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represents the Crown. He nominates the justices of the peace to be appointed by the Lord Chancellor, a member of the Cabinet; otherwise the Lord Lieutenant's duties are nominal. The chief executive officer is the sheriff, who owes his appointment to the Crown. There is also an undersheriff, a coroner, a clerk of the peace, etc. The magistrates administer the criminal law, except in grave offenses, and license liquor sellers. The County Council is elected by the people, and its jurisdiction corresponds in general to that of our county commissioners, boards of supervisors, and boards of education.

Counties are divided into urban and rural districts. An urban district comprises a town or a small area densely populated; a rural district, several country parishes. These districts also have councils elected by the people. The chairman, unless a woman (women may serve in district councils but not in county councils), is a magistrate for the county by virtue of his office.

In every civil parish in a rural district there is a Parish Meeting at which every parochial elector may attend and vote; and in the more populous parishes there is also a Parish Council. These bodies look after the poor, burials, baths and washhouses, lighting and watching, public libraries, etc., and appoint the overseers of

the poor.

FRANCE

11. A Republic.—Next to that of England, the mother Government of the United States, the Government of France is of the most interest to Americans, because France is a republic. The present Government is known

as the Third Republic. The first, beginning in 1792, was made an empire under Napoleon I., in 1804; the second, beginning in 1848, was again made an empire under Napoleon III., in 1852. The Third Republic was formed September 4, 1870, after the overthrow of Napoleon III. in the progress of the war with Germany. A national assembly was chosen by universal suffrage early in 1871, to make peace. This done, it continued to direct the affairs of government and framed a constitution which it adopted in 1875, and which went into effect without being submitted to the people.

12. The Executive.—The President of France is elected, for a term of seven years, by a joint vote of the National Assembly (see p. 139). He appoints and may remove all civil and military officers of the central Government. He has no veto on legislation, but can demand a reconsideration of any measure passed by the legislative department. The President concludes treaties with foreign powers, but cannot declare war without the previous consent of the legislative department. No member of a family having occupied the throne of France can become President. The salary of the President is 600,000 francs, and he has an allowance of as much more for his expenses.

13. The Senate.—The upper house of the legislative department is called the Senate. It consists of 300 members, elected for nine years from citizens at least forty years old. They are elected by electoral bodies (colleges) one in each department (see p. 140). Besides members from the local divisions of a department, an electoral college contains the Deputies (see Deputies, p. 138) of the department. One-third of the membership of the Senate is renewed every three years.

14. The Chamber.—The lower house of the legislative department is called the Chamber of Deputies. It is composed of 602 Deputies, elected for four years by universal suffrage. The Deputies must be citizens at least twenty-five years old. The princes of deposed dynasties are precluded from membership in the Chamber (and in the Senate). Each arrondissement see (p. 140) elects one Deputy, and if its population is in excess of 100,000, it is divided into two or more constituencies. The arrondissement corresponds to our congressional district, with the difference that there may be more than one Deputy from a district. The principal colonies, also, are entitled to representation in the Chamber of Deputies. The members of both chambers receive each 9,000 francs salary a year, and travel free on all railways on payment of a small annual sum of money.

15. The Chambers in Session.—Both chambers assemble every year on the second Tuesday of January and must remain in session at least five months in the year. Any member can present a bill, but financial bills must originate in the Chamber of Deputies.

16. The Cabinet and Council of Ministers.—Though exercising different functions, the Cabinet and Council of Ministers are one and the same body. At present its membership consists of twelve ministers. They are usually, but not necessarily, members of the Senate or the Chamber of Deputies, and are appointed by the President in accordance with the wishes of the majority in the chambers. They have a right to attend all the sessions of the chambers and take part in the debates.

As a Cabinet the ministers exercise legislative functions in the chambers by presenting bills, debating and answering questions. In this capacity they are responsible to the chambers for their acts. As a Council of Ministers they assist the President in the administration of the Government. Each minister represents some executive department; and every act of the President has to be countersigned by the minister whose department is affected.

In case the Cabinet loses the support of the chambers -especially the Chamber of Deputies—the ministers resign; and the President appoints a new Cabinet and Council of Ministers. But the President has the power to close a regular session of the chambers after it has continued five months, and an extra session any time; and he can, with the consent of the Senate, dissolve the Chamber of Deputies before the expiration of five months in order to elect a new one. In this way he may succeed in continuing the Cabinet that fell by an adverse vote.

17. The National Assembly.–For two purposes the Senate and the Chamber of Deputies meet in joint session: the election of the President and the revision of the Constitution. When sitting for one of these purposes the two houses are known as the National Assembly. Its sessions are not held in Paris, but in Versailles. The Executive as well as the Constitution is the creature, therefore, of the legislative department.

18. The Judiciary.—The Supreme Court is the Cassation Court, sitting in Paris; below this court are some twenty courts of appeal in various parts of the country. These hear cases brought from the courts in the capital towns of the arrondissements (see p. 140). Justices of the peace adjust petty cases in the cantons (see p. 140). In questions affecting the safety of the state the Senate

may be constituted a special court. The Minister of Justice appoints all judges to serve during good behavior. Civil cases are tried without juries.

19. Local Government. For the administration of local affairs France is divided into departments, subdivided into arrondissements, subdivided into cantons, subdivided into communes. The departments are fractions of France; the others are fractional parts of the department. The central Government acts upon the department, whose head, the Prefect, is appointed by the Minister of the Interior; but the Prefect is also responsible to the other ministers in acts affecting their departments. Any minister can veto a Prefect's acts. Local legislative bodies are elected by the people. Most of the local officers are appointed by the Prefect, and may, in common with all others, be removed by him, or by the Minister of the Interior, or even by the President himself. France is a centralized republic, whose executive and judicial officers, general and local, are mostly appointed by the President and the ministry.

GERMANY

20. An Empire. — The German Empire, whose constitution bears the date of April 16, 1871, is formed of all the states of Germany as “an eternal union for the protection of the realm and the care of the welfare of the German people.” The original, the Holy Roman Empire, which came to an end in 1806, was formed by Charlemagne, when he was crowned Kaiser at Rome, Christmas Day, 800. After Napoleon had overthrown the old empire, a Confederation arose, in which Austria

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