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All the wealthier houses of Damascus contain veils and clothes, that we began to believe in these open rooms or alcoves, many of which a resurrection of mummies. They could be are richly and tastefully decorated and sumptu- compared to no living thing we had ever seen. ously furnished
Camels, mules, and asses passed us in large We felt that now we were indeed in the numbers; the former, with their peculiar stride, East, and away from the high pressure of often heavily laden, grimacing and shooting out civilized Europe. No one looking at the their long tongues, high over the heads of the exterior of our hotel could have imagined that passers by. Many of the mules were pure it contained such a Paradise within. So is it white; to which colour the ladies seemed partial. with most of the dwellings of the Damascenes. The asses were the usual active little animals Architecture they have in abundanee in the of the East, and went cantering past with many dead cities round about them, in the ancient a portly citizen perched upon their rearmost mosques and walls and towers in their midst, quarters. We passed windowless shops, rich and even underneath their feet, if they choose in gaudy prints of native and British manuto excavate the buried remnants of many a facture, for the Damascenes are fond of gay Roman portico and palace. Modern Damascus colours. All round us we saw exposed for sale has no ambition to rival such ancient archi- the everlasting red shoe, with tapering uptectural grandeur and embellishes the interior turned toe, so extensively worn by the Moslem rather than the exterior of its houses.
community. Presently Mr. Crawford, the American We entered “the street called Straight," of missionary called upon us, and invited us to see Scriptural fame. Now-a-days it belies its name, the curiosities and sights of Damascus. We for though of considerable length (about a mile), set out, preceded by the dragoman of our hotel, it is anything but straight. The word "straight” and entered the curious narrow streets, several I take to be a bad translation of St. Luke's of which were roofed in. The variegated cos- real meaning. In German Bibles the word is tumes of the people presented a strange rendered "Die Richtige," meaning "right, chromatic effect :-Here was the fanatical old just, or correct," and the Romans called it Moslem, with his green turban, a veritable “ Via Recta !” From this, however, it does Shereef, descended from the Prophet, and who not follow that this street was less straight seven times had visited the holy tomb of his than other streets. It was doubtless the chief ancestor; next came the less reverenced though thoroughfare of Damascus in the time of all important Hadji, who likewise had looked St. Paul. Porter tells us that in the time of upon the holy Caaba at Mecca, and partaken of the Romans it could not have been less than the waters of Zemzem ; the sprightly young 100 feet in breadth. Colonnades and pillars are Turk in fez (tarboosh) and trimmed mous- found near its borders, and many others are tache, flowing trousers, and gay cutaway built over or buried. The Grand Mosque jacket; the thrifty Jew, in long coarse gaber- embraces some of the finest pillars, thus assertdine; the Greek priest, with his roving eye ing itself upon the ground celebrated in and brimless hat; the tawny hairy-breasted Scripture. Kurd, resting his camel on the way to the holy Here, in ancient days, was located the house sepulchre at Jerusalem ;* the fierce mountain where Ananias restored Saul's sight. On reachDruse, with staff and ragged petticoat, whose ing the eastern extremity of the street we saw Deity was so long a dark mystery ; the Nubian, a gateway (Bab Shurki), with venerable double with ebony skin and snow-white garment ; the colonnades and crumbling pilasters, which howling dervish, with his chaunts and lacerated doubtless stood in that same spot when Saul skin ; the miserable beggar, in rags and sores, came awe-stricken to Damascus. Native superdragging after him his shrivelled and emaciated stition points this out as Saul's entrance gate, limbs; the soldier, in his red tarboosh and coat; but theologians contend, with good reason, that the Janissary, in his gold embroidered jacket when Saul came from Damascus “breathing and handsome hanging sleeves; the sais, or out threatenings and slaughter against the forerunner, on his panting errand, clearing a disciples of the Lord,” he would have made his road for his master's horse, and reminding one entrance by either the western or the southern forcibly of the Evangelist :-“Behold, I send gates, instead of going right round the city. my messenger before thy face, which shall This mouldering eastern gateway is a fine relic prepare thy way before thee.” Moslem of antiquity; near it is a tower or castle of women, closely veiled, but letting escape rather various orders of architecture, that of the unpoetic feet from their flowing trousers, or Roman and the Saracen being predominant. astride of mules, and enveloped in white sheets. In the city walls is shown a place from which So huddled up were these ladies in a chaos of they tell you that Saul was let down in a basket
by the disciples of Damascus, to escape the * Although the majority of the Kurds are Moslems, some of infuriated Jewish populace. Unfortunately them profess Christianity.
Its very We saw,
enough for this interesting spot, it contains a different. Whilst standing at the threshold of Saracenic inscription giving the date of the this mosque, watching the genuflections and building of the wall.
prostrations of a few devotees, black and angry A native guide will point out to the unwary looks were darted at us by many of the passers traveller the identical house of Naaman, the by. Even whilst traversing the crowded Syrian ; and I have no doubt if you wished to narrow streets, it was considered necessary by see the domicile of Eliezer, of Damascus, or both the British and the American consuls that even that of Uz, the great-grandson of Noah-- we should be properly attended, and although its reputed founder*--they would be found the Effendi Meshaka never left us except at our
hotel, a Janissary, or Cawass, marched in front The rivers of Damascus, however, still remain of our little party with drawn sword in his hand, to illustrate the eventful past, and the Barada lest an involuntary jostling against some intolerand Nahr-el-Awaj are generally accepted as the ant son of the Prophet might be answered by vioancient Abana and Pharpar, of which Naaman lence. In Damascus trivial causes might soon indignantly said, “Are not Abana and Pharpar, lead to bloody frays. This city has a sanguinary rivers of Damascus, better than all the waters of history, both ancient and modern. Israel ? May I not wash in them and be clean ?" name signifies a “sack of blood.”
We were now joined by the American vice- therefore, but little of the Grand Mosque save consul, an intelligent young Syrian, named a gigantic court paved with polished limestone, Meshaka, the son of a man whose bold Christian We cared to see no more, for both the Doctor writings had gained for him the appellation and myself had “done” mosques thoroughly of “the Syrian Luther.” We subsequently at Cairo, where they are more accessible, if visited this worthy reformer, whose reception less famous, than this shop and ruin-surrounded of us was most cordial and affectionate. We sanctuary of Damascus. It was, originally, a next visited the British vice-consul, Mr. Kirby Heathen Temple, possibly that of Rimmon, Green, to whom I had letters of introduction and may be described as a compound of various from my friends in Beyrout. Mr. Green received architectures. It is very ancient, and is said us politely, and showed us his handsome house, to contain the head of John the Baptist in a arabesqued and tesselated in true Damascene subterranean cave. Many conflicts has it style, possessing the usual courtyard, with trees witnessed. When the fierce Khaled led the and fountains, upon which all the rooms opened. surging Moslems northward and captured It also had its alcove with raised cushioned Damascus, this sanctuary, then a Christian platform, where coffee and cigarettes were Church, was divided between the followers brought us.
of Christ and Mohammed, one sect worAfter taking our leave of Mr. Green,'we went shipping in the western, and the other in the to see the English Presbyterian missionary, Mr. eastern end. The Christians were afterwards Wright, who bade us such genial welcome that turned out by the Khalif Waled, who re-embelour hearts were at once loosened to him. After lished and decorated the building intothe utmost a long conversation about home and the state splendour. It was afterwards pillaged by of the missions in Damascus and Syria, we all Tamerlane, and altogether has figured promiwent out together. Mr. Wright proved to nently in the history of Damascus.* be a valuable addition to our little party. We Wenextentered the bazaar of the silversmiths, soon discovered him to be a son of Erin, and a large rambling low-roofed room, close to the learned that he was a native of Belfast, and Grand Mosque. Every man worked his own had been educated at King's College, Dublin. forge and for his own individual profit. There His ready mother-wit and beaming intelligence was no co-operation towards the finite perfecvied gracefully with Mr. Crawford's minute topo- tion of any article, as in our own manufactories; graphical knowledge and antiquarian learning, no special men for special parts, but every one, the fruits of a long sojourn at Damascus and from feeding his forge to chasing his silver of deep laborious study. With such guides worked for himself. Some of the filagree as these, we made the most of our brief visit. work, chiefly representing those tiny egg-cup
We peered into the Grand Mosque, but did shape receptacles of the still tinier coffee-cups, not cross its threshold, not that we found this which are so dear to Orientals, was extremely impossible, or dared not enter, for our mission chaste and delicate. These silversmiths of ary friends informed us that a couple of gold Damascus—disciples of Demetrius-were all pieces would secure our admission to the Christians, and it is strange that they should be Moslem's shrine, even in this fanatical city. located so close to the Grand Mosque, whose In Egypt backsheesh will take one anywhere, interior can be seen from the roof of their no matter how sacred or apparently close the bazaar, with its marble-tesselated floor and portals. . In Damascus things are somewhat gorgeous Persian carpets, its ornamented walls, * Josephus.
* Porter (Five Years in Damascus).
BY A PHYSICIAN.
and stately columns. Generally speaking, each in the year of the Hegira 803. The impetuous trade or handicraft in Damascus has its own conqueror, however, caused the citadel to be special quarter.
undermined, and eventually razed it to the Bazaar is simply the Turkish word for bar- ground. At one time it held the mortal regain. An Oriental invariably asks double or mains of the great and chivalrous Saladin, treble the value of the article offered for sale. whose trials of strength and skill against our Bid him half his price, and should he put his brave Richard Cæur de Lion are chronicled by hand upon his heart and say “no," bid him Sir Walter Scott. The relics of the distin"good morning.” In the twinkling of an eye he guished Saracen were afterwards removed to is after you, and if you but feign a “masterly another part of the city. inactivity” of hearing, the triumph is yours. The gates of the citadel were carefully Don't haggle ! You have no chance with the guarded by soldiers, and we were told that it Oriental, who spends his whole lifetime in contained many prisoners. Near this place is haggling If ever he gets to Paradise he will the residence of the Pasha the Governor of haggle with his Houris. If you do not want an the Pashalik or Vilâyet of Damascus, which article never hazard a low bid, for, should you includes Judea and all Eastern Palestine, and remain long enough in the locality, the chances stretches away to the banks of the Euphrates. are much in favour of that article becoming
(To be continued.) yours. When time is no object, and patience is uppermost, things may be bought at one
ON ALCOHOL. third of the price, the very lowest price possible for the wily Mohammedan to take. He will call Allah to witness his statements, WHAT is alcohol? It is carbon, hydroreducing his price all the time.
gen, and oxygen, combined in the Dragomen, as a rule, are notorious rogues. proportions expressed by the chemical formula A wink between the dragoman and his friend C, H, O. And perhaps this short formula the merchant, and the too confiding traveller barters his good gold for a heap of tinselled might tell us all about alcohol and its strange trumpery. He is smilingly and obligingly power over men, if men were (as some very conducted back to his hotel, and the dragoman confident scientific folk tell us) only cunning returns to the merchant for his share of the mechanisms, woven out of protoplasm, wherein plunder. I had every reason to feel satisfied physico-chemical forces play certain strange with Farah Maloof, but he was far above the antics until the mechanism wears out. When average dragoman, having been educated at the
our brains are dead-no longer disturbed by American College of Beyrout. Farah intelligent and most anxious to please; he was
thoughts and joys and sorrows-then they may eager to visit Europe, and begged hard to be be put “in pickle” in the jars of some anatoallowed to accompany me.
Not knowing what mical museum. And then the action of alcohol to do at home with such a stalwart Syrian, upon them will be simply that of C, H. Oma I was obliged to refuse him. He left me at Auid which has a strong chemical attraction for Damascus, taking back to Beyrout the two water. (How differently alcohol behaves in a horses which had carried us so bravely.
Human nature in the East corresponds but test-tube and in a wine-glass !) But the action too faithfully with that of the West. Whether of alcohol upon a living brain is not quite such Christianity or Mohammedanism be the outward a simple matter, nor so easily disposed of. So profession of faith, money is but too often the chemistry, after a trial to solve the riddle of inward object of adoration. “The trail of the the power of alcohol, “ gives it up." serpent” is over all men, go where we list. In
Then we turn to physiology, and learn from Damascus, man is ignorant, constrained, and Lallemand that alcohol passes out of the body fanatical; yet, when his fingers close over the gold, the stern son of Islam forgets his creed, as it passed in, unchanged; and, therefore,
, , his prejudices, and his superstitions. He hates cannot be regarded in any sense as food. the Giaour, but loves the Giaour's gold. And we read again that Anstie declares that
We did not enter the castle. There was some Lallemand is mistaken. We may leave the difficulty in the way. It is an ancient place physiologists to fight it out. The question is a with crumbling walls, and has stood many a very interesting one, but it is not relevant to bloody siege. It was surrounded by a moat, which in the days of the Saracens was filled from
the present discussion; for topers will continue the river. Its citadel in these times was of to drink, and teetotallers to abstain, whether great strength, and defied Tamerlane success- alcohol is oxydised in the body or not. The fully for some time, after he conquered the city, toper is vastly more anxious about the ways
and means of getting alcohol into him, than God. Therefore we are bound to drink it-in about the forın in which it is to get out again. moderation of course.” And then your zealous And if the teetotaller could be persuaded that teetotal friend will return a. vehement “No! alcohol is really a food, he would probably Alcohol is an evil invention of man, if not of still prefer potatoes to the “ British Brandy” the devil (the natural father of all evil spirits.) manufactured therefrom.
Fermentation is an artificial process, whereby Dr. Ratcliffe tells us that alcohol economises good food is unnaturally destroyed.” food by diminishing tissue waste. Possibly : These two doughty disputants are wellbut the information, if correct, is not prac- matched. If this fiction of the human or diatically important in relation to the present bolical origin of alcohol were true, it might question. "Your drunkard is not usually much simplify the question, perhaps. But the facts given to considering questions of economy; are against it. If you take a weak solution of except perhaps to the extent of carefully select- grape sugar, and just leave it to itself, in ing the public-house where he can get the moderately warm weather, by-and-by you will strongest twopennyworth for twopence. And find it cloudy, with a film upon the top, and your teetotaller will not be easily convinced some bubbles will escape. Examine with a that a gin-palace is a favourable place for microscope, and you will find some things like studying domestic economy.
strings of beads. We must go deeper than this food question, That is the yeast plant, self-sown from what if we want to know the secret of the power of we are pleased to call “the pure air of alcohol. So we turn, for a while at least, from Heaven.” Taste the liquid and you will find physiology to question a science that is a its sweetness has all gone—the sugar has thriving daughter of hers. What says Thera- disappeared. But do not, for your conscience'
sake make that experiment, if you have joined There are some well-meaning, but over the “Blue Ribbon Army." The liquid will be zealous teétotallers, who are unable to believe alcoholic! any good of an agent so dangerous as alcohol. In truth, so far from fermentation being an Their advice about its use reminds us of Mr. artificial process, you will have to resort carePunch's laconic advice to those about to marry : fully to very artificial processes to prevent " Don't." And sometimes they are ready to fermentation in grape juice and many similar support their opinion by a display of some liquids. hastily crammed and superficial scientific know. But our alcohol-loving friend must not be in ledge. They will describe to you the effect of a great hurry to triumph.
a great hurry to triumph. Alcohol is a natural placing a cubic inch of beef in a bottle with some production no doubt, but alcohol-drinking is an rectified spirit and artificial gastric juice. They artificial habit. Alcohol is a natural production, may even show you some beef which has been and so are arsenic, and opium, and deadly so cruelly ill-used. They will point out that nightshade, and a variety of other such-like nice the spirit has reduced it to a consistence much things which we do not yet think it an essential resembling that of the sole of an old shoe, part of politeness to offer to our friends as and then they will triumphantly ask whether pleasing luxuries. They are useful medicines alcohol is likely to promote digestion. But it in small doses, and poisons in large doses. happens that the human stomach has certain Perhaps something like this may be true of properties which are not shared by glass bottles. alcohol Alcohol is a natural production ; And this circumstance, though overlooked therefore it has its right use. But it does not by our zealous partizans, really has an impor- follow that its right use is as a daily beverage. tant bearing on the matter under discussion. There are many other spheres for it, e.g., to The fact is, difficult scientific questions are not burn in spirit lamps, to make vinegar, to to be solved quite so easily as mere dabblers in "pickle” various portions of the "human science are apt to think. A solution, which frame divine” for the instruction of students seems so very simple, generally has something of medicine, and the like. And as regards its wrong about it. If you tried to get to the top application to the living body, we must quesof the Monument at a jump, you would be tion Dame Nature before we jump to conclumore likely to tumble and hurt your knees, sions. How do you know but she may have than to succeed.
labelled the bottle “For external application Unfortunately this question of the use of only ?” We do not exactly think she has; but alcohol has been so hotly debated that the the mere existence of alcohol as a natural disputants on either side are apt to seize any production is no proof either way. weapon provided only they fancy they can Alcohol is undoubtedly a very valuable medibring down their man with it; they take the cine in certain diseased conditions. Healthy readiest arguments rather than the best. For people, however, do not need it, and are better instance, one will say “ Alcohol is a gift of without it. To leave well alone is a very good
BY MARGARET ISABELLA GLEIZAL.
says, “ that
BY MRS. JOSEPH RULE.
maxim in medicine. Do not run away with THE DYING EXILE.
“Far off, far off, across the sea of time,
From the dim shadow-land of by-gone years, good for everything, except corns. Unfortu- Comes faint sweet music, like the fairy chime nately strong drink does not necessarily make Of silver bells, telling of hopes and fears strong men.
Of long ago, and of a happier clime Wine and spirits are hy no
Making my eyes grow dim with unshed tears.
means safe domestic remedies to be prescribed by the
“Voices long silent seem to speak once more,
And through the mists of years again I see patient himself, or by the old woman of the
The forms of well-loved friends that went before ; family or neighbourhood. It requires quite as Methinks they sweetly smile and beckon mo much medical skill to use alcohol wisely as any
To join them on the everlasting shore,
Where death can not divide, nor sorrow be. other drug in the pharmacopeia. And the kind of liquor, and the quantity, and the time
“O, happy hours, spent on a distant strand,
Neath sunny skies, ʼmid vineyards bright and gay ! and mode of administration should all be as
O, happy home! Now in a barren land accurately laid down as in the case of laudanum I vainly sigh amid the shadows grey, or strychnia.
For loving heart to cheer, for helping hand
Alas! the vision fades, then dies away. But, after all, the great power of alcohol over men is not its power as a medicine. Men do
“Far off it fades, and fainter grows the light,
And I am left alone once more in pain ; not drink for the most part because they are But yet I know, though dark may be the night, ill and desire to recover health. The public All glorious the day will dawn again. houses are not kept open merely to relieve the
0, may I waken in a world more bright!"
God heard the prayer, and it was not in vain. chemists' shops of a part of their natural trade.
[Recognising in these verses elements wbich, cultivated with So we leave Therapeutics and pass on.
care, may raise the authoress, who is still in the middle of her What says Morbid Anatomy? Morbid teens, to the rank of a recognised poetess, we readily insert
them.-ED. E.H.M.) Anatomy has a sad story and yet not the saddest) to tell of the evil effects of alcohol in those who have loved it “not wisely,
THE TWO GOLD DIGGERS: but too well.” Dr. Moxon *
A TRUE LOVE STORY. oracular science claims the sot. When the
his chosen Morbid Anatomy is ready to receive him | 25 and swinging himself over it, a youth of knows him well. At the post mortem she slight form joined a girl on the other side. would say, "liver hard and modulated, brain “What! May, darling!” he exclaimed, dense and small; its covering thick. And if " have you been waiting? I thought I would you would listen to her unattractive but in- be here first.” teresting tale, she would trace throughout the
"I could not rest, Percy,” replied the maiden; sot's body a series of changes which leave uvaltered no part of him worth speaking of.
“My mother is so distressed about Frank's She would tell you that the once delicate, filmy going away to-morrow, and my own heart is so texture which, when he was young, had sad and perplexed. I am full of fears, Percy; surrounded, like a pure atmosphere, every fibre all this secrecyand tube of his mechanism, making him lithe “Bother your fears!" interrupted the youth, and supple, has now become rather a dense fog
“Nay; but, Percy, let us think—let us try than a pure atmosphere--dense stuff which, instead of lubricating, has closed in upon and to do our duty-mine is plain; now that you crushed out of existence more and more of are going away I must desire you to forget me. the fibres and tubes, especially in the brain Sir James and Lady Ilford, your mother" and liver: whence the imbecility and the “Enough, May! I know all you would dropsy."
say," again interrupted the young man. “I A terrible comment that on the text, know all the pros and cons. Duty! Yes, “Whatsoever a man soweth, that shall he also May, I mean to be dutiful, and when I marry reap?” But will it avail as a warning? We you-as marry you I will--- providing, indeed, fear not. Men who yield to the fascination of you do not forget me whilst I am awayalcohol know well enough that they risk far “O, Percy, how can you be so cruel?" exworse evils than liver disease, and dropsy, and claimed May, interrupting him. premature death. When they are reckless of “I did but jest,” said the young man. “But, the greater danger, will it save them if we tell as I was going to say, when I marry you, May, them of the less ?
it will be with my father's full consent and * In the Contemporary Review.
my mother's also. I have my projects—it may
of imbecility, or dropsy, a to the dead-houre, PLACING his hands on the horns of a stile,