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to each other. One in particular represents a lady, young and handsome, of whom, strange to say, there is presented another portrait exhibiting her in a state of mental derangement. Sir Cuthbert Sharp's Hist. of Hartlepool."


Hilton Castle is particularly described; and a View of it is given, with an ample Pedigree of that antient family.

The History of the important Town and Port of Sunderland is extremely interesting.

A Charter, dated in 1634, states that "Sunderland had beyond the memory of man been an antient borough, known by the name of the New Borough of Weremouth, containing in itself a certain port where ships had plied, bringing and carrying merchandize, as well to and from certain ports, as from other ports of the kingdom: the articles therein specified are sea-coals, grindstones, rubstones, and whetstones. It also states, that the trade was then greatly increased, by reason of the multitude of ships that resorted thither; and the borough antiently enjoyed divers liberties and free customs, as well by prescription, as by virtue of sundry charters from the Bishops of Durham, confirmed to them by the Crown, which from defect in form, proved insufficient for the support of the antient liberties, privileges, and free customs of the borough."

"Sunderland is bounded on the East by the German Ocean, on the North by the river Wear, by which it is separated from Monkwearmouth; and on the West and South by the parish of Bishopwearmouth. The commerce and population of the borough have long been in a state of progressive increase; but its augmentation during the latter part of the last century, has been very rapid, and a proportionate improvement has taken place in the general appearance of the town. The harbour is formed by two piers on the North and South sides of the river. The imports are corn, flour, wine, spiritous liquors, timber, tar, deals, flax, iron, &c. and the exports are coal, lime, glass, earthen ware, grindstones, and copperas." Sunderland, Bishop wearmouth, and Monkwearmouth, are so intimately connected by buildings and other local circumstances, that they may be said to be one town; and the population, in 1811, of the three parishes, is thus given:

"Sunderland ...............12,289






Neat Views and good descriptions of the three Churches of Bishopwearmouth, Monkwearmouth, and Sunderland; and of St. John's Chapel, are next given.

Garbutt describes the numerous places With commendable liberality Mr. of worship; including Jews, Roman Catholicks, Quakers, and Dissenters has candidly elucidated the peculiariof almost every denomination; and he ties of religious faith possessed by each of them.

The Public Buildings next claim attention. These are the Piers, Theatre, Masonic Lodges, Bridge, Library, Barracks, and Exchange. For these we refer to the Work itself; only stopping to notice a pleasing View of the famous Iron Bridge, of which a very copious account will be found in our vol. LXIII. 907; LXVI. 696. 995; LXXIV. 1127; LXXV. 1167; LXXXVI, ii. 363. 428.


The Picture of England; or Historical and Descriptive Delineations of the most curious Works of Nature and Art in each County: calculated as an agreeable · Companion to the Tourist, or a Class Book for the Student. Illustrated with upwards of Two Hundred and Fifty Engravings, consisting of Views of antient Castles, Cathedrals, Noblemen's and Gentlemen's Seats, &c. By J. N. Brewer, Author of the "Introduction to the Beauties of England," and Descriptions of several Counties in that elaborate Work, 12mo. pp. 383 and 416. Harris and Son.

THIS Work appears to be equally calculated for the purposes of amusement and utility. The study of Topography and Antiquities, which was formerly confined to a small and recondite class of scholars, has lately attracted so much notice, that a general knowledge on these subjects must be deemed indispensable to all who are anxious for the reputation of polite learning. The work termed the "Beauties of England and Wales," sive contributor, assisted, perhaps, to which Mr. Brewer was an extenmore than any contemporary publication, in imparting a popular character to Antiquarian pursuits. In the present undertaking he has still further refined on this species of writing, and has selected for discussion such subjects only as are of general interest, on account of importance and beauty, or from a connexion

with historical and biographical facts.

In presenting this "Picture of Eng. land," the Author divides his subject into Counties, alphabetically arranged; and the notice of topographical par ticulars is introduced by general remarks on the extent, the natural character, and the produce of each district. In describing the various conspicuous buildings, whether ecclesiastical, military, or domestic, Mr. Brewer has adopted a practice which forms a novel feature in works so concise yet comprehensive, and which promises to be at once instructive and pleasing-that of particularizing the architectural style of each structure. The information and critical remarks afforded on this head cannot fail of being highly advantageous to all readers desirous of forming correct notions respecting the topography and antiquities of a country so abundant in venerable and curious architecture. We are glad to find that a Third Volume is preparing, intended to contain an account of N. and S. Wales, Scotland, and Ireland.

As a book of instruction, this Work appears likely to find its way speedily to the upper classes of students. It is, however, calculated for more general circulation; and we readily agree with the Author, that it "presents such a selection of prominent and curious objects, as may guide the Tourist in his excursions, and direct his notice to places most worthy of inspection throughout the whole of England."

Prefixed to the descriptive part is a very useful Essay on the "History and Antiquities of England, as connected with the Description of particular Places." The brief but satisfactory notices contained in these introductory pages, 'respecting the rise and progress of the different modes of architecture observable in antient edifices, cannot fail of proving greatly beneficial to the student in Topography, and must act as a desirable manual of recollection to the inquisitive Traveller.

The numerous prints are in general neatly executed, and the subjects are well chosen.

We present, without selection, the following specimen of the polished and agreeable style in which this Work is written :

"Raglan, or Ragland Castle, is greatly distinguished in history, as the former dig. nified residence of the noble family of been of a less antient character than any Somerset. This fortress appears to have similar structure in Monmouthshire, the principal parts not being older than the

time of Henry the Fifth, whilst considerable additions were made so lately as the reign of Charles the First. From the character of the buildings, Raglan must be viewed as a fortified house, of a description unusually strong, rather than as a regular castle.

"This curious pile is an object of peculiar veneration, on account of the gallantry with which it was defended against the Parliament army in the seventeenth century, by Henry, the fifth Earl and first Marquis of Worcester. The noble Marquis, then much advanced in years, had the honour of frequently entertaining in this castellated abode his ill-fated So. vereign, during the first years of the civil wars. England did not possess a more discreet or faithful subject; and it is confidently said, that if the King had been ruled by the counsels of this aged nobleman, he might have preserved both crown and life.

"It was immediately after the departure of King Charles from Raglan, in the summer of 1646, that the Castle was in

vested by the Parliamentarian forces under Sir Thomas Fairfax. The resistance was obstinate, and was continued during the long term of ten weeks; at which time the powder of the defendants was reduced to the last barrel. The Marquis then surrendered on honourable terms; himself (more than fourscore years of age) marching forth at the head of the garrison, with all the honours of war.

"It is lamentable to state that the grey hairs of this loyal and noble veteran afforded no argument in his favour with puritanical and ambitious judges. He was placed in confinement by the Parliament; and, in the decrepitude of his lengthened years, speedily sunk to death on the pillow of imprisonment. Nearly his last words partook of that playful spirit of good-humour which had characWhen informed terized his whole course. that his conquerors, however harsh, would permit him to be buried in his familyvault, at Windsor, he exclaimed, Why,

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God bless us all! then I shall have a

better castle when I am dead, than they

took from me whilst I was alive!'

"After its subjugation, the Castle of Raglan was dismantled by order of the Parliament; and the tenants of the estate

in succeeding years, removed large quantities of the stone, and other materials, for the use of their dwellings and farmoffices. Such injurious privileges are


now forbidden by the Duke of Beaufort, to whom the property belongs; and the remains are likely to meet the view of a distant posterity. The ruins are situated on a slight eminence, about one mile from the village of Raglan; and include a large portion of the citadel, or strongest part of the building, the walls of which are ten feet in thickness. The grand entrance, together with several towers, and the traces of many noble apartments, are also preserved for the gratification of such visitors as derive pleasure from the examination of relics connected with important events of history."

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IN a neat and elegant volume Philidor's system of Chess is, by the aid of tabular demonstrations, very ingeniously, and (we think) happily attempted to be reduced to an easy practical mode of acquiring what is generally found to demand elaborate study.

"Objections to this mode of obtaining a competent knowledge of Chess will be found considerably obviated. by the plan now presented to the Publick; that is, by bringing into view, by progressive representations of the Game, the instructions of Philidor himself. Thus, that which the learner would have to find or to make out from those instructions, at the expence of much time, pains, and perhaps an aching head, is already done to his eye-it may be said, to his hand."

22. Dr. Watkins's Life of the Right Hon. Richard Brinsley Sheridan, (continued from p. 53.)

THE early part of the second volume opens with an account of the share that Mr. Sheridan took in the Regency business, which appears to be related with candour and impartiality.

One of the financial measures of Mr. Pitt, at that period, was the imposition of an additional duty on newspapers, accompanied by a clause restricting the venders of these publications from lending them out to hire. GENT. MAG. February, 1820.

"When the clause was read in the Committee, Mr. Sheridan objected to it, as being intended to sacrifice the interests of the poor newsmen to those of the printers; but upon the tax itself he was much more severe, considering it in the light of a measure purposely hostile to the freedom of the press. With regard to the additional duty on advertisements, it would prove rather a loss than an advantage to the revenue, by occasioning a reduction in the numbers, particularly in the staple articles furnished by auctioneers and booksellers. This prediction, like most other random assertions of the conjectural things thrown out in the heat of debate, has been amply refuted by the increase of newspapers, notwithstanding repeated additions of taxation."

In the year 1792, Mr. Sheridan had the misfortune to lose his amiable and accomplished wife. The only recorded tribute of respect paid to her memory, consisted of the following expressive eulogium, by an eminent Physician:

"In Obitum

Dom. Eliz. Sheridan ; Forma, voce, atque ingenio inter ornatas ornatissimæ ;

ab illâ imo amores ita suspiret amicus! Eheu! Eheu! lugeant Mortales! Eja verò gaudeat Cœlestis, dulcis ad amplexus, socians jam Citharæ melos, redit pergrata,

en iterum soror: Suaviusque nil manet Hosannis."

The history of Mr. Sheridan is so connected with that of the times in which he lived, as to render some account of public affairs essentially necessary to the illustration of his cha racter and conduct. We therefore fio'd

the narrative blended with a detail of the principal events of the French Revolution, during which period Mr. Sheridan took an active part in the discussion of the various measures brought forward by 'Mr. Pitt, to stem the torrent of that spirit of insubordination which resalted from that aweful event; but our limits merely allow us to glance at that period of Mr. Sheridau's political life.

In the year 1795, Mr. Sheridan married Mrs. Hester Ogle, daughter of the Dean of Winch ester.

His conduct dr ring the Mutiny at Portsmouth ought never to be forgotten; it called forth the praises of all parties, bot' Whigs and Tories, and


was one of the chief means of bring ing the deluded seamen to a sense of their duty.

When his Majesty was shot at by Hatfield at Drury-lane theatre, Mr. Sheridan took a very active part in the whole of the enquiry, and, in his anxiety to discover whether any thing like a conspiracy existed, evinced the greatest affection for their Majesties, and the whole Royal family.

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It will be readily perceived by our extracts that this work is written with ability and a thorough knowledge of the subject; but how far it will satisthe political friends of the late Mr. Sheridan, we will not attempt to de

In the year 1809, the inhabitants of the Metropolis, and of the countries many miles round, were thrown into great alarm by a tremendous confla-fy gration, which broke out suddenly, in Drury-lane theatre, about 11 o'clock at night, on the 24th of February.

"Mr. Sheridan was then in the House

of Cornmons, when some of the Members immediately, out of respect to him, proposed an adjournment; but though he was evidently much affected, he said in a low tone of voice, that he did not think the mis fortune, however heavy it might be to himself, was of so much consequence that the proceedings of the Legislature should be thereby suspended. His only consolation, he said, was in witnessing the attachment of his friends, and in the reflection that, as far as he had been able to ascertain, no lives were lost."

The last Chapter details the following melancholy particulars: Death of Mr. Sheridan-particulars of his funeral-account of his family-poetical tributes to his memory-Review of his Character. Of his private character, his Biographer observes,


"He always lived and acted without any regular system for the government of his Conduct; the consequence of which was, as might have been expected, that he became the sport of capricious friendship, and when the winter of his days approached, he experienced the mutability of political cornexions, and the folly of neglect ing those resources which alone can support the mind in every exigency, and mimister to its comfort in the dreariness of solitude. Continual straits was the result of such a course of life, and the effects of it upon his constitution, which had been naturally a very robust one, soon appear. ed in his countenance and manners. Some

days before his death, the Bishop of London, who is a near relation of Mrs. Sherid an, desired Dr. Baine to ask if it would be agreeable to his patient to have prayers offered up at his bedside, to which Mr. Sheridan assented, and appeared to join with humility and aspiration, clasping his hands, and lifting up his eyes,


A good index is wanting; and if the dates had been placed conspicuously in the margin, they would have greatly assisted the historical student.

23. Poems descriptive of Rural Life and Scenery. By John Clare,, a Northamp tonshire Peasant. 12mo. pp. 222. Taylor and Hessey.

(Chiefly from the New Times.) THE efforts of the uncultivated mind-the outpourings of genius unmoulded by scholastic system and unimbued with scholastic lore, must ever be interesting to the lover of literature, and the observer of human nature. Few men whose reading has been extensive, and whose taste has been refined by an acquaintance with the classical productions of antient and of modern times, venture to lay before the world their real meditations. They dare not speak" as they ruminate, unless supported by the consciousness of powerful genius. They become readers and critics, but seldom soar into the regions of poetry, where such alarming competition awaits them. We have seldom an opportunity of learning the unmixed and unadulterated impression of the loveliness of pature on a man of vivid perception and strong feeling, equally unacquainted with the arts and reserve of the world, and with the riches, rules, and prejudices of literature. Such a man is Clare. In moments snatched from the labour by which he earned a scanty subsistence, with no other writing apparatus than his bat, a scrap of paper, and a pencil, he eagerly endeavoured to express the thoughts which crowded upon his mind, or to describe the objects around him which delightedbis


fancy. How difficult a task this must have been to an untaught peasant, ignorant even of grammar, will be conceived by every one who has a spark of poetic feeling. There is scarcely a man breathing, however education may have assisted him, who has not at times found how inadequate words are to the expression of the workings of an active imagination, how far passion expressed falls short of passion felt. Clare himself complains of the painful consciousness of his inability to utter

"The bursts of thought with which his soul's perplexed."

This poverty of his vocabulary obliged him frequently to coin words and to use provincialisms. In some instances he is fortunate: those in which he is not so, we are willing to pass over without particular censure; there is little danger of his being quoted as an authority for alterations or innovations. Many expressions which are considered vulgar and provincial, are forcible and not unpoetical: but in making the selection of those which may be adopted, much care and discrimination should be exercised.

The Poems are preceded by an Introduction, containing the particulars of the life of Clare, which we subjoin, and some remarks on his productions. It is written in an unaffected style, and the friend of the humble poet has had the good taste to abstain from that extravagance of panegyrick which usually disfigures prefaces on similar subjects.

"John Clare, the Author of this volume, was born at Helpstone, near Peterborough, Northamptonshire, on the 13th of July, 1793. He is the only son of Parker and Ann Clare, who are also natives of the same village, where they have always resided in extreme poverty; nor are they aware that any of their ancestors have been in better circumstances. Parker

Clare is a farmer's labourer, and latterly he was employed in threshing; but violent colds brought on the rheumatism to such a degree, that he was at length unable to work, or even to move without assistance. By the kind liberality of Lord Milton he was then sent to the Sea-bathing Infirmary at Scarborough, where he found great relief; but returning home part of the way on foot, from a desire to save expenses, his exertions and exposure to the weather brought on the pain again, and reduced him to a more deplorable state

than ever. He is now a helpless cripple and a pauper, receiving an allowance of 5s. per week from the parish.

"John Clare has always lived with his parents at Helpstone, except for those short periods when the distance to which he was obliged to go for work prevented his return every evening. At his own home, therefore, he saw poverty in all its most affecting shapes, and when he speaks of it, as in the Address to Plenty, p. 48, Oh, sad sons of Poverty! Victims doom'd to misery; Who can paint what pain prevails O'er that heart which want assails? Modest shame the pain conceals: No one knows but he who feels." "And again

Toiling in the naked fields, Where no bush a shelter yields, Needy Labour dithering stands, Beats and blows his numbing hands; And upon the crumping snows Stamps, in vain, to warm his toes'he utters no idly-feign'd poetic pains:' it is a picture of what he has constantly witnessed and felt. One of our poets has gained great credit by his exterior delineations of what the poor man suffers; but in the reality of wretchedness, when the iron enters into the soul,' there is a tone which cannot be imitated. Clare has here an unhappy advantage over other poets. The most miserable of them were not al

ways wretched. Penury and disease were not constantly at their heels, nor was pauperism their only prospect. But he has no other, for the lot which has befallen his father may, with too much reason, be looked forward to as his own portion. In the simple annals of the poor' want occupies a part of every page, except, perhaps, the last, where the scene changes to the workhouse; and then the burthen which is taken from the body is laid upon the spirit: at least it would be so with Clare; for though the contemplation of parochial relief may administer to some minds a thankless, hopeless sort of consolation, under the pressure of extreme distress, yet to the writer of the following lines it must be the highest aggravation of affliction:

Oh, may I die, before I'm doom'd to


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