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THE PARTS OF A PLANT-THE LEAVES (Continued).
P. WE will talk to-day of the position of the leaves on their stem. Here is a piece of geranium, Ion. Take it in your hand, and tell me how the leaves are arranged. Do they all grow from the same side of the stalk? Ion. No. This bottom leaf grows on the side of the stalk nearest to me; the next grows on the opposite-no! not the opposite side, but a little to the side of the part where the first grows; and the next leaf is a little to the side of that; and the next, ah! the next is on the side exactly opposite to that of the first leaf; and here, higher up, we have come round again to one on exactly the same side of the stalk as the first leaf.
P. True, they are arranged regularly, as different parts of the stalk; but it is not so with all leaves. Here is a piece of the snow-berry plant; how are the leaves arranged?
W. They are in pairs, one exactly opposite to the other. P. And now look at the leaves of this plant!
leaf is not higher than another; there is no space between them.
P. The form which the leaves thus make is called a "whorl." Thus the leaves of this plant are said to be whorled; those of the snow-berry plant are said to be opposite; and those of the geranium are alternate. Would you like to remember some more names? L. Yes, please, papa.
P. Then you may remember that the point in the stem from which the leaf springs is called a node; and the spaces on the stalk between the nodes are called internodes. You will want these words, to use, soon.
The size and shapes of leaves are next worthy to be noticed. Of their size it is enough to say, that they are of all sizes. There are leaves which almost require a microscope for examining them, and others which are between thirty and forty feet long.
W. And forty feet is about twice as long as the two parlours when the folding-doors are open.
The shapes of leaves are very varied. Here are two
Ion. They all grow together
from one part of the stalk-one
Compound and Simple Leaf
What difference do you observe in them?
L. One consists of several small leaves.
P. These we call leaf-lets. A leaf consisting of leaflets is called compound; and the other, which has only one broad lobe, is called simple. Sometimes the leaflets are so large that it might be difficult to say whether they are distinct leaves or not. You may, however, easily know when the leaves begin to fall: if each leaflet fell off separately, it would be termed a leaf, but when they still continue joined to one stalk, and thus fall off together, this shows that they are only parts of one large leaf.
Let us look at one or two different compound leaves, and learn their names. This leaf
Bi-pinnate and Tri-pinnate Leaves.
L. Yes; the side veins also become stalks, and bear leaf
consists of three leaflets, and is lets, just as the midrib of the
Here are some leaves with
more than three leaflets; they are said to be pinnate leaves.
pinnate leaf does.
P. And it is therefore called Here is a "bi-pinnate leaf." another, which is yet more complicated; it is called a tripinnate leaf.
W. Yes, it seems to be made of a number of bi-pinnate leaves joined to a great midrib. Thus ternate and pinnate leaves consist of leaflets; bi-pinnate leaves are made up of pinnate leaves; and tri-pinnate leaves are made up of bi-pinnate leaves joined to a large midrib.
P. Yes. Instead of being one leaf, it consists of several leaves whose parts have grown together; they form what is called a peltate leaf.
W. Do you know any more shapes, papa?
P. Yes. There are some leaves very thick in shape; they usually grow in dry places, and are very fleshy and moist. This is because they have few sto
mata for the water to evaporate through. We call them succulent leaves, such as those of the house-leek, or the cactus plant.
Before we leave our subject, you may observe the variety which presents itself even in the simple leaves. I have copied a little drawing for you, in which the principal forms are presented at one view.*
The most common forms of
leaves are the line-shaped, or or lanceolate (No. 2); the oval linear (No. 1); the lance-shaped, (No. 3); and the oblong (No.4).
A round leaf is termed orbicular leaf, ovate (No. 6); the same (No. 5); and an egg-shaped is called obovate
reversed (No. 7).
No. 8 is said to be heart
shaped, or cordate; and No. 9 is termed kidney-shaped, or reniform.
No. 10 resembles the head of an arrow, and is termed arrowheaded, or sagtitate; others, such as No. 11, are known as halbert-shaped, or hastate.
No. 12 has some resemblance to the fingers in its arrangement, and is termed digitate; No. 13 is said to be palmate, because the veins are still united.
Leaves such as No. 15 are pedate, so called from their fancied resemblance to birds' feet.
When the margins of leaves are smooth and undivided, they are termed entire; if furnished with sharp-pointed teeth, dentate; if the teeth are directed
* Wilson's Catechism of Botany.
forwards like those of a saw, serrate; when they are rounded, crenate. If the margin is waved, as in No. 16, they are said to be sinuate; No. 17 is lyreshaped, or lyrate; No. 18, fiddle-shaped, or panduriform; and No. 19 is pinnatifid.
W. What a number of hard names we shall have to learn! I will count them up.
"Leaves differ in their shape, being either simple or compound. Thus we have ternate, pinnate, bi-pinnate, tri-pinnate, and
HENRY VIII.-THE REFORMATION.
was the son of a blacksmith. He was the confidential servant of Wolsey, and after the Cardinal's death the king found him to be as useful as his master had been.
P. THE Pope's sentence of ex- | he was of humble origin; he communication against Henry was passed, but it was not sent forth immediately. Before doing so, the Pope tried every means to make up the quarrel. Henry, however, had gone too far to go back; and he had several reasons for not doing so. One was, that his new office as "Head of the Church" increased his riches; for, as I told you, he now received the money which used to flow into the Pope's coffers. He saw, too, that the priests of his church still had too much money, and he determined to have some of it himself. Again, he saw that they still had too much power; and he determined to take it from them. Again, he saw that many were still very wicked men, whilst some were disobedient to himself; he therefore determined to punish them. Thus Henry, as head of the Church, could gratify his covetousness, his pride, and his anger, which he could not do if he allowed the Pope to have power again.
To execute his plans was very easy, for Henry had assistants who faithfully obeyed all his commands. The men to whom the work of Reformation was entrusted, were Cranmer, who had become Archbishop of Canterbury; and Thomas Cromwell, the Secretary of State. The latter man is worthy of notice: like Wolsey,
In the year 1535, in which Henry was declared the "Head of the Church," and Sir Thomas More was beheaded, Cromwell was ordered to begin the work of reform, by visiting the monasteries of England. Accordingly, in 1536, Cromwell appointed several men, as his commissioners, to travel through England, and enter these religious houses, so that they might bring a report of their condition. These men, and Cromwell himself, reported that the monks therein lived most irreligious and disgraceful lives; that they committed all kinds of wickednesses, which were even as great as those of the men of Sodom.
When their account of the crimes and deceptions of the monks was read, a general horror was expressed by the people, and it was determined that the so-called "religious houses" should be suppressed. The lesser monasteries of England were then entirely abolished; their yearly revenue, which amounted to £32,000, and their gold and silver plate, and other riches, were handed over to the king as the head of the Church. Thus the king