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and prudent character. The most valuable part is certainly that which regards conversation. As it is observed of foolish young men, that they very commonly act first, and think afterwards, so it is certainly right that people should reflect before they speak, and in all these cautionary processes for managing conversation this book excels.
There are variousideas in this work some of which we shall select.
"We never use raillery with a friend whom we tenderly love." p. 65.
"Silence is the wisest measure that we can adopt in our intercourse with the obstinate." p. 89.
"Those who feel reluctant to bestow commendation are generally unworthy to receive it," p. 101.
"The man addicted to boasting is usually found to be precipitate in his decisions." p. 137.
The conclusion is a masterly piece of eloquence; we mean from p. 321,
to the end.
29. Discourses on the Three Creeds, and on the Homage offered to our Saviour, on certain and particular occasions during his Ministry, as expressed in the Evange lical Writings, by the Greek term❤po¶xview. Preached before the University of Oxford at St. Mary's in the years 1816, 1817. With a copious and distinct Appendix to each set of Sermons. By Edward Nares, D. D. Select Preacher, Regius Professor of Modern History, &c. 8vo. pp. 343. Baldwin and Co.
IT is evident, that the Unitarians take for the corner-stone of their fabric the presumed insult to the Unity of Deity, by the participation of Christ. We do not attempt to follow Dr. Nares through all his learned exhibitions of Fathers and Criticks. We shall only observe, that the stress is laid upon the three Creeds in particular, because every word of each may fairly be considered as an argument adversus hæreses:
upon this thesis Dr. Nares, p. 49, seq. dilates in a very ingenious man
the Unitarians, we shall quote Dr. Nares in this part. He exhibits from pure Philosophy the fallacy of the dogma used by that unfortunate Faquire, whom the barbarous priests of the law bave placed upon the stool of repentance, not the Pythian Tripod, as being an impostor in ora
Christ, Dr. Nares observes, is designated in the Nicene creed, as being
"of one substance with the Father, God of God, Light of Light, very God of very God. And what can this imply, but that the attributes of Deity are common attributes, which for what we know may possibly be communicated, but cannot be divided; for there cannot be two omnipotents under any possibility of opposition or nonconformity to each other. I know, there may be always philosophers, or at least free-thinkers, at hand to tell us, that our belief still involves a contradiction; that we may fancy we believe such a distinction of person, and such a unity of
attributes, but that such a subsistence is metaphysically impossible. I have an answer to return to this, which cannot, I think, be subject to any suspicion. It is not the answer certainly of any preju diced advocate of theological subtleties, or divine mysteries, but of a Philosopher, and a Free-thinker. I speak of Mr. Hume. In a short essay on the unity of the Deity, he pronounces it to be not inconsistent with the nature of the Deity, that there should be two or more beings of the very highest order, whose essence and actions may be so regulated by the nature of the beings themselves, as to be altogether concordant and harmonious. The nature of the Divine Being, he adds, is so far out of our reach, that we must absolutely be at a loss to apply to it unity or multiplicity. I am not pretending to cite this as any proof of the Trinity, but merely as the testimony of an eminent metaphysician, against the imprudence of those, who would reject a community of attributes among the three persons of the Godhead, as an absurdity or contradiction. The Orthodox contend for nothing more than such an unity of essence and attributes as shall secure to all the operations of the Deity, a perfect harmony and concordance." pp. 61, 62.
Now if there be no absurdity in the doctrine of a Triune God, upon what rational ground is the Scripture which affirms it perverted or rejected?
Dr. Nares has given us a valuable stock-book for Divines. 30. The
The Exhibition [of 1819] a Poem ; by a Painter, 8vo. pp. 35. Chappell. AFTER a long series of desultory stanzas, this Poetical Painter thus comes to the point:
"Some names I mention, and with humble praise :
Sir WILLIAM BEECHEY Sometimes I like much;
And the CHALONS; perhaps worthy better days
Is FUSELI, with more than magic touch,
His works are like his looks, his fancy strays
'Mid scenes where mortals may not move as such.
FLAXMAN! thy name shall be remember'd here,[this sphere. Thy marble has a voice-it points beyond And shall the name of HOWARD be forgot? No, he embodies visions of the Muse; He fixes spirits to a local spot,
Nor will the feeling heart is praise refuse. OWEN! thy hand twines fast the friendly
And on thy works with pleasure oft
And CALLCOTT's pencil strays where pature dwells,
Each touch is feeling, and its magic tells. SMIRKE, thou hast character-thine Shakspeare's page;
LAWRENCE has force, and diguity, and
UNA! how sweetly he did thee define, Like some fair jewel, amid brown rocks plac'd;
DEWINT, I often like your pictures well, And VINCENT's too, for mine and many they excel.
CHANTREY'S a worthy name! those children slept
A lovely sleep in marble. BONE's enamels
Are precious things. intercept
And what should
My mentioning thee, RENTON, as the lay swells;
Rich, classic, vigorous, thy works have crept
Around and hold my mind in gentle
EDRIDGE's portraits are rich and powerful, Like some in oil, or gardens when they're flowerful."
A few other Artists are noticed; but these may suffice.
31. A Dictionary of the Peculiarities of the Italian Language; being a Collection of Sentences from the most approved Italian Authors, particularizing those Verbs, Prepositions, &c. which govern different Moods and Cases; and forming
• Supplement to all other Italian Dictionaries. By M. Santagnello, Author of a Grammar, and Exercises. large 8vo. pp. 312. Whittaker.
AS a proper mode of facilitating the study of the Italian language M. Santagnello's Dictionary (which has our good wishes for its success) is thus introduced, and the plan described:
"The Work which I have now the honour of submitting to the judgment of the Publick, may be considered as the fruit of long and successful experience, in removing innumerable difficulties that obstruct the progress of the student, and. for which no remedies are to be found in the most elaborate Dictionaries or Grammars. It has not been my intention to collect all the various idioms of the Italian language, but rather to cull, with brevity and selection, certain idiomatic terms and modes of speaking which practice and
observation have induced me to consider as the most essential to be inculcated in teaching; to point out the diversified shades of meaning, by the confusion of which so many solecisms and barbarisms disfigure the composition of the learner; to fix the attention upon those niceties of distinction in the use of verbs, particles, and prepositions, which so frequently perplex and darken what is in itself extremely simple and perspicuous, when illustrated by analogous examples; finally, to reduce into order and systematic arrangement all those precepts and directions, which have been suggested by loug and unwearied endeavours to facilitate the cultivation of the Italian language
in a volume calculated to hold, as it were, a medium between a Dictionary and a Grammar."
THE title expresses the character of this little publication; of its utility there can be no doubt; in the execution of its condeused analytical contents we observe the respectable assistance of no common literary individuals in the Medical Profession.
of the Counties of Hereford, Monmouth, and Gloucester. 8vo. pp. 16. Gloucester: published by Desire.
AN elaborate and instructive dis
34. The Duty of exerting our Faculties, as the Means of superior Knowledge and Power. A Sermon, preached on Trinity Monday, June 7, 1819, before the Right Hon. the Earl of Liverpool, and the Corporation of the Trinity-House, in the Parish Church of St. Nicholas, Deptford, and published at their Request. By the Rev. John Hewlett, B. D. Morning Preacher at the Foundling Hospital; Chaplain in Ordinary to his Royal Highness the Prince Regent; and Rector of Hilgay, in the County of Norfolk. Suo. pp, 24. Rivingtons.
AN appropriate, plain, and energetic Discourse, from Genesis, i. 26.
35. A Letter to the Right Reverend Richard, Lord Bishop of Bath and Wells. By the Author of "An Essay on Light. Reading, &c." 8vo. pp. 23. Gye, at Bath.
A respectful address to the venerable Prelate, on the excellence of the Liturgy; and friendly advice to the Clergy, and to their Congregations.
36. A Friendly Address to the Manufac-turers in those Districts which are now suffering from the Stagnation of Trade. 8vo. pp. 25. Rivingtons.
THIS cheap Tract well answers its title, and cannot be too widely distributed by the affluent.
37. Edmund and Anna, a simple Ballad, with other Poems. By Edward Green, Corresponding Member of the Literary and Philosophical Society of Manchester, and Author of 46 Observations on the Drama," &c. 12mo. pp. 68. Allman.
MR. GREEN, after observing that "the excess of the sublime itself becomes the ridiculous; still more so, perhaps with the simple ;" "submits the Ballad and the other trifles to the good-natured criticism they stand so much in need of;" and adds, "that, among the very few humble productions he has obtruded on the world, this is the first and only one he has hitherto offered to it from motives of selfadvantage."
We are glad to see that these mo33. The Antiquity of Free-masonry illus-dest pretensions have been rewarded Irated a Sermon preached before the by a handsome list of subscribers, Royal Berkeley Lodge, Gloucestershire. By the Rev. T. D. Fosbrooke, M. A. F.A. S. Past Provincial Grand Chaplain
If the Poems are not of the firstrate excellence, they are at least harmonious.
ANTIQUARIAN AND PHILOSOPHICAL RESEARCHES.
CITY OF POMPEII.
The following is an extract of a letter from a young Gentleman who has visited the ruins of Pompeii, to his friend in Liverpool :
"This City is situated about a quarter of a mile from the Bay of Naples. We entered the ruins through a gate by the road side, into a barrack yard, which appeared to have been a fortress, and was, no doubt, at one period of time, contiguous to the Mediterranean sea. We were here shewn the original wooden stocks, in which a soldier was found sitting on a stone with his legs fastened, the unfortunate man being discovered by the workmen employed to remove away the soil. Several pillars of the Corinthian order still remain, forming a dilapidated colonnade, some of which are tolerably entire, and rendered particularly interesting, by having the soldiers' names very legibly engraved thereon, in their own hand-writing. We next inspect ed the two theatres, the stage, orchestra, and seats, being still discernible, with some broken particles of the marble pavement. Not far thence is the Temple of Hercules; the altars and the other relics of idolatrous superstition, as well as a variety of fanci ful cornices, and other architectural ornaments, still exist in a very wonderful state of preservation; even the original paint ings on the walls are to be seen without the least deterioration. We walked through most of the principal streets, and into the houses, the floors of which were richly covered with Mosaic and Roman pavements over the front doors, carved on stone, are all the names of their quondam inhabitants, among whom we observed that of Sallust. It is not by any means difficult to discover baths, coffee-houses, bake-houses, and other shops of trade, even the custom-house and other public offices. There is a subterraneous wine manufactory on the North side, near the city gates, which was examined with great attention it is very extensive, and contains the earthen vessels and bottles wherein the wine had been kept; they were arranged in the same precise order as previous to the awful eruption which desolated the city: the interior of this place much resembles cloisters, the roof being arched with strong stones. It was in these vaults where the unhappy inhabitants sought refuge from the sudden and overwhelming
shower of fire and ashes, whence, alas! they never returned. Several bodies have subsequently been dug out. We were shewn two or three skulls, in the possession of the keeper.
"A part of the antient walls remain on the North-west corner of the city; and on the outside, conformably to pristine custom, are the tombs and monuments of eminent persons, in as good preservation as when first erected; the inside contains the ashes, in small potters' vessels, fixed in cavities of equal sizes. Pompeii stauds on a circumference of about three miles, and retains its original form and situation, with all the squares, forums, temples, streets, and houses, as perfect as possible, considering the whole has been buried under ground nearly 1750 years. The workmen are clearing away the rubbish with great success. During our visit they were in a house near to the Temple of Isis, where, it was conjectured, a medical person had resided, as several surgical instruments were found in the soil; we also observed some paintings, finely executed, on the plaster of the walls, emblematical of such a profession. The labour is conducted with the greatest circumspection, every particle of the soil being put into small baskets, and afterwards examined in the presence of officers. It was with great difficulty I was enabled to bring away a part of the hinge of a door, special orders having been given by Ferdinand for nothing to be taken away without his permission.
"Such is the City of Pompeii; and, from the circumstance of the streets being paved with large square pieces of lava, leaves not a doubt but this beautiful country had long been previously visited by such awful storms; nay, I will venture to carry my presumption still further, by supposing that even under Pompeii another city might be discovered, if public curiosity and spirit only ventured on the research."
FOSSIL ANIMAL REMAINS.
In making some further excavations
lately in caverns in the vicinity of Breage, in the department of Lot, the workmen laid open a depository of bones, some of horses; some of the rhinoceros, of the same species of which fossil fragments have been found in this country, in Germany, and in Siberia; and others belonging to a species of stag, now a descript, with horns pretty much resembling those of a young rein-deer. They demy of Sciences, at Paris, by M. Cuvier, were collected, and presented to the Acaand are now in the King's cabinet.
The Giornale Arcadico for July last, contains an account of the discovery of three
three antient favissa, by the architect Joseph de Rosso. The immediate occasion of this discovery was the operation of levelling and relaying the soil and pavement around the dome. In this place was, antiently, the temple and citadel of Faesule. In front of the temple were three pits, of a pyramidal form, into which were thrown the remains of the victims which had been consecrated to the gods, and which, consequently, were considered as no longer applicable to common use. The sacred pits were distinguished by the name of favissæ, or flavissa. Marcianus says, that there were others near the temple of Jupiter Capitoliuus. Those of Fiesoli were filled with remains of various animals, horns of goats, teeth of wolves, &c.; and among these, fragments of sacred vases, &c. These favisse have been explained by Sig. Joseph del Rosso, who has given a plan of the localities; in which also have been discovered, at the same time, several antient Christian tombs.
This will, no doubt, interest classical antiquaries; and we shonld like to see the further enquiries on the nature and destination of these pits. So far as recollection serves at the moment, only remains of sacrifices offered to the infernal deities could be thus disposed of. These offerings were attended with peculiar ceremonies; they were also esteemed devoted, in the strongest sense of the term. But Jupiter Capitolinus was not an infernal deity and there should seem to be either some mistake in reference to his temple; or victims of a peculiar nature were occasionally offered to this deity: :perhaps as deprecating public evils.
MINERAL ANIMAL MATTER.
Sig. Carlo di Gimbernat has discovered a peculiar substance in the thermal waters of Baden and of Ischia, of which he gives the following description in the Giornale di Fisica :-"This substance covers, like an integument, many rocks in the valleys of Senagalla and Negroponte at the foot of the celebrated Epomeo, beneath which mountain the poets confine Typhon. It is remarkable that in this very place should be found a substance similar to skin and human flesh. One portion of this mountain that was found covered with this substance, measured 45 feet in length by 24 in height. It yielded, by distillation, an empyreumatic oil; and, by boiling, a gelatine, which would have sized paper. I obtained the same results at Baden. It may therefore be considered as confirmed that an animal principle is present in these thermal springs, which being evaporated becomes condensed in their neighbourhood. To this principle the name of " Zoogene" is given. The Editors of the Giorn. Fis. state, that they have seen the substance obtained by
M. Gimbernat, and that externally it has the appearance of real flesh covered with skin.
RECTIFICATION OF ALCOHOL.
A Correspondent of the Giornale de Fisica reports an experiment which may be applied with advantage to this purpose. It is a well-known fact, that water passes with facility through bladder, while alcohol is almost perfectly retained by it. If a bottle of wine be closed by a piece of bladder, instead of a cork, a portion of the water will be found to have evaporated and passed off through the membrane, and the wine left will be found proportionally stronger. If a bladder half filled with alcohol of the specific gravity of 867, and having its orifice closed, be exposed to the sun, the air, or the beat of a stove, in a short time the alcohol will be found rectified to 817 spec. gr. and in this manner all the water may be evaporated. If the same bladder with its contents be then exposed to a humid atmosphere, (as in a damp cellar,) it will imbibe water, and return to 867 spec. grav. which water may again be separated by hanging it in a dry place. In one word, the bladder is a filter, which suffers water to pass through it, but not alcohol.
NEW THEORY OF THE EARTH.
A curious commentary, or rather an attack, upon the received system of the planetary motions, has recently been published, in a small pamphlet, by Captain Burney, which is likely to excite the attention of the scientific world, and may lead to the discovery of very unexpected astronomical facts. The author deduces the motion of the whole of our system from the progressive motion of the sun itself; a quality which, he says, must be equally possessed by all the heavenly bodies, resulting from the universally acknowledged laws of gravitation. He argues a priori, that from progressive motion rotation is produced, and, a posteriori, that a body in free space, having rotation round its own axis, is a clear indication of its being in progressive movement. This he corroborates by the general belief now entertained that our sun and planets are advancing towards the constellation Hercules. The opinion that the sun has progressive motion was not entertained till long after i's rotatory motion was discovered. Capt. Burney states his conviction, that if, from the discovery of the sun's rotation, and the acknowledged universa. lity of gravity, its progression had been inferred, when Kepler first suggested that the planets moved round the sun by means of its atmosphere, the system of this philosopher would have obtained immediate and lasting credit, and that the hypothesis of these bodies being continued in motion by an original projectile impulse would not have been resorted to in accounting for the phenomena of their motions.