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TAMING OF A SHREW. the Royal Exchange, 1594.' Compare this Fer. Tush, Kate, these words add greater with the title of “The Taming of a Shrew.' Each is a Historie ;" each is without an And make me think thee fairer than before : author's name ; each is published by Cuth- Sweet Kate, thou lovelier than Diana's purple bert Burbie ; each is published in the same


Whiter than are the snowy Apennines, year, 1594. Might not the recent death of Greene—the reputation which he left behind

Or icy hair that grows on Boreas' chin. him—the unhappy circumstances attending

Father, I swear by Ibis' golden beak,

More fair and radiant is my bonny Kate his death, for he perished in extreme poverty

Than silver Xanthus when he doth embrace —and the remarkable controversy between

The ruddy Simois at Ida's feet; Nash and Harvey, in 1592,"principally

And care not thou, sweet Kate, how I be clad; touching Robert Greene"-have led the

Thou shalt have garments wrought of Median bookseller to procure and publish copies of

silk, these plays, if they were both written by

Enchased with precious jewels fetch'd from far him? It is impossible, we think, not to be

By Italian merchants, that with Russian stems struck with the striking resemblance of these Plough up huge furrows in the terrene main." anonymous performances, in the structure of the verse, the extravagant employment of Take a passage, also, of the prose, or comic, mythological allusions, the laboured finery parts of the two plays, each evidently inintermixed with feebleness, and the occa

tended for the clowns :sional outpouring of a rich and gorgeous

ORLANDO FURIOSO. fancy. In the comic parts, too, it appears to

Tom. Sirrah Ralph, an thou 'lt go with me, us that there is an equal similarity in the

I'll let thee see the bravest madman that ever two plays a mixture of the vapid and the

thou sawest. coarse, which looks like the attempt of an

Ralph. Sirrah Tom, I believe it was he that educated man to lower himself to an unin

was at our town o' Sunday: I 'll tell thee what formed audience. It is very difficult to

he did, sirrah. He came to our house when all establish these opinions without being tedi

our folks were gone to church, and there was ous; but we may compare a detached pas- nobody at home but I, and I was turning of the sage or two :

spit, and he comes in and bade me fetch him ORLANDO FURIOSO.

some drink. Now, I went and fetched him Orl. Is not my love like those purple- some; and ere I came again, by my troth, he coloured swans,

ran away with the roast meat, spit and all, and That gallop by the coach of Cynthia ?

so we had nothing but porridge to dinner. Org. Yes, marry is she, my lord.

Tom. By my troth, that was brave; but, Orl. Is not her face silver'd like that milk-sirrah, he did so course the boys last Sunday: white shape,

and, if ye call him madman, he 'll run after you, When Jove came dancing down to Semele ? and tickle your ribs so with flap of leather that Org. It is, my lord.

he hath, as it passeth.” Orl. Then go thy ways and climb up to the clouds,

TAMING OF A SHREW. And tell Apollo, that Orlando sits

San. Boy, oh disgrace to my person ! Zounds, Making of verses for Angelica.

boy, of your face, you have many boys with such And if he do deny to send me down

pickadenaunts, I am sure. Zounds, would you The shirt which Deianira sent to Hercules, not have a bloody nose for this ? To make me brave upon my ing-day, Boy. Come, come, I did but jest; where is Tell him, I 'll pass the Alps, and up to Meroe, that same piece of pie that I gave thee to keep ? (I know he knows that watery lakish hill,) San. The pie ? Ay, you have more mind of And pull the harp out of the minstrel's hands, your belly than to go see what your master does. And pawn it unto lovely Proserpine,

Boy. Tush, 't is no matter, man; I prithee That she may fetch the fair Angelica.” give it me, I am very hungry I promise thee.

it up.


San. Why, you may take it, and the devil “ I swear by fair Cynthia's burning rays, burst you with it! one cannot save a bit after By Merops' head, and by seven-mouthed Nile, supper, but you are always ready to munch Had I but known ere thou hadst wedded her,

Were in thy breast the world's immortal soul, Boy. Why, come, man, we shall have good This angry sword should rip thy hateful chest, cheer anon at the bride-house, for your master's And hew thee smaller than the Libyan sands. gone to church to be married already, and there's such cheer as passeth.

That damned villain that hath deluded me, San. O brave! I would I had eat no meat Whom I did send for guide unto my son. this week, for I have never a corner left in my Oh that my furious force could cleave the belly.”


That I might muster bands of hellish fiends, "The Historie of Alphonsus King of Ara- To rack his heart and tear his impious soul!" gon'-one of the plays published with Greene's name, after his death-furnishes a

The English commentators and dramatic passage or two which may be compared with antiquaries, in looking around for a prothe old "Taming of a Shrew :'

bable author of "The Taming of a Shrew,'

named Greene, and Peele, and Kyd. A corALPHONSUS KING OF ARAGON.

respondent of the editor of The Pictorial “ Thou shalt ere long be monarch of the world. Shakspere,' on the other side the Atlantic,

All christen'd kings, with all your pagan dogs, has brought forward some remarkable resemShall bend their knees unto Iphigena. blances between this unknown author and The Indian soil shall be thine at command, Marlowe. He says, “A peculiarity of exWhere every step thou settest on the ground pression (' Russian stems ') in Marlowe's first Shall be received on the golden mines.

play, 'Tamburlaine,' which had before puzRich Pactolus, that river of account,

zled me in the old "Taming of a Shrew,' led Which doth descend from top of Tivole mount,

me to compare the two passages, and (judg Shall be thine own, and all the world beside."

my surprise) I found the one an almost ver“Go, pack thou hence unto the Stygian lake, batim reprint of the other. This coincidence

And make report unto thy traitorous sire, induced me to compare more closely the How well thou hast enjoy'd the diadem,

style of the metrical portion of “The Taming Which he by treason set upon thy head;

of a Shrew' with that of “Tamburlaine,' and And, if he ask thee who did send thee down,

afterwards of Marlowe's other plays, in which Alphonsus say, who now must wear thy crown.

I found so strong a general resemblance, as, What, is he gone? the devil break his neck !

conjoined with many direct transfers of lines The fiends of hell torment his traitorous

from one to the other, seem to afford good

ground for attributing both to one author. corpse ! Is this the quittance of Belinus' grace,

As the first witness in this case, I will place Which he did show unto that thankless side by side such passages from Marlowe's wretch,

acknowledged works as are copied into the That runagate, that rakehell, yea, that thief ?"

one without a claimant :

MARLOWE. TAMING OF A SHREW. _“When I cross'd the bubbling Canibey,

Now that the gloomy shadow of the night, And sail'd along the crystal Hellespont,

Longing to view Orion's drizzling look, I filld my coffers of the wealthy mines;

Leaps from the antarctic world unto the sky, Where I did cause millions of labouring Moors

And dims the welkin with his pitchy breath.' To undermine the caverns of the earth,

Faustus, p. 8, ed. 1818. To seek for strange and new-found precious * Fairer than rocks of pearl and precious stone,

stones, And dive into the sea to gather pearl,

Whose eyes are brighter than the lamps of As fair as Juno offer'd Priam's son;

heaven.' And you shall take your liberal choice of all."

Tamburlaine, I., Act III., Sc. 3.

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(Applied to a Man.)

'Boy. Come hither, sirra boy! * Image of honour and nobility

Sander. Boy! oh disgrace to my person !

Sounes, boy of your face ! You have many boys In whose sweet person is comprised the sum with such pickadenaunts, I am sure.' P. 184. Of nature's skill and heavenly majesty.' Tamburlaine, I., Act V., Sc. 2. * And ravishing sounds of his melodious harp.'

P. 200. • Eternal Heaven sooner be dissolved, And all that pierceth Phoebus' silver eye,

“In other passages the imitation is strong, Before such hap fall to Zenocrate.'

but not so direct ; for example, Tamburlaine, I., Act III., Sc. 2. Her sacred beauty hath enchanted heaven; • Thy garments shall be made of Mediàn silk,

And, had she lived before the siege of Troy, Enchased with precious jewels of mine own.'

Helen (whose beauty summond Greece to Tamburlaine, I., Act I., Sc. 2.


And drew a thousand ships to Tenedos) "And Christian merchants that with Russian

Had not been named in Homer's Iliades.' stems

Tamburlaine, II., Act II., Sc. 2. Plough up huge furrows in the Caspian Sea.'

Tamburlaine, I., Act I., Sc. 2. Whose sacred beauty hath enchanted me; The terrene main.'

II., Act I., Sc. 1.

More fair than was the Grecian Helena,

For whose sweet sake so many princes died 'Wagner. Come hither, sirrah boy!

That came with thousand ships to Tenedos.' Robin. Boy! oh disgrace to my person !

Taming of a Shrew, p. 169. Zounds, boy in your face ! You have seen many boys with beards, I am sure.'

“The thousand ships' is a favourite alluFaustus, p. 12, ed. 1818.

sion of Marlowe's. We have it again in With ravishing sounds of his melodious harp.' | ' Faustus.' It seems to have been in unison

Faustus, p. 20.

with his characteristic love of the magnifi


The writer then proceeds to say, “WhatNow that the gloomy shadow of the night,

ever view is taken of such glaring imitaLonging to view Orion's drisling looks,

tions, they may be well termed extraordinary. Leaps from th' antarctic world unto the sky,

That an author should so closely repeat himAnd dims the welkin with her pitchy breath.'

self is at least unusual. That any one should Taming of a Shrew, p. 161, rep. 1779.

so openly plagiarise from the works of a * Whose eyes are brighter than the lamps of living writer universally known, and where heaven,

detection would be certain, is next to increFairer than rocks of pearl and precious stone.'

dible. Is not the latter hypothesis, also, P. 167.

rendered peculiarly improbable from the (Applied to a Woman.)

fact that the thefts are not from a single The image of honor and nobility,

work, but are scattered over three distinct In whose sweet person is comprised the summe Of nature's skill and heavenly majesty!'

plays ?

Does it not appear more reasonable P. 169.

to suppose that the author of those three 'Eternal Heaven sooner be dissolv'd,

works should use a second time images And all that pierceth Phæbns' silver eye,

familiar to his mind, than that another Before such hap befall to Polidor.'

should to such an extent collect and appro

P. 181. priate them ? 'Thou shalt have garments wrought of Median

“A point naturally suggested here is, 'Are silk,

there any repetitions, like those under conEnchas'd with precious jewels fetch'd from far.' sideration, in the acknowledged works of

Pp. 183, 184. Marlowe ??—which I think may be answered By Italian merchants, that with Russian stems

in the affirmative. For, on very hastily runPlough up huge furrows in the terrene ning over them, a number have presented main.'

P. 184. | themselves, not, perhaps, so striking as those

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by which they have to be paralleled, and yet | Was there not an older play than ‘The Tasufficiently for the purpose.” The passages ming of a Shrew,' which furnished the main subsequently quoted certainly bear out this plot, some of the characters, and a small part assertion.

of the dialogue, both to the author of "The The writer then proceeds to show that the Taming of a Shrew' and the author of "The versification of this play, stiff and monotonous Taming of the Shrew?' This play we may though it is, appears not to move so slowly believe, without any violation of fact or proas that of Greene; the poetical figures are bability, to have been used as the rude mapoured out with a vehemence which he could terial for both authors to work upon. There not afford; and there is a glow, a voluptuous was competition between them ;-one prowarmth, in the descriptions of female beauty, duced a play for the Earl of Pembroke's serbefore which even the classical allusions (so vants,-the other for the Lord Chamberlain's cold in Greene) acquire something of life and servants,-out of some older play, much of heat. There are pictures of wealth also, which which was , probably improvisated by the could scarcely have come from anyone but the clowns, and whose main action, the discipline author of the 'Jew of Malta.' No dramatist of the Shrew, would be irresistibly attractive that he remembers at all approaches Marlowe to a rough audience, without the pompous in such gorgeous passages. Further, there declamation of the one remodeller, or the is scarcely a single classical reference in the natural poetry or rich humour of the other. * Taming' which does not occur in 'Faustus' Whether the author or improver of the play or "Tamburlaine.' The only existing speci- printed in 1594 be Marlowe or Greene, there men we have of Marlowe's comic power is in can be little question as to the characteristic · Faustus.' The Sander and Boy of “The superiority of Shakspere's work. Taming a Shrew' are pretty much a repeti- perhaps, a more careful remodelling or retion of the Wagner and Robin of that play, creation. In 'The Taming of a Shrew' it is from which indeed they borrow verbatim the not difficult to detect, especially in Sly and commencement of a dialogue. Nor does the Sander, coarser things than belong either to horse-play of the taming scenes appear out Greene or Marlowe. of Marlowe's reach. There is in them a vio- But there is a third theory,—that of Tieck lence done to the modesty of Nature,' a —that "The Taming of a Shrew' was a pandering to coarse taste, analogous in co- youthful work of Shakspere himself. To our medy to the monstrous rants and the bloody minds that play is totally different from the feasts which disfigure his tragic efforts. At- imagery and the versification of Shakspere. tempt what he would, Marlowe's 'fiery soul' Shakspere's undoubted play, 'The Taming could not be restrained from 'working out of the Shrew,' was produced in a "taming its way.'

age. Men tamed each other by the axe and Do we, then, entirely agree with our cor- the fagot; parents tamed their children by respondent that Marlowe was the author of the rod and the ferrule, as they stood or “The Taming of a Shrew,' in every sense ? knelt in trembling silence before those who We do not go quite so far. We think that had given them life; and, although England he has clearly made out that Marlowe has as was then called the "paradise of women,” good a title to the work as Greene-perhaps and, as opposed to the treatment of horses, a better. Be it one or the other, they each they were treated “obsequiously,” husbands belonged to the same school of poetry; Shak- thought that “taming,” after the manner of spere created a new school. But there are Petrucio, by oaths and starvation, was a passages and incidents in "The Taming of a commendable fashion. Fletcher was someShrew' which are unlike Marlowe-such as what heretical upon this point; for he wrote the scenes with Sly;—these are unlike Greene a play called “The Tamer Tamed, or the also ;-they are fused more readily into Taming of the Tamer,' in which Petrucio, Shakspere's own materials, because they are having married a second wife, was subjected natural. We now propose a second theory. I to the same process by which he conquered

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6. Katharine the curst.” The discipline ap- Pardon for him? If there be one reader of peared to be considered necessary for more Shakspere, and especially if that reader be a than a century afterwards; for we find in female, who cherishes unmixed indignation “The Tatler'a story, told as new and original, when Petrucio, in his triumph, exclaims of a gentleman in Lincolnshire who had four

“He that knows better how to tame a shrew, daughters, one of whom was “so imperious Now let him speak," a temper (usually called a high spirit), that it continually made great uneasiness in the

we would say,—the indignation which you family,” but who was entirely reclaimed by feel

, and in which thousands sympathize, the Petrucio recipe of “taking a woman

belongs to the age in which you live; but the down in her wedding shoes.”

principle of justice, and of justice to women We are—the happier our fortune-living above all, from which it springs, has been in an age when this practice of Petrucio is established, more than by any other lessons not universally considered orthodox; and we

of human origin, by him who has now moved owe a great deal to him who has exhibited your anger. It is to him that woman owes, the secrets of the “taming school” with so

more than to any other human authority, the much spirit in this comedy, for the better popular elevation of the feminine character, belief of our age, that violence is not to be

by the most matchless delineations of its subdued by violence. It was he who said, purity, its faith, its disinterestedness, its when the satirist cried out

tenderness, its heroism, its union of intellect

and sensibility. It is he that, as long as the “ Give me leave

power of influencing mankind by high To speak my mind, and I will through and

thoughts, clothed in the most exquisite lanthrough

guage, shall endure, will preserve the ideal Cleanse the foul body of the infected world"

elevation of women pure and unassailable it was he who said, in his own proper spirit

from the attacks of coarseness or libertinism, of gentleness and truth,

-ay, and even from the degradation of the “ Fie on thee! I can tell what thou wouldst of their own sex :—for it is he that has de

example of the crafty and worldly-minded do

lineated the ingenuous and trusting Imogen, Most mischievous foul sin in chiding sin."

the guileless Perdita, the impassioned Juliet, It was he who found "a soul of goodness in the heart-stricken but loving Desdemona, the things evil,”—who taught us, in the same generous and courageous Portia, the uncondelicious reflection of his own nature, the querable Isabella, the playful Rosalind, the real secret of conquering opposition :- world-unknowing Miranda. Shakspere may

have exhibited one froward woman wrongly “Your gentleness shall force, tamed: but who can estimate the number of More than your force move us to gentleness.".

those from whom his all-penetrating influence Pardon be for him, if, treading in the foot-has averted the curse of being froward ? steps of some predecessor whose sympathies

If Shakspere requires any apology for The with the peaceful and the beautiful were im- Taming of the Shrew,” it is for having adopted measurably inferior to his own, and sacri- the subject at all—not for his treatment of ficing something to the popular appetite, he it. The Kate of the comedy to which this should have made the husband of a froward

bears so much resemblance, upon the surface, woman “kill her in her own humour,” and

is a thoroughly unfeminine person, coarse bring her upon her knees to the abject obe- and obstreperous, without the humour which dience of a revolted but penitent slave:

shines through the violence of Shakspere's

Katharine. He describes his Shrew "A foul contending rebel,

“ Young and beauteous ; And graceless traitor to her loving lord.”

Brought up as best becomes a gentlewoman.” She has a “scolding tongue," "her only

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*As You Like It.'

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