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WHIT- tion thereupon, and to govern in all causes ecclesiastical, is Abp. Cant. declared to be expired, and of none effect; and that, for the
future, all presentations to benefices shall be directed to the respective presbyteries.
Thus episcopacy was at last abolished, and presbytery made
the established religion. The queen's
To return to England: in September, this year, the queen progress to Oxford,
made her last progress to Oxford, where she was entertained Sept. 1592. with all imaginable regard. Besides other exercises, there
was a Divinity Act kept in St. Mary's: Dr. Westphaling, bishop of Hereford, determined upon the question, “ An liceat in rebus divinis dissimulare ?" His resolution was, that a Christian might be allowed to keep part of his belief to himself, but never to desert the truth, or profess anything contrary to it. One of the opponents argued, that since it was lawful to dispute upon religious points, it was lawful to dissemble one's opinion; and that he was now counterfeiting what he did not believe, and yet was engaged in a lawful exercise. This was looked on as an ingenious turn, and commended by the court.
The queen took her leave in a Latin speech, in which, after having expressed her esteem of the university in very obliging terms, she cautioned them against innovation in religion, and put them in mind of conformity to the laws established. Her majesty told them, she expected they should follow, and not
lead the constitution ; not dispute whether the laws might be Wood, Hist. mended, but keep close to what was already settled. et Antiquit.
The queen, in the latter end of the winter, summoned a new Oxon. lib. 1. parliament, which began at Westminster the 19th of February,
and sat till the 10th of April, when it was dissolved. The famous Coke, then solicitor-general, was chosen speaker of the
house of Commons: to the customary request for liberty of by granting speech, the lord-keeper, Puckering, returned this answer in liberty of speech to the
the queen's name: he told him, “ Wit and speech, two most necessary things, did most harm. As to privilege of speech,” says the chancellor, “it is granted : but you must know what privilege you have; it is not a licence for every one to speak what he lists, or to throw out every fancy that comes into his brain : but your privilege is to say · Yea,' or 'No.' Therefore, Mr. Speaker, her majesty's pleasure is, that if you perceive any idle heads that are hardy enough to run themselves
D'Ewes' Journal of
upon danger, that will venture to meddle with reforming the ELIZAChurch, and transforming the commonwealth; if any such bills are offered, her majesty's pleasure is, that you should not receive them, till they are viewed by those, who it is fitter should consider such things, and can better judge of them.” Morrice, attorney of the court of Wards, and a member of the House
of Lords, the lower house, made a speech for bringing in two bills against inquisitions in the spiritual courts, offering the oath ex officio, and imprisonment upon refusal to swear. Morrice's speech, though seconded by some others, was answered by Dr. Lewin, a civilian ; but having had occasion to speak to this subject already, I shall wave what was objected or returned by either side. The queen, being advertised of these proceedings, sent for the speaker, and commanded him to deliver the following message to the house : “ That the calling and dissolving of parliaments; that the assenting or dissenting to any bills passed there, was part of the prerogative royal; that her majesty's intention in calling this parliament, was only that God might be more religiously served; and that those who neglected his service might be forced to reformation and duty by some sharper expedients; that the lord-keeper had ac- She comquainted the lower house, that it was the queen's pleasure they speaker not should not meddle with matters of State, or causes ecclesias- to read any
bill relating tical ; that she wondered any could be of so high command- to ecclesiastiment,” as she speaks,“ to attempt a thing so expressly contrary to what she had forbidden ; and that she was highly offended with this liberty. And, lastly, she charged the speaker to tell them, that it was her express command, that no bill touching matters of State, or reformation in causes ecclesiastical, be exhibited.”—“And upon my allegiance (continued the speaker to the house), I am commanded, if any such bill be exhibited, not to read it." And thus the bills above-mentioned were D'Ewes' stifled. For a farther restraint
mons, p. 478, for “ retaining the queen's majesty's subjects in their due obe- 479. dience.” The statute begins thus : “ For the preventing and An act
against Disa avoiding such great inconveniences and perils as might happen senters. and grow by the wicked and dangerous practice of seditious sectaries and disloyal persons, it is enacted, that if any person 637. above the age of sixteen years, shall obstinately refuse to repair to some church, chapel, or usual place of common prayer,
Journal of the House
WHIT- to hear Divine service, or shall forbear to do the same for the
GIFT, Abp. Cant. space of a month, without lawful cause, or shall at any time
after forty days from the end of this session, by printing, writing, or express words, purposely practise, or go about to move or persuade any of her majesty's subjects, or any others within her highness's dominions, to deny, withstand, or impugn her majesty's power and authority in causes ecclesiastical: or to that end and purpose shall advisedly or maliciously move or persuade any other person whatsoever from coming to church, to hear Divine service, or to receive the communion according to her majesty's laws and statutes aforesaid ; or to come to, or be present at any unlawful assemblies, conventicles, or meetings, under colour or pretence of any exercise of religion, contrary to her majesty's said laws and statutes ; that then every such person so offending, and thereof lawfully convicted, shall be committed to prison, there to remain without bail or mainprize, till they shall conform, and yield themselves to come to some church, chapel, or usual place of common prayer, and hear Divine service, and make such open submission and declaration of their conformity, as by this act is afterwards appointed."
The form of the submission was this :
The form of “I, A. B. do humbly confess and acknowledge, that I have submission.
grievously offended God in contemning her majesty's godly and lawful government and authority, by absenting myself from Church, and from hearing Divine service, contrary to the godly laws and statutes of this realm, and in using and frequenting disordered and unlawful conventicles and assemblies, under pretence and colour of exercise of religion : and I am heartily sorry for the same, and do acknowledge and testify in my conscience, that no other person hath, or ought to have, any power or authority over her majesty. And I do promise and protest, without any dissimulation, or any colour or means of any dispensation, that from henceforth I will from time to time obey and perform her majesty's laws and statutes in repairing to the church, and hearing Divine service, and do mine uttermost endeavour to maintain and defend the same.”
The offenders against this statute, who refused to make this submission, were to abjure the realm, and not to return with
out her majesty's special licence, under the penalty of suffering ELIZAas felons, without benefit of the clergy. By another clause, all those who entertained or relieved such Dissenters, after notice given of their recusancy, were to forfeit ten pounds a month. But here there was an indemnifying proviso for those who relieved their near relations. It was likewise provided, that no popish recusant, or feme covert, shall be compelled to abjure by this act. And, lastly, the wife was not to lose her dower, neither was any corruption of blood to grow upon the score of
offence therein mentioned. This act, though made to continue no longer than the end of the next session of par- was contiliament, was afterwards kept in force by the two succeeding rued by parliaments of this reign.
There was another act made this session against popish re- An act cusants, by which they are confined within five miles of their against
popish rerespective dwellings: and, in case they travel farther than this cusants. distance, they were to forfeit all their goods and chattels, together with their lands and tenements during life: and that those who refused to conform themselves to the act, were to abjure the realm for ever, and not to return without special licence, under the penalty of suffering as felons. And if such recusants had necessary business to travel out of the compass of five miles, they were to get a licence under the hands of two justices of peace, with the assent, in writing, of the bishop of the diocese, or of the lieutenant, or some deputy-lieutenant, of the said county. Those who offended against this statute were to be discharged, provided they made a submission before conviction. The form is much the same with that enjoined the Puritans, only with this difference, that the popish recusants were to make their submission in these words : “ I do acknowledge and testify in my conscience, that the bishop or see of Rome has not, nor ought to have, any power or authority over her majesty, or within any her majesty's realms or dominions.” 35 Eliz.
By another act, all the abbey-lands which came to the pos- An act to session of king Henry VIII., and all conveyances of such confirm the lands made by him to any person, are confirmed to the crown abbey-lands. and grantees respectively. All patents likewise made by king Henry VIII., for the foundation or endowment of any dean and chapter, or college, are declared and enacted good and effectual in the law, touching every thing relating to the premises.
At the beginning of this parliament, Mr. Peter Wentworth
to desire him to move the upper house to join with the com-
crown. For this motion they were commanded by her majesty Feb. 24,
to forbear coming to the house, and not to stir from their 1592-3.
lodgings. The next day they were called before the council and members of the house of committed: Wentworth was sent to the Tower, and Bromley,
and Welsh, a knight for Worcestershire, were committed to by the privy- the Fleet.
The convocation met on the 20th of February at St. Paul's, the House but, excepting the grant of two subsidies, little or nothing was
done. On the 11th of April, the next day after the dissolution mons, p. 470.
of the parliament, the convocation was dissolved by the queen's
To proceed : that suffragan bishops were continued to this
bachelor of divinity, is entered suffragan of Colchester; he was
, &c. p. 54. consecrated by the archbishop, the bishops of London, Roches
p Regist. ter, and Bristol. Ailmer, bishop of London, presented this Whitgift, pt. 2. fol.81. Sterne, and one William Fisher, clerk, to the queen ; and her The bishop of majesty made choice of Sterne. suspended by This year Marmaduke Middleton, bishop of St. David's, was Commission, suspended“ ab officio et exercitio ecclesiasticæ jurisdictionis,”
by the High Commission court.
row, gentleman, were brought before the High Commission, for
Their most remarkable tenets were as follows : they held,
worship in this communion was downright idolatry: that un-