« 上一頁繼續 »
Fig. 41, is an elevation of the end B.
Fig. 42. is an elevation of the endc, which is two inches
shorter than the end B. Fig. 41. Eleration of the
Fig. 43. is a section on Fig. 42. Elevation of the End End B in fig. 38.
c in fig. 38., which is 2 in. the line bc, showing the inside elevation of the side A: i i are rings for pulling out the side boards ; e e, pins and eyes for fastening the ends to the sides; h h are the stiffening plates.
shorter than the End B.
Fig. 43. Section on the Line B C in fig. 38., showing the Side A.
Fig. 44. is a section on the line Bc, showing the inside elevation of the side D; k, an iron hasp which locks the two leaves of the side p, and prevents them from being pressed inwards. A latch of this kind is fixed on every other board on each side of the grave; and thus, when the board having the latch is loosened, the ends and the opposite board (fig. 40. A) readily drop out. The scale shown in this figure applies to it and to the preceding seven figures.
Section on the Line B c in fig. 38., showing the Elevation of the Side v. As the grave is being dug, one tier of boards fastened together, as shown in fig. 38., is first let down, like the kerb of a well in well-sinking; and as the work proceeds, and this frame sinks, another is placed over it, to sink in its turn; and so on, introducing one frame of boards after another, till the grave is dug to the proper depth. The last 18 or 20 inches at the bottom of the grave are not dug out quite so wide as all above, in consequence of which the boards do not go just so deep as the top of the coffin after it has been lowered. This admits of more readily taking out the boards, which is done by driving out the hasps h, and the pins e, beginning at the bottom and working upwards as the grave is filled. When the coffin is lowered, settled in its place, and the lowering ropes drawn out, the grave-digger descends to the bottom, and with a hammer drives out one of the hasps, which instantly loosens that board, allows of taking out the two ends, and consequently loosens the opposite one. In this way he proceeds from the bottom to the top, filling in the soil as he goes on.
The manner in which the grave-boards are kept in their position at Mussel. burgh, near Edinburgh, differs from that employed in most places, and is in some, if not in all, respects superior to it. It is the invention of Mr. Robert Gay, a smith in Musselburgh, and the superintendant of the burying-ground there. It consists in the application of the instrument shown in fig. 45., which about Edinburgh is called a dumcraft, and about London a screw lever. Two of these instruments, with the iron plates, spear nails, &c., screwed to the planks, which cost about 6s.6d. each, are required for every pair of boards, one being applied at each end. A pair of boards, with a pair of dumcrafts fitted up complete, cost at Musselburgh from 20s. to 22s. The iron is made of -inch rod, with a male screw at one end working in a female screw, to which
Fig. 45. Dumcraft, or Screw Lever, in use in the Mussellnırgh Burying-Ground.
wings having knobs are attached to facilitate working, and with the other end pointed and pierced about 3 in. from the point, so as to receive a spear nail. Every pair of boards requires a pair of dumcrafts; and one end of each board requires to have a hole about three quarters of an inch in diameter, guarded by a shield, for one end of the instrument; and, within a few inches of the other end, a plate of iron fixed on to receive the centre point of the screw, and allow it to work. By a mere inspection of the instrument, any workman will understand the manner in which it is to be used. The object of allowing one end of the rod to go through the boards is to allow the other end to come freely out when the grave is being filled up; for, although the dumcraft is slackened by unscrewing one end by means of the knobs which project from the wings, yet, by the pressure of the earth from the sides of the grave, it would take much longer time to loosen it sufficiently to get it out; whereas by turning the movable open part of the screw end a little, and then taking out the spear and allowing the iron rod to go through the boards, the centre point at the other end is freed at once, and this without any noise, which is not the case in taking out the strut pieces commonly employed. By having two or three holes for the spear, and two or three plates with centre holes for the screw to work in, a difference in length and breadth of grave may be obtained within certain limits. For an account of this instrument we are indebted to Mr. William Ballery, the superintendant of the Warriston Cemetery, Edinburgh.
Fig. 46. is a cemetery plank hook, for dragging out loose planks used in the common mode of supporting the sides of graves, and for moving boards Fig. 46. Cemetery Plank Hook. generally, when they are in a wet and dirty state. The grave-box (Vol
. for 1842, fig. 16.) consists of a bottom and sides, the latter readily separating from the former ; and its use is to hold the soil dug out of the grave, till the grave is ready to have the soil returned to it. From one to four boxes are required for a grave, according to its dimensions. Their use is two-fold : to preserve the soil from mixing with the grass, from which it is difficult afterwards to separate it so entirely as not to leave a quantity of it entangled among its leaves; and to return the earth in the most rapid manner to the grave. The box, before receiving the earth from the grave, is placed alongside, and raised up in a sloping position ; the earth is thrown into it; and as soon as the coffin is lowered the grave-diggers loosen and take out the side of the box next the grave, when the soil immediately begins to drop out, while, by raising the other side of the box, the whole is returned to the grave, and not a particle of earth is to be seen on the surface of the grass. This box was first used by Mr. Lamb, an undertaker in Leith, and is now in general use in the burial-grounds about Edinburgh. The ought to be a number of such boxes for every cemetery; and it would be an improvement to place them on low wheels, say those on the side wbich is to be next the grave of 6 inches in diameter, and those on the opposite side of double that height. This, while it would save the trouble of propping up the boxes,
would also enable the grave-diggers to wheel them away, one after another, as fast as they were filled, and, when the grave was completed, to leave it quite free on every side for the approach of mourners, who would in this case walk on the turf, instead of walking on loose earth or planks. This result is sometimes obtained by throwing all the excavated soil into wheelbarrows, and removing these to a short distance, there to stand till the coffin is deposited. Either of these modes is much better than the common one of throwing up the soil on each side of the grave, and obliging the coffin-bearers to clamber over it. As the grave-boxes are readily taken to pieces, they can be stowed away, in sheds or tool-houses, in little space.
The grave-platform is a flooring of boards about 10 ft. long by 5 ft. broad, with an opening in the middle, of the shape and dimensions of an ordinarysized coffin. It is hinged, so as to fold together lengthwise. Its use is io place over the grave, after the soil has been removed in boxes or barrows, for the double purpose of forming a guide to the lowering of the coffin, and a floor for those who lower it, who in Scotland are commonly the relations or mourners, to stand on. In most cemeteries loose boards, or two or three boards nailed together so as to form a platform, are laid down on each side of the grave, leaving the ground at the end of the grave uncovered ; but this arrangement is far from being so complete and commodious as a hinged plat-. form.
The grave-cover is a low roof of light boards, or of a frame and canvass, of dimensions sufficient to cover the opening of a newly made grave, and with handles like those of a hand-barrow, to allow of carrying it readily from place to place. Its use is to exclude rain or snow; and also, in the case of a very deep grave, to guard against the danger of persons approaching too near its edge. In large cemeteries it is found convenient to have at all times two or three graves prepared, both common graves and brick graves, ready to admit of interments on the shortest notice. The unoccupied brick graves are commonly protected by the ledger which is to constitute their permanent cover and finish, but the common graves are protected fro the weather by the portable cover described.
The grave-mould is a box without either bottom or top, but with the sides and ends shaped like a coffin, to serve as a guide to the form of the graveridge, or mound of earth raised over a grave immediately after interment. When the grave is filled to the brim and properly rammed, the box is placed over the soil, and more is added and firmly rammed till the box is full, when the soil is raised in the middle, and rounded off in the manner seen in all neatly kept churchyards. Afterwards the grave-ridge is covered with turf, or planted with flowers. In some of the London cemeteries the stonecrop is planted on the grave-ridge, and forms a very neat evergreen covering, always within bounds. Some of the evergreen saxifrages might be used for the same purpose ; and a friend has suggested that the common thrift would be an excellent plant, as its thick mass of dark green grass-like foliage would contrast with the light green of the grass forming the common covering of the cemetery. Where economy is an object, grass inoculation or grass seeds might be resorted to.
A clergyman's shelter is unnecessary where a tarpaulin or a movable shed is used over the grave; but, where this is not the case, it may be formed of five pieces, viz. A flooring of boards, or, to prevent slipping when the boards are wet, as well as to render the floor lighter, of wooden grating, raised one or two steps above the general surface, in order to give the reader of the service a more commanding position. To this floor three sides, each consisting of a frame of canvass, are readily fixed by means of studs in the lower rails of the sides, dropping into holes in the framework of the bottom ; and they are as readily connected together by books dropping into eyes. The roof-piece, which ought to be raised a little in the middle to throw off the rain, can readily be dropped on four iron bolts, fixed in the upper ends of the styles of the sides. The whole may be painted black; and, when not in
use, it should be taken to pieces, and kept in a dry airy situation. A tent or movable structure, to cover not only the clergyman but the mourners assembled, either during rainy weather or hot sunshine, might be formed without difficulty, and at no great expense. The framework might be light iron rods ; and the canvass might be so arranged as to be drawn up and let down like the awnings to tulip beds, or the outside gauze shades to hothouses. (See Sub. Hort., fig. 115. p. 175.)
The other articles of cemetery furniture having nothing particular in their construction, and being in use either by mechanics, ground workmen, or cultivators of the soil, do not require farther notice.
Roots and Plants. — In some of the London cemeteries dahlias are planted in the summer season, and these are kept through the winter in the unoccupied catacombs, and, with geraniums and other greenhouse plants, are brought forward in spring in frames in the reserve ground, or in some other concealed part of the cemetery, or perhaps in an adjoining garden or nursery. In the reserve ground of the great cemetery at Rouen, there is a large greenhouse, and the curator lets out plants in pots during summer at so much a pot, undertaking to keep them watered and trimmed, to decorate graves and monuments.
(To be continued.)
Art. II. Bicton Gardens, their Culture and Management, in a Series
of Letters to the Conductor. By James Barnes, Gardener to the Right Honourable Lady Rolle.
(Continued from p. 113.) LETTER XII. Reasons for following the Business of a Market-Gardener. Having sent you a rough description of a few things contained in these noble gardens, before I commence giving you my method of growing, training, &c., my fruit trees and plants, I will tell you my reasons for following the business of a market-gardener for so many as twelve years. Hearing, when a boy, gentlemen's servants and others that had been in London talk of having there seen such fine and early fruits and flowers, I always felt anxious to go there to see them grow; and I started when quite young for that purpose, and got work with a noted cucumber and mushroom grower; a good grower too of grapes, pines, and melons, and a forcer of all early fruits and flowering plants. I stopped there more than four years, until I thought there was nothing more to learn. I next went as framer to a large market-gardener, quite on the other side of London; where I had the charge of 1000 lights of framing, 2600 hand and bell glasses for growing cucumbers, melons, early potatoes, &c., forcing asparagus and sea-kale in an extensive way, and fourteen acres of beautiful ground for vegetable-growing, under the spade, managed in a first-rate style as to cropping and the general management of it. I remained there until I thought I knew all I wanted, and then went to a very extensive grower of grapes, peaches, pines, strawberries, mushrooms, and all kinds of salads, fruits, and vegetables. I from there went to an extensive general grower of out-door fruits; having twenty-six acres of cropping ground under the spade, with more than 600 lights of framing for the early forcing of various things, and about 1200 hand and bell glasses ; so that, in those twelve years, I had the opportunity of seeing the different methods of sowing and growing, from the commonest vegetable and salad to the most rare and expensive fruits. Market-gardeners, generally speaking, are the most industrious persevering class of men I ever met with; but they are at an enormous expense, and subject to very heavy losses. Nobody has an idea to what expense they go; and their men (taking the year through) I consider to work harder, and to have more hardships to contend with, than any other class of men I have ever met with.
Two thirds, or more, of the men are Irish; at least they were so at the time I followed that kind of business; and I never met with more than one Scotchman amongst them as a workman. I have kept an account of the expense of working one acre of ground under the spade, reckoning the rent, taxes, manure, horses, &c., and getting the produce to market, and I found it averaged 50l. per acre.
I have heard hundreds of people complain of being tired with working; but they never knew what it was to follow marketgardening for one year in the neighbourhood of London. If they had done so, they would soon have found out what it was to be tired. I have worked, and been paid, at the rate of ten days a week; and generally made, at some work or other, eight days all the season, for some years, out of my time. I could sleep as well riding on the top of a load all through London to Covent Garden as I now can on a bed, and have done so many times; and sometimes then what little sleep I did get was on the pavement in the old market, amongst vegetables, and before the business of the market began, and I never thought it any hardship.
The method the market-gardeners have of cropping and changing their crops is astonishing to many. For instance, you will see a large space of ground cropped, and arrived at the greatest state of perfection one day, and in about three days afterwards you will see it all gone; the ground manured, trenched, and cropped, almost in the space of time a WestCountry man would turn round to reply to a question.
Some of them pay their workmen ready money every night ; others three times a week; others twice a week, and some every Saturday evening. The reason why we find so few of these workmen afterwards as gentlemen's gardeners (in my opinion) is, first, that, if a man is a scholar, he thinks he can make better use of his time than following market-gardening;