there thrown in for its re.
lief. The same might take place if Baltimore or New
York should be invaded; and, should an attack be
made on any of our cities, the militia and regular
forces, at a great distance along the coast, could, in a
short time, be thrown in for its relief. By this spec-
dy communication, the regular forces, with the mi-
litia of the cities and their neighborhood, would be
sufficient to repel ordinary invasions, and would
either prevent, or greatly diminish, the harassing
calls upon the militia of the interior. If to these
considerations we add the character of the climate
of the southern position of the Atlantic frontier, so
fatal to those whose constitutions are not inured to
it, the value of this system of defence, by the regular
troops and the militia accustomed to the climate,
will be greatly enhanced. Should this line of in-
land navigation be constructed, to enjoy its benefits
fully, it will be necessary to coverit against the na-
val operations of an enemy. It it thought that this
may be easily effected, to the south of the Chesa.
peake, by land and steam batteries. The bay is it-
self one of the most important links in this line of
communication; and its defence againt a naval force
ought, if practicable, to be rendered complete. It
was carefully surveyed, the last summer, by skilful
officers, for this purpose in part, and it is expected
that their report will throw much light upon this
important subject. Long Island Sound, another part
of the line which is exposed, can be fully defended
by a naval force only. -
It remains, in relation to the defence of the At-
lantic frontier, to consider the means of communica-
tion between it and the western states, which re-
quire the aid of the government. Most of the ob.
servations made relative to the increased strength
and capacity of the country to bear up under the
pressure of war, from the coastwise communication,
are applicable in a high degree at present, and are
daily becoming more so, to those with the western
states; and should a war for conquest ever be wa-
ged againstus, an event not probable, but not to be
laki entirely out of view, the roads and canals neces-
sary to complete the communication with that por-
tion of our country, would be of the utmost impot-
tal) ce.
The interest of commerce, and the spirit of rival-
ry between the great Atlantic cities, will do much
to perfect the means of intercourse with the west.
The most important lines of communication appear
to be from Albany to the lakes; from Philadelphia,
Baltimore, Washington, and Richmond, to the Ohio
river; and from Charleston and Augusta, to the Ten-
nessee; all of which are now commanding the atten-
tion, in a greater or less degree, of the sections of
the country immediately interested. But in such
great undertakings, so interesting in every point of
view to the whole union, and which may ultimately
become necessary to its defence, the expense ought
not to fall wholly on the portions of the country

more immediately interested. As the government

has a deep stake in them, and as the system of defence will not be perfect without their completion, it ought at least to bear a proportional share of the expense of their construction. . I proceed next to consider the roads and canals connected with the defence of our northern frontier. That portion of it which extends to the east of Lake Champlain has not heretofore been the scene of extensive military operations; and I am not sufficiently acquainted with the nature of the country, to venture an opinion whether we may hereafter be called on to make considerable military efforts in that quarter. Without, then, designating any military improvements, as connected with this portion of our northern frontier, I would suggest the propriety, should congress approve of the plan for a military survey of the country to be hereafter proposed, to make a survey of it the duty of the engineers who may be designated for that purpose. For the defence of the other part of this line of frontier, the most important objects are, a canal of water communication between Albany and Lake George, and Lake Ontario, and between Pittsburg and Lake Erie. The two former have been commenced by the state of New York, and will, when completed, connected with the great inland navigation along the coast, enable the government, at a moderate expense, and in a short time, to transport munitions of war, and to concentrate its troops from any portion of the Atlantic states, fresh and unexhausted by the fatigue of marching on the inland frontier of the state of New York. The road cornmenced, by order of the executive, from Plattsburg to Sackett's Harbor, is essentially connected with military operations on this portion of the northern frontier. A water communication from Pittsburg to Lake Erie would greatly increase our power on the upper lakes. The Alleghany river, by its main branch, is said to be navigable within seven miles of Lake Erie, and by French creek, within sixteen miles. Pittsburg is the great military depot of the country to the west of the Alleghany, and, if it were connected by a canal with Lake Erie, would furnish military supplies with facility to the upper lakes, as well as to the country watered by the Mississippi. If to these communications we add a road from Detroit to Ohio, which has already been commenced, and a canal from the Illinoise river to Lake Michigan, which the growing population of the state of Illinois renders very imTo...sant, all the facilities which would be essential “to carry on military operations in the time of war, and the transportation of the munitions of war” for the defence of the western portion of our northern frontièr, would be afforded. It only remains to consider the system of roads and canals connected with the defence of our southern frontier, or that on the Gulf of Mexico. For the defence of this portion of our country, though at present weak of itself, nature has done much. The bay of Mobile, and the entrance into the Mississippi through all of its channels, are highly capable of defence. A military survey has been made, and the necessary fortifications have been commenced, and will be in a few years completed. But the real strength of this frontier is the Mississippi, which is no less the cause of its security, than that of its commerce and weakh. Its rapid stream, aided by the force of steam, can, in the hour of danger, concentrate at once an irresistible force. Made strong by this noble river, little remains to be done by roads and canals, for the defence of our southern frontier. The continuation of the road along the Atlantic

coast, from Milledgville to New Orleans, and the

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completion of the road which has already been com. menced from Tennessee river to the same place, with the inland navigation through the canal of Ca. rondelet, Lake Ponchartrain, and the islands along the coast of Mobile, covered against the operations of a naval force, every facility required for the transportation of munitions of war, and movements and concentration of troops, to protect this distant and important frontier, would be afforded. Such are the roads and canals which military ope. rations in time of war, the transportations of the munitions of war, and the more complete defence of the U. States, require. Many of the roads and canals which have been suggested, are no doubt of the first importance to the commerce, the manufactures, the agriculture, and political prosperity of the country; but are not, for that reason, less useful or necessary for military purposes. It is, in fact, one of the great advantages of our country, enjoying so many others, that, whether we regard its internal improvements in relation to military, civil, or political purposes, very nearly the same system, in alli's parts, is required. The road or canal can scarcely be designated, which is highly useful for military operations, which is not equally required for the industry or political prosperity of the community. If those roads or canals had been pointed out, which are necessary for military purposes only, the list would have been small indeed, I have, therefore, presented all, without regarding the fact, that they might be employed for other uses, which, in the event of war, would be necessary to give economy, certainty, and success to our military operations; and which, if they had been completed before the late war, would, by their saving in that single contest, in men, money, and reputation, more than indemnified the country for the expense of their construction. I have not prepared an estimate of expenses, nor pointed out the particular routes for the roads or canals recommended, as I conceive that this can be ascertained with satisfaction only by able and skilful engineers, after a careful survey and examination. I would, therefore, respectfully suggest, as the basis of the system, and the first measure in the “plan for the application of such means as are in the power of congress,” that congress should direct such a survey and estimate to be made, and the result to be laid before them as soon as practicable. The expense would be inconsiderable; for as the army can furnish able military and topographical engineers, it would principally be confined to the employment of one or more skilful civil engineers, to be associated with them. By their combined skill, an efficient system of military roads and canals, would be presented in detail, accompanied with such estimates of expenses as may be relied on. Thus, full and satisfactory information would be had; and though some time might be lost in the commencement of the system, it would be more than compensated by its assured efficiency when completed. For the construction of the roads and canals, which congress may choose to direct, the army, too certain extent, may be brought in aid of the monied resources of the country. The propriety of employ. ing the army on works of public utility, cannot be doubted. Labor adds to its usefulness and health. A mere garrison life is equally hostile to its vigorand discipline. Both officers and men become the subjects of deleterious effects. But when the vast ex: tent of our country is compared with the extent 9 our military establishments, and taking into cons. deration the necessity of employing the soldiers on fortifications, barracks, and 'roids, connected with

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