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Fishing Progeny of Dialects, viz. the Chaldee, the Syriac, the Arabic, the Samaritan, and the Etbiopic. The two first differ chiefly in the Charatters, there being a near Affinity in the Form of the Words, and Texture of the Tongues themselves. The Arabic is a moft copious Tongue, having a thousand different Words for a Sword, five hundred for a Lion, and two hundred for a Serpent. The chief Properties of these Oriental The Properties Tongues are, (1.) The Primitive Words, or the of the Eaftern Themes of their Verbs, in general, consist of but

Tongues. tbrte Letters, and some few of four. (2.) That these Letters are all Consonants, as PKD, BRZL, &c. (3.) That the Vowels are mostly Points placed under the said Consonants in the Theme, as PKD, that is, PA KAD, he visited ; BRZL, that is, BARZEL, Iron. (4.) That they diftinguish the Masculine and Feminine Genders in Verbs as well as Nouns, by different Terminations. (5.) That the Orientals write and read from the Right Hand to the Left, contrary to the Europeans.

The Greek Language is the next Mother of the Greek Tongue, and in the Texture of its Words is as Language and Compound, as the Hebrew is Simple ; on which its several Account it obtains a wonderful Variety and Co. Dialects. fiousness of Words, beyond any other Language. The principal DialeEts of this Tongue are, (1.) The Attic, which was spoken at Athens, and the Country round, between Achaia and Macedonia. (2.) The Ionic, used in Ionia, a Country in Leffer Afia, between Caria and Æolis, inhabited by a Greek Colony in former times. (3.) Doric, spoken by the Dorians, a People inhabiting a Part of Achaia. (4.) Æolic, used by the Æolians who lived in that Part of Asia between Ionia and Troas, near the Hellespont.


Of the Latin The Latin is that Mother Tongue, which of Tongue, and its all others can boast the Nobleft Progeny of LiDialects.

ving and Polite Dialects; for she gave Birth to the Italian, the French, the Spanish, the Portugueze, and a good part of the English, and is herself still in Being; and more universally em

braced than any other ever was, or, perhaps, An Infance of ever will be. To give one Instance of the diftheir Diffe- ferent Utterance between this great Parent and

her several Daughters, take that of Royal Dignity, which by the Mother Tongue herself (the Latin) was calld Majestas ; but by the Italian, Maestà ; by the Spanish, Magestad; by the French,

Majesté ; and by the English, Majesty. Of the Gothic, From the antient Gothic Tongue, proceeded the and its Dia.

two great Branches, the Teutonic and Saxon Lankets.

guages; from whence all the Northern Tongues, as so many Grand-children, had their Being ; as the Swedish, Danish, Norwegian, High and Low Dutch, Flemish, Scots, and English. Every one knows that the Bulk of our Language is derived from the two great Sources of the Teutonic and Saxon. Thus the Saxons faid, Fæder, Suna, Hus, Bisceop-ric, Weorth-scype, Godleas, Godlicnesse, &c. from whence the English fay, Father, Son, House,

Bishoprick, Worship, Godless, Godliness. Of the Scla- To these may be added the Sclavonic, another vonic

, and its very considerable Mother Tongue, as being of Dialects.

great Antiquity, and very large Extent in the North-eastern Parts of Europe ; the Tongues of Rufia, Poland, Hungary, &c. are DialeEts of it. The Old British or Welch, and the Irish, which also the Highland Scots speak, are reckon'd among the Mother Tongues ; but have nothing in them worth Notice. And thus much for the Languages in general : I shall now treat of our own Language in particular ; and first of its Composition.


The antient Speech of this Illand was the A foort AlGaulic, or old French, as being (in all pro- count of the

English Lanbability) first peopled from Gallia, or antient

guage from its France. But, a little before our Saviour's Time, firji to its preJulius Cæfar having invaded and subdued the fent State. Britons ; and in Claudius's Time, and soon after, Britain cona Roman Colony being planted here, Britain be- quer'd by

Cæsar. came a Roman Province ; and the Latin Language, which the Romans then spoke, was introduced and mixt with the Britis ; tho' it never could fuppress it . Afterwards, the Roman Le

. Invaded by the gions being cali'd home, the Scots and Picts (the Pies and Inbabitants of North-Britain) took the Oppor-Scots. tunity to attack and harrass the Northern Parts of England ; upon which King Vortigern, about the Year 440, call'd to his Adistance the Saxons, The Saxons, a great and powerful People in the North Parts &c. arrive of Germany, who with their Neighbours the under Hengift

and Horsa. Angles, Teutones, &c. came over, under the Conduct of Hengist and Horsa, who, subduing the Piets and Scots, were rewarded for their Service, first with the Ife of Thanet, and after with the whole County of Kent, which they govern'd about 350 Years; but growing powerful, they quarreld with, and by Degrees dispossessed the Inhabitants of all the Country on this Side the Severn, and divided it among themselves into seven King- They establish doms, call'd the Saxon Heptarchy. Thus they their Heptardestroy'd the British Tongue, together with its In- chy. habitants (excepting some who recird over the Mountains of Wales, and carried with them their Language) and their own Language became the general Language of the Isand, and thus continued till about the Year 800. Then the Danes The Danes Ininfested the North and Eaft Parts of England, and vasion and Setobtaining Fooling, they at last arrived to the fole tlement. Government of it, in about 200 Years; and so the antient Speech became tinctur'd also with the


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Danish Language. But their Rule lasting only
26 Years, made not so great Alteration in the

Anglo-Saxoil, as the next Revolution, which was
The whole by William the Conqueror, Duke of Normandy
Land subdu'd in Franie; who came over into England, van-
by William

quish'd the Danes, and subdued the whole Land; the Conqueror.

and as a Monument of their Conquest, the Nor-
mans endeavour'd to make their Language as
generally receiv'd as their Commands; and thus
compleated the Mixture, or rather the Medley of

Language in Great Britain.
The English The English Tongue, such as it is at this
Tongue a Med- Day, which 1800 Years ago was the pure
ley of several British or Welch, is now a Mixture of (1.) A

little Britif ; (2.) a great deal of Latin ; (3.) a
yet far greater Part of Anglo-Saxon, and Teutonic ;
(4.) fome few Strictures of Danish; and ( 5.) an
Abundance of Norman French. But since those
antient Times, we have, by means of Learning,
Commerce, &c. received very great Improve.
ments from the Greek, Latin, modern French,
Italian, Dutch; and many proper Names of Men,
Places and Things, from the Hebrew', Syriac,

Arabic, and other Eastern Tongues.
The English But notwithstanding our Language is thus a
Tongue is the Mixture or Compound of such heterogenecus Ingre-
Quintilince of dients ; yet it must be withal consider'd, that only

the choice and valuable Parts of other Tongues
have been selected and incorporated together in the
Body of our own, which therefore may be look'd
upon as the Quintessence of various Tongues; and
by enfranchising and indenizening foreign Words
and Terms of Arts and Sciences, it is indeed be-
come a very copious, pithy, significant and
learned Language ; abounding with all the Fica-
ers of Rhetoric, capable of all the Delicacy, fine
Similes and Allusions of Poetry, and of supplying


both the Pulpit and Bar with all the Force and Energy that Speech can pretend to.

In fine, though it be not so facred as the He- The English brew, so extensive as the Arabic, nor quite so Tongue com. learned as the Greek, so neither is it so scanty as others, and the Hebrew, so difficult and irregular as the Arabic, characteriz'd. so barbarous as the Irish, so hard and unfounding as the Welch, so uncouth as the Dutch, nor so effeminate as the French ; yet is it as fluent as the Latin, as courteous as the Spanish, as Courtlike as the French, and as amorous and founding as the Italian; and is every way enrich'd and beautified with all the Ornaments and Decorations any Language is capable of; and fitly adapted to the masculine, curious and noble Genius of the renowned People who use it. I proceed now to say fomewhat of the Grammar thereof; and first of that Science in General.

GRAMMAR is defined to be, The Art of Grammar deexpressing the Relation of Things by Words in Con- fin’d. Aruction, with due Accent in Speaking and Orthograpby in Writing, according to the Custom of those, whose Language we learn: Or, Grammar is the Art of Speaking and Writing truly. Of Gram- Its four Parts, mar there be four Parts. (1.) Orthography, which Orthography

, treats of Letters. (2.) Profody, of Syllables, and


Analogy, due Pronunciation. (3.) Etymology, or Ana

Syntax. logy, which treats of Words; and (4.) Syntaxis, of Sentences, or due Construction of Words.

ORTHOGRAPHY is that Part of Gram- Orthography, mar which teaches the Nature, Difference, Sound, what. Writing, and Joining of Letters into Syllables and Words. Letters are the first Elements of Speech, as being individual articulate Voices or Sounds.

Letters are divided into Vowels and Con- of Powels and finants; Vowels are those Letters, which, of Confonants. themselves, make a full and perfeet Sound, and


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